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Full text of "Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory- University of Toronto"

f 




department of^Astronomy 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 




- 



Publications of 
THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

University of Toronto 



VOLUME II 



RICHMOND HILL, ONTARIO, CANADA 



Printed for 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

by 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

No. Page 

1 . Two-Colour Photometric Studies of the Eclipsing Binary 

Systems TW Draconis, Z Herculis and RS Vulpeculae 

R. L. B aglow 1 

2. A Second Catalogue of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 

Comprising 1,421 Entries Helen B. Sawyer 33 

3. New Radial Velocities for Faint Stars with Large 

Tangential Motions Nancy G. Roman 95 

4. The Radial Velocities, Spectral Classes and Photographic 

Magnitudes of 1041 Late-Type Stars John F. Heard 105 

5. A Catalogue of Dwarf Galaxies Sidney van den Bergh 145 

6. A Reclassification of the Northern Shapley-Ames Galaxies 

Sidney van den Bergh 157 

7. The Luminosity Functions of Galactic Star Clusters 

Sidney van den Bergh and David Sher 201 

8. Spectrographic Orbits for the Eclipsing Systems V548 

CygnC V805 Aquilae and V451 Ophiuchi 

John F. Heard and Donald C. Morton 253 

9. The Spectrographic Orbit of Bidelman's Peculiar Star 

H.D. 30353 John F. Heard 267 

10. Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 

Sidney van den Bergh and R. C. Henry 279 

1 1. Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars Over a Period of 24 

Years Judith A . Copeland and John F. Heard 315 

12. A Bibliography of Individual Globular Clusters. First 

Supplement Helen B. Sawyer Hogg 335 

13. Distances of 97 OB Stars Harry H. Guetter 403 

14. Spectrographic Orbits of the Eclipsing Systems V822 

Aquilae, BV 241, BV 342, BV 374 Pint FitzGerald 415 

15. Spectroscopic and Photometric Orbits of EE Pagasi 

Gustav A. Bakos 429 

16. The Radial Velocities and Spectral Classes of 55 Kapteyn 

Area Fundamental Stars in High Galactic Latitudes 

John F. Heard 441 

17. A Study of the Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster 

Messier 14. I. Periods and Light Curves of Twenty 

Variables Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 449 



No. Page 

18. Absolute Energy Distributions for Stars of Spectral Types 

F, G and K 

Gretchen L. Hagen and Sidney van den Bergh All 

19. A Study of the Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster 

Messier 14. II. Periods and Light Curves of the Second 
Group of Twenty Variables 

Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 491 






PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume II Number 1 



TWO-COLOUR PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THE 

ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEMS TW DRACONIS, 

Z HERCULIS AND RS VULPECULAE 



BY 



R. L. BAGLOW 



1952 
TORONTO, CANADA 



TWO-COLOUR PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THE 

ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEMS TW DRACONIS, 

Z HERCULIS AND RS YULPECULAE 

By R. L. Baglow 

Summary. 

The observations on which this study is based were obtained in 1959 and 1951. 
Part of the observations were made at the David Dunlap Observatory, but the 
greater part were made at the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona. 

The three eclipsing variables, TW Draconis, Z Herculis and RS Vulpeculae, 
were chosen for observation in the hope that the circumstances of the eclipses 
might prove favourable for the estimation of the limb darkening of the com- 
ponents by showing annular, or deep total, eclipses. The system TW Drac shows 
a deep total eclipse at primary minimum, and it is possible to derive an estimate 
of the limb darkening in two colours from a reduction of the observations in the 
primary mir.imum by the method of least squares. This variable has been pre- 
viously studied by R. H. Baker, 1 who reported an asymmetric light curve. I 
find the asymmetry to be much smaller than reported by Baker. 

Nij land's visual observations of the system Z Here were interpreted by Fetlaar 2 
as being due to an annular eclipse. I find, however, a partial eclipse, and the solu- 
tion is too indeterminate to allow a determination of the limb darkening effect. 
It is possible to estimate the difference in the degree of limb darkening in two 
colours. 

The system RS Vulp has been studied by Baker 3 and by Dugan 4 . Baker found 
an annular eclipse at primary minimum, Dugan a partial. The present study 
agrees with Dugan's. Again the uncertainties in the solution of a system exhibiting 
a partial eclipse do not allow a determination of the limb darkening, but an 
estimate can be made of the differential limb darkening. 

Corrections to the times of minima predicted from the ephemerides were found 
to be necessary in all three systems. The reason for the departure of the systems 
TW Drac and Z Here from the ephemeris is not clear. A small correction to the 
period of RS Vulp is suggested. 

A study of the colour of the reflection effect shows that in each system the 
colour of the reflected light is the same as the colour of the brighter component. 

The measurements of the ellipticity effect are not sufficiently exact to allow 
conclusions to be drawn about the photometric behaviour of the distorted 
components. 

1 . Observational Material — General. 

The measurements in this study were made with the aid of the 
photoelectric photometers of the David Dunlap Observatory and of 
the Steward Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. (April-June 1951). Experi- 



2 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

ments in photoelectric photometry using the 1P21 photomultiplier 
were begun at the David Dunlap Observatory late in 1948, and have 
continued. At present the measuring instrument is a null-indicating 
D.C. amplifier mounted on a 19-inch telescope. The photometer used 
at the Steward Observatory is mounted on a 36-inch telescope and 
uses a light chopper with an A.C. amplifier. 

Atmospheric conditions were mostly much better at Tucson, where 
the bulk of the observations were made, than at Toronto. Pettit 
has made an extensive study of the transmission of the atmosphere 
at Tucson. On some few nights measurements were made through 
dust, haze or broken cloud. In general the transparency was good. 
The comparison stars were chosen to be as like the variables in 
colour, and as close in position, as possible. Corrections for differential 
extinction are believed to be negligible in comparison with observa- 
tional scatter. There was no convenient constant light source for 
determining the changes in the transmission of the atmosphere. The 
measurements were made in two colours of effective wave-lengths 
4370A. and 5100A. A group of four comparisons in the two colours 
took 20 to 30 minutes to complete, and the resulting normal point of 
observation is thought to have a probable error of between ra .005 
and m .010. 

2. Observational Material — TW Draconis. 

The system TW Drac was observed on 32 nights. Approximately 
400 measures were made which were averaged into some 130 normal 
points. The normal points are tabulated by phase in the appendix. 
The comparison star used was H.D. 140512, R.A. (1900) 15 h. 38 m., 
Dec. (1900) 62° 11', A5; the variable is H.D. 139319, R.A. (1900) 
15 h. 32 m., Dec. (1900), 64° 14', A6 and G2. 

Primary minimum seems quite symmetrical. The harmonic analy- 
sis of the observations outside eclipse shows a small asymmetry 
which appears to be real, but may be the result of a bad distribution 
of observations, or intrinsic variability of one of the components of 
the eclipsing system. The eclipsing system TW Drac has a small 
visual companion, about 3 seconds of arc away. The measures of the 
system include the light of the visual companion. The light of the 
visual companion was measured independently; it proved difficult 
and only on a few nights was the seeing sufficiently steady to allow 
the two components to be observed independently. Nineteen measure- 
ments were made on three nights and the brightness of the companion 
star to the system TW Drac was found to be 0.051 in both colours, 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 3 

the light unit being the luminosity of the companion star H.D. 140512. 
This amount was subtracted from the observations before analysis. 
Plots of the observations are shown in figures 1 and 2. Secondary 
minimum appears to be later than the half-period by d .010 to d .020. 
The observed epoch of primary minimum was 1951 June 1.128, 
J.D. 2433798.628. 

3. Observational Material — Z Herculis. 

The system Z Here was observed on 26 nights. Approximately 
400 measures were made which were averaged into 95 normal points 
shown in the appendix. A plot of the observations is given in figures 3 
and 4. The comparison stars used were H.D. 164043, R.A. (1900) 
17 h. 54.2 m., Dec. (1900) 14° 52', F8; and H.D. 162705 R.A. (1900) 
17 h. 47.3 m, Dec. (1900) 15° 01', F0. The variable is H.D. 163950, 
R.A. (1900) 17 h. 53.6 m., Dec. (1900) 15° 09', F2 and F5. 

The estimated epoch of primary minimum was 1951 June 3.503, 
J.D. 2433801.003. 

Jf.. Observational Material — RS Vulpeculae. 

The system RS Yulp was observed on 31 nights. Approximately 
500 measures were made, which were averaged into some 130 normal 
points, shown in the appendix. Plots of the observations are shown 
in figures 5 and 6. The comparison stars used were H.D. 180889, 
R.A.j(1900)19h. 13.2m., Dec. (1900) 21°38', A3;and H.D. 180811, R. 
A. (1900) 19 h. 12.9 m., Dec. (1900)22° 15', B9. The variable is H.D. 
180939, R.A. (1900) 19 h. 13.4 m., Dec. (1900) 22° 16', B8 and A5. 

Primary minimum is well covered, but unfortunately it proved 
impossible to cover the ascending branch of secondary minimum. 
Secondary minimum occurs later than the half-period by d .030 to 
d .040. The epoch of primary minimum from these observations was 
1951 June 4.787, J.D. 2433802.287. 

5. Analysis of Observations — TW Draconis. 

Harmonic analysis of observations outside eclipse yielded 

L = 2.012 - 0.0198 cos 6 - 0.0613 cos 2 6 + 0.0172 sin 6, 

(± 0.001 m.e.)(± 0.001 m.e.) (± 0.005 m.e.) (± 0.001 m.e.) 
in the yellow, and 

L = 1.887 - 0.0191 cos - 0.0635 cos 2 6 + 0.0098 cos 0. 

(± 0.001 m.e.) (± 0.001 m.e.) (± 0.005 m.e.) (± 0.001 m.e.) 
in the blue. 

A preliminary graphical study led to an estimate of k about 0.76 
to 0.78 and the coefficient of limb darkening in the two colours about 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



0.6. As the observations seemed to justify a more careful study the 
measures were grouped into normal points and rectified as shown in 
Table I. 

TABLE I 

Observations Corrected for Light of Visual Companion, and Grouped 
into Normal Points, T\V Draconis 



Phase 


L (obs.) 


Refl. 




Ellipt. 






degrees 


(yellow) 


Light 


L 


Effect 


L (rect.) 


Corr. 


29.200 


0.9469 


4 


0.9465 


0.9726 


0.9731 


- 9 


25. 692 


0. 8949 


3 


0.8946 


0.9707 


0.9216 


- 27 


23. 800 


0. 8368 


3 


0. 8365 


0.9698 


0. 8625 


- 32 


20.846 


0.7572 


2 


0. 7570 


0.9687 


0.7814 


- 32 


17.456 


0.6394 


2 


0.6392 


0.9672 


0.6608 


- 3 


15.166 


0. 5548 


1 


0.5547 


0.9664 


0.5738 


+ 32 


13.170 


0.4691 


1 


0. 4690 


0. 9660 


0.4856 


+ 48 


11.800 


0.4207 


1 


0.4206 


0.9656 


0.4355 


+ 55 


10.367 


0.3610 


1 


0. 3609 


0.9653 


0.3739 


+ 56 


8.716 


0.2976 






0.9650 


0.3083 


+ 52 


7.945 


0.2712 






0.9647 


0.2811 


+ 50 


7.172 


0.2429 






0.9645 


0.2518 


+ 45 


6.663 


0.2262 






0.9644 


0.2345 


+ 41 


6.060 


0.2106 






0.9644 


0.2183 


+ 37 


5.436 


0. 1960 






0.9643 


0. 2032 


+ 31 


5.004 


0. 1930 






0.9642 


0.2001 


+ 25 


4.486 


0. 1800 






0. 9642 


0. 1866 


+ 20 


3.888 


0. 1733 






0.9640 


0.1797 


+ 5 


0.000 


0. 1687 






0.9640 


0. 1750 







(Blue) 












29.227 


0.9569 


4 


0.9565 


0.9772 


0.9788 


- 9 


25. 637 


0. 8927 


3 


0.8924 


0.9757 


0.9146 


- 30 


23. 696 


0.8442 


3 


0.8439 


0.974!) 


0. 8656 


- 35 


21.200 


0.7815 


2 


0.7813 


0.9738 


0. 8823 


- 38 


17.403 


0.6154 


2 


0.6152 


0. 9727 


0.6324 





15.030 


0.5147 


1 


0.5146 


0.9721 


0. 5293 


+ 41 


13.572 


0.4477 


1 


0. 4476 


0.9716 


0. 4606 


+ 53 


12.080 


0.3790 


1 


0.3789 


0.9713 


0. 3900 


+ 57 


10.927 


0.3313 


1 


0.3312 


0.9710 


0.3410 


+ 59 


9.352 


0.2731 






0. 9707 


0.2813 


+ 57 


8.109 


0.2198 






0.9706 


0. 2264 


+ 51 


6.851 


0. 1775 






0.9705 


0. 1828 


+ 43 


6.000 


0. 1560 






0.9704 


0. 1607 


+ 37 


5.646 


0. 1476 






0. 9703 


0.1521 


+ 34 


5.186 


0. 1345 






0. 9703 


0. 1386 


+ 29 


4.658 


0. 1278 






0. 9702 


0.1317 


+ 19 


4.037 


0.1154 






0. 9702 


0.1189 


+ 10 


0.000 


0. 1094 






0. 9700 


0.1127 






The observations of a portion of the primary minimum made on 
May 12 show an interesting deviation from those made on the same 
portion of the light curve on May 15 and June 12. The measures 



Two- Colour Photometric Studies 



PHASE OS 

1 i 

IN DAYS 2 62 

•o.. 



♦H. 



if , 






TW ORACONIS 



FRIMAHV MINIMUM- 
Y E 1 1 Ow 



• o4 



.♦.♦. 



t. 



• DIRECT 

♦ REFLECTED 

Stmts ON MAY IV I9SI 



8. 

o. 
o 






Fig. 1 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



►•*».• • • • *•_ • • •• 



TW DRACONI5 

BLUE 



>• PHMf 



IN DAYS 1-62 













I 8 


■ o 


*•*. 




- 


l 6 




♦ » 

• 


* 


PRIMARY MINIMUM 
BLUE 


1 4 






l» 


♦ 


1 2 










1 


■ 






• • 


08 








•• 
• • 




0<i 

I 
O 

A 




• DIRECT 

1 REFLECTED 

O SERIES ON 

1 i ._ 


HAY 12, l«5l 


>• 

• 

• 

o . 

o 
o 

i i i 1 1 • £—3 1 



Fig. 2 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 



*:• 



%...*. 



A- 

8 



V 



Z HEKCULIS 



* \ 



PRIMARY MINIMUM 

YtLlOW 



Fig. 3 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



10 




1 






— i 






1 


08 










• 




•* • 

# 



• • 

Z HERCULI5 


• 

• 


6 














SLUE 


• 


4 


. 














* 


-5 



< 


















r- 
I 


















o 




o 


PHASt 




i 




1 3 


4- 






380 


IN OAYS 




1 
3 85 




3 SO 3 95 


400 


l 














PRIMACY MINIMUM 


• 








: * 


i 


• • 
• 




BLUE 




8 












• 
• 


• 

• 
• 


" 


Ofe 














• 

• 

*• 

• 

• 


" 


04 

8 
















• . % 


T 





1 










1 1 


' 



Fig. 4 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 



V 



< r- 



V 



** : 



RS VULPECULAE 

YELLOW 



0-3 



PR\MAfcY MINIMUM 
YELLOW 



.t 1 



h k * f H • •* * 



•t 



08' 



6- 


p 

4 



• DIRECT 

{ REFlECTED 






04- 



Fig. 5 



10 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



i-a 



RS VULPECULAE 



04- 



FRtMARV MINIMUM 
SLUE 



M M ♦♦♦♦*♦ 



•♦ 



08 



• direct 
j reflected 



► >»• 



04- 



Fig. 6 



Two- Colour Photometric Studies 11 

made on May 12 began by falling among the measures made on other 
nights, but quite suddenly began to fall below the other measures 
by 0.02 to 0.03 light units until totality neared, when the differences 
diminished. The disagreement of the observations of May 12 with 
those of May 15 and June 12 disappeared at the onset of totality. 
It is believed that this variation is a real phenomenon. It is not 
known what cause could operate to block off 2 to 3 per cent, of the 
light of the brighter component of the system. Similar observations 
have been reported by Kron. 5 

The preliminary elements were corrected by the method of least 
squares, using the tables of Tsesevitsch 6 and Irwin 7 . The corrections 
to the preliminary elements were rather large, and the process had 
to be repeated. The reduction was made with the observations of 
primary minimum only. The secondary minimum is shallow, annular 
and afflicted with the reflection effect. The uncertainties of the process 
of "rectification" were thought to be large. The reduction was made 
in the two colours simultaneously. This requires some justification. 
The preliminary graphical analysis did not show any large difference 
in the elements derived from the two light curves independently. 
After the least-squares reduction the residuals of computed from 
observed points showed a similar trend in each light curve. This 
would not be the case if there was a significant difference in the 
geometric elements defined by the two colours. It is believed that the 
determination of the elements is considerably strengthened by making 
the reduction in the two colours simultaneously. 

The fainter component of the system TW Drac is considerably 
distorted. The distortion was estimated using Pierce's estimate of 
the mass ratio quoted by Wood 8 . An attempt was made to correct 
for the effect of the distorted form of the faint component following 
methods suggested by Kopal. 9 Following Kopal, if we write for the 
error within the minima of the spherical model, 

L = - L:[(l - x)h u + xh d ], 
then I have used 



2 1 8 . 

3* = fe - 2 (F, - WAi£)». 

where V\ and V 2 are the rotational distortions of the bright and faint 



12 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



components respectively. I find the additional terms suggested by 
Kopal are sufficiently small to be neglected. 

The a-function corrected for "perturbations" is shown in Table II. 

TABLE II 
a-FUNCTIONS, TVV Draconis 





Yellow 






Blue 




Phase 


a 


a 


Phase 


a 


a 


degrees 


(corr.) 


(uncorr.) 


degrees 


(corr.) 


(uncorr.) 


29.200 


0.0336 


0. 0326 


29.227 


0. 0249 


0.0239 


25. 692 


0. 0983 


0. 0950 


25. 637 


0. 0996 


0. 0962 


23. 800 


0. 1705 


0. 1667 


23. 696 


0. 1554 


0.1515 


20. 846 


0. 2688 


0. 2650 


21.200 


0. 2270 


0. 2228 


17.456 


0.4115 


0.4111 


17.403 


0.4142 


0.4143 


15.166 


0.5126 


0.5165 


15.030 


0. 5258 


0.5305 


13.170 


0.6176 


0. 6235 


13.572 


0.6019 


0. 6079 


11.800 


0.6775 


0. 6842 


12.080 


0.6810 


0. 6875 


10.367 


0.7515 


0. 7589 


10.927 


0. 7360 


0. 7427 


8.716 


0. 8321 


0. 8384 


9.352 


0.8035 


0.8100 


7.945 


0. 8653 


0.8714 


8.109 


0.8661 


0.8718 


7.172 


0.9014 


0.9069 


6.851 


0.9161 


0.9210 


6.663 


0. 9229 


0.9279 


6.000 


0.9417 


0. 9459 


6.060 


0. 9430 


0. 9475 


5.646 


0.9517 


0. 9556 


5.436 


0. 9620 


0.9658 


5.186 


0. 9675 


0. 9708 


5.004 


0. 9665 


0. 9696 


4.658 


0. 9764 


0. 9786 


4.486 


0. 9835 


0. 9859 


4.037 


0.9918 


0.9930 


3.888 


0. 9936 


0. 9943 









These values of the a-function are to be compared with the values in 
the tables for a spherical model darkened to the limb according to 
the usual law. In order to see what was the effect of allowing for the 
distortion by Kopal's methods, the least-squares reduction was made 
twice, once on the a-function derived from the observations allowing 
for the perturbations, and once on the directly observed a-function. 
The elements derived in the two ways hardly differ significantly. 
The corrections for the effect of distortion, estimated from the pre- 
liminary elements are not quite right, but since their effect is barely 
significant it was not thought worth-while recomputing them. 

The starting point for the final least-squares correction was 
r 2 = 0.3020, n = 0.2143, k = .71, * (yellow) = 0.2, x(blue) = 0.3. With 
these parameters the ^-function was calculated for the phase of each 
of the normal points of observation. The a-function was computed 
from the tables of Tsesevitsch 6 , and the residuals were used to form 
a number of equations of observation for computing corrections to 
the parameters with the aid of Irwin's tables 7 of differential coeffi- 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 



13 



cients. The normal points were weighted according to the number of 
observations included. The observations of the deeper part of the 
eclipse were also given greater weight, since the accuracy of the 
observations gets better during the deeper part of the eclipse. 

The values of the parameters resulting from the solution which 
takes account of Kopal's correction terms, together with the estima- 
ted probable error of the determination, were 

r 2 = 0.3064 db 0.0002; n = 0.2118 ± 0.0010; cos 2 i = 0.0059 ± 

0.0005; x (yellow) = 0.11 ± 0.12; x(blue) = 0.27 ± 0.11. 

The solution obtained by ignoring Kopal's corrections gives the 
same geometrical elements, but the estimates of the limb darkening 
are altered to # (yellow) = 0.25, and x-(blue) = 0.37. According to 
either solution the difference in the degree of limb darkening between 
the two colours is 0.15, and this difference should have good precision, 
since it is free from many of the systematic sources of error which 
make the determination of the absolute value of the limb darkening 
so difficult. 

TABLE III 

Residuals of Computed from Observed Values of the <z-function 
Resulting from the Least-squares Corrections, TVV Draconis 



Comp. 


Obs. 


Resid. 


Comp. 


Obs. 


Resid. 


0.0199 


0. 0336 


+ 0.0137 


0.0182 


0. 0249 


+ 0. 0067 


0. 1002 


0. 0983 


- 0.0019 


0.0997 


0. 0996 


- 0.0001 


0. 1599 


0. 1705 


+ 0.0106 


0. 1527 


0. 1554 


+ 0. 0027 


0.2711 


0. 2688 


- 0. 0023 


0. 2537 


0. 2270 


- 0. 0267 


0.4187 


0.4115 


- 0. 0072 


0. 4236 


0.4142 


- 0. 0094 


0.5194 


0.5176 


- 0.0018 


0. 5532 


0. 5258 


- 0.0274 


0.6215 


0.6176 


- 0. 0039 


0. 6081 


0.6019 


- 0. 0062 


0. 6808 


0. 6775 


- 0. 0033 


0. 6822 


0.6810 


- 0.0012 


0. 7557 


0.7515 


- 0.0042 


0. 7370 


0. 7360 


- 0.0010 


0.8315 


0. 8321 


+ 0. 0006 


0.8104 


0. 8035 


- 0. 0069 


0. 8641 


0. 8653 


+ 0.0012 


0. 8647 


0. 8661 


+ 0.0014 


0. 8955 


0.9014 


+ 0. 0059 


0.9135 


0.9158 


+ 0. 0023 


0.9156 


0. 9229 


+ 0. 0073 


0.9416 


0.9417 


+ 0.0010 


0.9382 


0. 9430 


+ 0.0058 


0.9517 


0.9517 


0. 0000 


0. 9588 


0.9620 


+ 0. 0032 


0.9651 


0. 9675 


+ 0. 0024 


0. 9749 


0. 9665 


- 0.0079 


0. 9782 


0.9764 


- 0.0018 


0. 9871 


0. 9835 


- 0. 0036 


0.9918 


0.9918 


0. 0000 


0. 9965 


0. 9936 


- 0. 0029 









The residuals show a marked systematic trend. The reason for this is 
unknown. It may arise from a systematic error in the method of reduc- 
tion, for example in the process of rectification, or a systematic error in 
the analysis, for example in the assumption of linear darkening to the 
limb, or it may be the effect of one or two individual observations with 

large residuals. 



14 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Accepting Pierce's estimate of the mass ratio as 3.6 we find the 
relative orbit comes out to be 11.6 X 10 6 km. The dimensions of the 
components are 3.53 and 5.10 times the sun in radius, the surface 
gravities, 0.480 and 0.060, the mean densities 0.130 and 0.012 for 
the bright and faint components respectively, all in terms of the sun. 
The residuals of the computed a-function from the observed are 
shown in Table III. 

6. Analysis of Observations — Z Her cutis. 

The season of 1951 promised to be unusually favourable for ob- 
serving this difficult system. Unfortunately the minima were found 
to be occurring later than predicted by the ephemeris and it appeared 
doubtful whether or not the phase of conjunction was reached. The 
analysis of the observations based on the shape of the light curve 
strongly suggests that conjunction occurred between predicted 
phases 4.00d. and 4.01d. Although it would be a good deal more 
comforting to have rounded the minimum, I do not think that the 
estimated time of conjunction is out by more than 10 minutes. I 
accept the observation of earlier workers that the duration of the 
total phase, if any, is less than 0.015d. In combination with the shape 
of the light curve, this rules out the possibility of a total eclipse at 
primary minimum. 

A few spectrographic observations in 1949 and 1951 seem to show 
the velocity of centre of mass greater than found by Adams and 
Joy 10 by 10 km. /sec. If these observations are correct they may show a 
third body motion of the system, but further spectrographic ob- 
servations will be needed to establish this point. 

For photometric measures only the one comparison star H.D. 
164043 was used. The two comparison stars were intercompared 
on 14 occasions. There was no significant evidence of variability of 
the comparison stars. 

Harmonic analysis of the observations outside eclipse yielded 
L = 0.893 - 0.0028 cos d - 0.0089 cos 2 
(± 0.001) (± 0.001) (± 0.005) 
in the yellow, and 

L = 0.851 - 0.0049 cos 6 + 0.0060 cos 2 6 
(± 0.001) (± 0.001) (± 0.005) 
in the blue. 

Normal points of observation were read off a smooth curve and the 
observations "rectified" for ellipticity in the usual way, giving the 
loss ot light, as a function of predicted phase, shown in Table IV. 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 



15 



TABLE IV 
Rectification, Z Herculis 



Phase 


Rect. Lum. 


Loss of 


Rect. Lum, 


Loss of 


days 


(yellow) 


Light 


(blue) 


Light 


3.83 


1.010 


0.010 


1.002 


0.002 


3.84 


0. 983 


0.017 


0.990 


0.010 


3.85 


0.969 


0.031 


0. 974 


0.026 


3.86 


0.930 


0.070 


0.934 


0.066 


3.87 


0.895 


0.105 


0.884 


0.116 


3.88 


0.851 


0.149 


0. 845 


0.155 


3.89 


0.810 


0.190 


0.802 


0.198 


3.90 


0.770 


0.230 


0. 755 


0.245 


3.91 


0.726 


0.274 


0.707 


0.293 


3.92 


0.684 


0.316 


0.653 


0.347 


3.93 


0.643 


0.357 


0.610 


0.390 


3.94 


0.601 


0. 39'. i 


0. 557 


0.443 


3.95 


0. 557 


0.443 


0.510 


0.490 


3.96 


0.520 


0.480 


0.469 


0.531 


3.97 


0.494 


0.506 


0.439 


0.561 


3.98 


0.469 


0.531 


0.412 


0.588 


3.99 


0.446 


0.554 


0. 397 


0.603 


4.00 


0.440 


0.560 


0.388 


0.612 


4.01 


0.431 


0.569 


0.380 


0.620 


1.83 


1 . 006 




1.010 




1.85 


1.006 




1.010 




1.87 


1.000 




1.003 




1.89 


0.982 




0. 994 




1.91 


0. 964 




0.980 




1.93 


0.942 




0.961 




1.95 


0.924 




0.941 




1.97 


0.910 




0.928 




1.99 


0.906 




0.922 




2.01 


0. 902 




0.922 





The phases are the predicted phases from the elements given in Kukarkin 
and Parenago, "Catalogue of Variable Stars". The predicted time of 
primary minimum is at phase 3. 993 d. The estimated time of primary 
minimum occured at about phase 4.01 d. 



The observations cannot be well represented as an annular eclipse, 
or as a partial transit. The representation as a partial occupation is 
good, with a rather wide range of the parameters. The ratio of the 
radii, k = 0.6 or k = 0.7 gives a good representation, but k cannot 
be as small as 0.5, and is probably not as large as 0.8. Various trials 
were made of the assumed phase of conjunction from predicted 
phase 4.00d. to predicted phase 4.030d., but the best representation 
is obtained by taking conjunctions as occurring at predicted phase 
4.010d. 



16 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



The estimates of L\ and Li were obtained by a comparison of the 
relative depths of the two minima at corresponding points, 
k = 0.6 Li = 0.666 L 2 = 0.334 (yellow) 

Li = 0.720 Li = 0.220 (blue) 
k = 0.7 Li = 0.723 L 2 = 0.277 (yellow) 
Li = 0.783 L 2 = 0.217 (blue) 
These estimates give the values of the a-function shown in Table V. 

TABLE V 

a-FUNCTIONS, Z Herculis 







k = 0.6 






k = 0.7 




Phase 
days 














a (yell.) 


a (blue) 


Aa 


a (yell.) 


a (blue) 


Aa 


3.84 


0.025 


0.014 


- 11 


0.024 


0.013 


- 11 


3.85 


0.046 


0.036 


- 10 


0.043 


0.033 


- 10 


3.86 


0.105 


0.091 


- 14 


0.097 


0.084 


- 13 


3.87 


0.158 


0.157 


- 1 


0.145 


0.144 


- 1 


3.88 


0.223 


0.215 


- 8 


0.206 


0.197 


- 9 


3.89 


0.285 


0.275 


- 10 


0.263 


0.253 


- 10 


3.90 


0.345 


0.340 


— 5 


0.318 


0.313 


- 5 


3.91 


0.411 


0.407 


- 4 


0.379 


0.374 


- 5 


3.92 


0.474 


0.481 


+ 7 


0.437 


0.443 


+ 6 


3.93 


0.536 


0.541 


+ 5 


0.493 


0.497 


+ 4 


3.94 


0.598 


0.614 


+ 16 


0.551 


0.566 


+ 15 


3.95 


0.665 


0.680 


+ 15 


0.613 


0.625 


+ 12 


3.96 


0.720 


0.736 


+ 16 


0.664 


0.676 


+ 12 


3.97 


0.760 


0.778 


+ 18 


0.699 


0.716 


+ 17 


3.98 


0.808 


0.815 


+ 7 


0.745 


0.751 


+ 6 


3.99 


0.831 


0.836 


+ 5 


0.765 


0.770 


+ 5 


4.00 


0.849 


0.849 


+ 9 


0.773 


0.781 


+ 7 


4.01 


0.854 


0.860 


+ 6 


0.785 


0.791 


+ 6 



The systematic run of the differences in the a-functions is attributed 
to differential limb darkening. The run of Aa, with the run of differ- 
ences to be expected theoretically, is shown in figure 7. When the 
difference in the degree of limb darkening is estimated by a method 
suggested by Irwin 7 there results 5x = 0.22 for k = 0.6 or 0.7. This 
estimate depends systematically on the assumptions made in the 
analysis, and is perhaps uncertain by ±0.1. 

The elements derived by assuming the limb darkening 0.4 in the 
yellow are 

i = 83° -84°, 

r l = 0.11-0.13 O, 

r 2 = 0.19-0.18 O. 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 17 

Taking the dimensions of the relative orbit as 10.5 X 10 6 km., 

there result 

radii of components 1.8 O and 2.8 O, 
surface gravities 0.46 O and 0.18 O, 

mean densities 0.26 O and 0.06 O, 

for the brighter and fainter components respectively. 

7. Analysis of Observations — RS Vulpeculae. 

The phases predicted from the elements given in Rocznik Astro- 
nomiczny, No. 22, were corrected by 0.007d. An examination of the 
residuals of computed from observed phases for the last thirty years 
suggests strongly that the currently accepted period is a little too 
long. I suggest that better elements would be epoch J.D. 2420606.623, 
period 4.477660d. 

The two comparison stars were intercompared on 36 occasions. 
There was no significant evidence of variability. During the deep 
eclipse the fainter comparison star was used, at other times the 
brighter comparison star. 

Harmonic analysis of the observations outside eclipse yielded 
L = 1.1576 - 0.031 cos 9 - 0.016 cos 2 9 + 0.0006 sin 9, 

(± 0.001 m.e.) (± 0.001 m.e.) (± 0.003 m.e.) (± 0.001 m.e.) 
in the blue, and 

L = 1.0876 - 0.0346 cos 9 - 0.0226 cos 2 9 + 0.0033 sin 9, 

± 0.001 m.e. ± 0.001 m.e. ± 0.003 m.e. ± 0.001 m.e. 
in the yellow. The units are those of the brighter comparison star. 

For analysis the observations were plotted on a large scale and 
normal points were read off a smooth curve at intervals of 2 degrees 
in phase. The primary minimum was "rectified" by subtracting the 
contribution of the reflected light as estimated from the harmonic 
analysis outside eclipse. The "rectification" of ellipticity was carried 
out by division in the usual way. This gave the values for the loss 
of light, as a function of phase, shown in Table VI. 

This analysis of the system RS Vulp is considerably weakened by 
the scant observations of the secondary minimum. The best estimate 
of the depth of secondary minimum, rectified for ellipticity, is 0.044 
in the blue and 0.058 in the yellow, with an estimated uncertainty 
of 0.005. 

The amount of light reflected at full phase is 0.054 in the blue 
and 0.063 in the yellow, so that if our estimate of the depth of the 
secondary minimum is correct the secondary minimum cannot be a 



18 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE VI 
Rectification, RS Vulpeculae 



Phase 


L (Yellow) 


Refl. Light 


L 


Ellipt. Effect 


L (Rect.) 


1-L 


0° 


0.448 


0.0000 


0.448 


1.034 


0.433 


0.567 


2 


0.451 




0.451 




0.436 


0.564 


4 


0.475 




0.475 




0.459 


0.541 


6 


0.517 




0.517 




0.500 


0.500 


8 


0.578 




0.578 




0.559 


0.441 


10 


0.630 


0.0005 


0.629 


1.034 


0.609 


0.391 


12 


0.695 


0.0008 


0.694 


1.035 


0.671 


0.329 


14 


0.760 


0.0010 


0.759 




0. 734 


0.266 


16 


0. 825 


0.0013 


0.824 


1.035 


0.796 


0.204 


18 


0.883 


0.0017 


0.881 


1.036 


0.850 


0.150 


20 


0.943 


0.0021 


0.941 


1.036 


0.908 


0.092 


22 


0.992 


0.0025 


0.990 


1.037 


0.954 


0.046 


24 


1.015 

(Blue) 


0.0030 


1.012 


1,037 


0.976 


0.024 





0.448 


0.0000 


0.448 


1.109 


0.404 


0.596 


2 


0. 457 




0.457 




0.412 


0.588 


4 


0.485 




0. 485 




0.437 


0.563 


6 


0.532 




0.532 




0. 479 


0.521 


8 


0.586 




0.586 




0.530 


0.470 


10 


0.655 


0.0005 


0.654 


1.109 


0. 590 


0.410 


12 


0.732 


0.0007 


0.731 


1.110 


0.658 


0.342 


14 


0.805 


0. 0009 


0.804 




0.724 


0.276 


16 


0.877 


0.0012 


0.876 


1.110 


0.789 


0.211 


18 


0.952 


0.0015 


0.951 


1.111 


0.856 


0. 144 


20 


1.015 


0.0019 


1.013 




0.912 


0.088 


22 


1.060 


0.0023 


1.066 


1.111 


0.959 


0.041 


24 


1.090 


0.0027 


1.087 


1.112 


0.978 


0.022 



total eclipse. This is in agreement with the conclusion reached by 
Dugan 4 . 

On the hypothesis of a partial eclipse the observed secondary 
minimum is partly due to the eclipse of the reflected light and partly 
due to the eclipse of the intrinsic light of the faint component. I 
have made separate estimates of the contribution of each to the 
secondary minimum, assuming the reflected light is completely 
darkened to the limb, the intrinsic light partially. Comparison of 
the depths of the two minima then give estimates of the luminosity 
of each component for assumed values of k ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. 
These estimates of the luminosity were used to calculate the a- 
function during primary eclipse, and the hypothesis was tested by 
methods due to Kopal. 9 

I find the observations of RS Vulp are not well satisfied by the 
hypothesis of a transit at primary minimum. They were well satis- 
fied by the hypothesis of an occultation at primary minimum with 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 



19 



k 0.7 or 0.8. The true value of k may be somewhat smaller than 0.7, 
but cannot be as small as 0.6, and is probably not as large as 0.9. 

The estimates of ao, L\ and L 2 for the various assumed values of k 
were, 

For the values of k = 0.7 and k = 0.8 these lead to the values of 
the a-f unction shown in Table VII. The difference of the a-f unctions 



k 


ao 


U 


Lo 




0.6 


0.677 


0.837 


0.163 


yellow 




0.684 


0.872 


0.128 


blue 


0.7 


0.648 


0.876 


0.124 


yellow 




0.655 


0.911 


0.089 


blue 


0.8 


0.622 


0.912 


0.108 


yellow 




0.636 


0.937 


0.063 


blue 


0.9 


0.601 


0.932 


0.068 


yellow 




0.620 


0.953 


0.047 


blue 



TABLE VII 

a-FUN'CTIONS, RS VULPECULAE 







k = 0.7 






k = 0.8 




Phase 
degrees 














a (yell.) 


a (blue) 


Aa 


a (yell.) 


a (blue) 


Aa 





0.648 


0.655 


+ 8 


0.621 


0.636 


+ 15 


2 


0.644 


0.646 


+ 2 


0.618 


0.628 


+ 10 


4 


0.618 


0.619 


+ 1 


0.595 


0.601 


+ 6 


6 


0.565 


0.571 


+ 6 


0.548 


0.556 


+ 8 


8 


0.503 


0.516 


+ 13 


0.483 


0. 502 . 


+ 19 


10 


0.447 


0.451 


+ 4 


0.429 


0.437 


+ 8 


12 


0.375 


0.376 


4- 1 


0.361 


0.365 


+ 4 


14 


0.304 


0.303 


- 1 


0.292 


0.295 


+ 3 


16 


0.233 


0.232 


- 1 


0.224 


0.225 


+ 1 


18 


0.171 


0.158 


- 13 


0.165 


0.154 


- 11 


20 


0.105 


0.096 


- 9 


0.101 


0.094 


— 7 


22 


0.052 


0.045 


— 7 


0.050 


0.043 


— < 


24 


0.027 


0.024 


- 3 


0.026 


0.023 


- 3 



for the two colours is attributed to the difference in limb darkening. 
Evaluating Aa by a method suggested by Irwin 7 the best estimate is 
x = 0.18 for k assumed = 0.7, 
x = 0.27 for k assumed = 0.8. 
The values depend systematically on the assumption about the 
depths of the minima, and may be uncertain by about ±0.1. 

The geometrical elements are derived assuming x — 0.4 in the 
yellow, then 

* = 78°, 

r x = 0.19 - 0.21, 

r 2 = 0.28 - 0.26. 



20 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 





22 




^ 3 





. <hi 





5 5 




_i 3 




< > 






- 


<•" 





T («*n*D 2 






1 




< 




a! co 




-" 




< 3 




- U 




O a 




-J I 




< 





o^ 1 





^ 





.( d i*0 



Two- Colour Photometric Studies 21 

Taking the dimensions of the relative orbit as about 14.5 X 10 6 km., 

these result in 

radii of components 4.2 O and 5.6 O, 
surface gravities 0.25 O and 0.045 G, 

mean densities 0.06 O and 0.008 O, 

for the brighter and fainter components respectively. 

8. Discussion. 

It is a valuable feature of the systems TW Drac, Z Here and RS 
Yulp that we have spectrographic observation of the spectral types 
and of the masses of their components. These are of varying weights. 
The spectral types of the components of TW Drac and Z Here are 
well determined, the spectral type of the faint component of RS 
Vulp is more uncertain. The masses of the components of Z Here 10 
and RS Vulp 11 are well determined, those of TW Drac are probably 
quite uncertain, and for it I use an estimate by Pierce, quoted by 
Wood. 8 The dimensions and densities of the components derived 
with the aid of the spectrographic data are quoted above. Except for 
the system Z Here, the components seem to lie pretty well on the main 
sequence. 

A simple photometric datum which can be compared with the 
spectrographic data is the colour index of the components of these 
systems. I am obliged to Prof. E. F. Carpenter for making available 
to me his measures of the colour indices of a number of stars of 
known spectral type, as observed with the Tucson photometer. The 
luminosities of the components are given in terms of the light of the 
comparison star as unit. The observed colour index of the comparison 
star (reduced to the zenith) can be used to calculate the colour 
index of the components. This colour index can be used to give an 
estimate of the spectral type based on Carpenter's data, and the 
result can be compared with the spectral type determined by the 
aid of the spectrograph. The results are as follows: 

C.I. Est. Sp. Obs. Sp. 

TW Drac -0.20 A5 A6 

+ 0.47 K5 K2 

RSVulp -0.40 G A2 

+ 0.0 F F2 

Z Here +0.04 F F2 

+ 0.4 G-K F5 

The agreement seems reasonable except for the system Z Here. 



22 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Another way of comparing the photometric and spectrographic 
data is to estimate the difference in spectral type by comparing the 
observed depths of minima, which are approximately in the ratio 
of the surface brightness of the components. The estimate is crude 
since it is based on the black body assumption and an assumed tem- 
perature scale which may not be valid. Russell 12 has given a table 
by means of which such an estimate may be made. I have used the 
rectified depths of minima, but have corrected them as carefully as 
possible for the reflected light, so that the ratios represent the un- 
disturbed disks as nearly as possible. 

The data used were: 





Depths of Min. 


Log Ratio 


Sp. from Russell's Tabi 


TW Drac 


0.825, 0.078 


1.02 


A6 and M 




0.887, 0.048 


1.27 


A6 and later than M 


RS Vulp 


0.566, 0.04 


1.2 


B5 and A2 




0.596, 0.03 


1.3 


B5 and A5 


Z Here 


0.569, 0.10 


0.75 


F and K 




0.620, 0.08 


0.84 


F and later than M 



The agreement seems fair for the systems TW Drac and RS Vulp. 
The latter system has been considered to be anomalous in this respect 
but my measures do not indicate very much of an anomaly. The 
discrepancy between the estimates of spectral type and the observed 
spectral type of the system Z Here is very great, however, and it is 
difficult to see how the cool star can have a spectrum of type F. 

Another comparison can be made with the spectroscopic data by 
comparing the determination of the difference in magnitude of the 
components of the systems RS Vulp and Z Here which have been 
found spectrophotometrically by Petrie, 13 with those found in this 
study. Petrie finds for the system RS Vulp, Am 3.4 ± 0.9 while I 
find Am to be 2.7 to 2.9 (in the blue). The agreement seems reasonable. 
For the system Z Here, however, there is a considerable discrepancy 
between his estimate of Am 0.4 ± .06 and mine of Am 1.1 to 1.4. 

Another simple datum to be derived from the photometric measure- 
ments is the colour index of the reflected light. As the reflection effect 
is small this colour index is not very precise, but it is of interest to 
calculate it and compare it with the observed colour index of the 
components of the system. I find the colour index of the reflected 
light in these systems to be 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 23 





C.I. of 




Refl. Light 


TW Drac 


- 0.2, 


RS Yulp 


-0.1, 


Z Here 


- 0.6. 



Not much weight can be attached to the measured colour for the 
system Z Here as the coefficients are so small. The colour of the re- 
flected light of the system TW Drac is the same as the colour of the 
brighter component. This is contrary to Milne-Eddington theory of 
the reflection effect. A similar observation has been made by Walter 14 
on the system f Aurigae. The reflection effect in the system RS Yulp 
shows a similar tendency but the effect is smaller. The colour of the 
reflected light of the system is different from the colour of the fainter 
component, whether we consider the observed colour of the inner 
hemisphere (facing the brighter component) or the outer hemisphere. 
It does not seem, therefore, that the discrepancy can be explained 
by allowing for the higher temperature of the inner hemisphere. 
These data suggest that whatever the processes producing the re- 
flection effect are, they are more complicated than the simple picture 
of absorption followed by re-emission at a lower temperature. 

The calculations based on the Milne formulae give the right order 
of magnitude for the reflection effect except in the case of TW Drac. 
The computed reflection effect and the observed reflection effect for 
the three systems are 

Computed Observed 



k = 0.7 

k = 0.8 

k = 0.6 

k = 0.7 



The comparison of the observed ellipticity effect with the theoreti- 
cal ellipticity effect is subject to considerable uncertainties arising 
from the uncertain contribution of the reflection effect to the second 



TW Drac 


yellow 


0.029 


0.010 




blue 


0.032 


0.010 


RS Yulp 


jyellow 


0.027 


0.031) 




\blue 


0.028 


0.027) 




jyellow 


0.023 


0.031^ 
0.027 f 




\blue 


0.024 


Z Here 


(yellow 


0.008 


0.005) 




(blue 


0.009 


0.0061 




j yellow 


0.007 


0.005! 




\blue 


0.008 


0.0061 



24 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

harmonic, and uncertainty about the spectral type of the faint com- 
ponent, and its darkening to the limb. Accepting the mass ratios for 
the systems which have been given from spectrographic evidence, I 
find the oblateness of the components due to tidal distortion to be 

Bright Component Faint Component 

TW Drac 0.004 0.150 

RS Vulp 0.003 - 0.004 0.106 - 0.085 

Z Here 0.001 - 0.003 0.012 - 0.010 

If the disks of the stars were uniformly bright the observed ellipti- 
city effect would be the mean of these oblatenesses (weighted accor- 
ding to the luminosities of the components) multiplied by sin 2 t. 
The observed effect may be greater by as much as a factor of 1.6 if 
the disks are completely darkened to the limb. 

The weighted means of the oblatenesses for these systems are: 





Yellow 


Blue 






TW Drac 


0.027 


0.020 






RS Vulp 


0.016 


0.012 


k = 


= 0.7 




0.013 


0.009 


k = 


= 0.8 


Z Here 


0.005 


0.004 


k -- 


= 0.6 or 0.7 



Before a comparison can be made the observed effect must be in- 
creased by an amount estimated from the reflection effect. This 
amount must be considered to be rather uncertain in any case, and 
particularly for the system TW Drac, for which the theory does not 
seem to give a very good estimation of the reflection effect. 

The observed ellipticity effect together with the estimated correc- 
tions from the reflection effect which are to be added to it are : 

Observed Reflection 

Effect Effect Sum 

TW Drac yellow 0.031 0.013 0.044 

blue 0.032 0.013 0.045 

RS Vulp yellow 0.014 0.011 0.025 

blue 0.020 0.011 0.031 

Z Here yellow 0.010 0.004 0.014 

blue 0.007 0.004 0.011 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 25 

The data are pretty uncertain but there seems to be an indication 
that there is an additional factor besides the ordinary limb darkening 
contributing to the observed ellipticity effect. It is not possible to 
estimate the magnitude of this factor. Even this conclusion would 
have to be altered if we have overestimated the contribution of the 
reflected light to the second harmonic variation. 

It remains to compare the observed limb darkening effects with 
the theoretical effects. This effect was best observed in the system 
TW Drac in which the differential limb darkening is quite accurately 
determined, and certain limits placed on its absolute value, namely, 
that it is probably equal to 0.3 or less for wave-length 5100 A., and 
0.5 or less for wave-length 4370 A. These determinations are to be 
compared with certain data calculated by Chandrasekhar and 
.Miinch 15 on the basis of a model in which the continuous absorption 
is due to the negative hydrogen ion, and to neutral hydrogen. The 
data given show that for a given spectral type the limb darkening 
coefficient is very nearly a linear function of the wave-length, at 
least in the visible region. The values they suggest for an A5 star 
are 0.77 for wave-length 4570A. and 0.65 for wave-length 5100A. 
But they remark that the linear approximation for the darkening to 
the limb is not very good for the visual region. Accordingly, the 
theoretical coefficient ought to be reduced somewhat. By con- 
sidering a hypothetical eclipse of a star like the Chandrasekhar- 
Miinch model I estimate the correction to the theoretical coefficient 
can hardly be greater than 0.1. 

Actually the observed values of the limb darkening for A stars 
are smaller than the theoretical values by amounts of 0.2 and more. 
It happens that estimates of the limb darkening have been made for 
three A stars as shown here : 

Obs. Coeff. Theor. Coeff. 



TW Drac 


4370A. 


0.22 ± 0.12 


0.77 




5100A. 


0.11 ± 0.11 


0.65 


YZ Cass 16 


4500 A. 


0.40 ± 0.04 


0.73 




6700A. 


0.33 ± 0.03 


0.44 


AR Cass 17 


4500A. 


0.0 db 0.04 


0.73 



These measurements strongly suggest that in the visual region, at 
least, the observed coefficients of limb darkening are considerably 
smaller than the approximate theory would lead us to expect. It 
also appears that there are real differences in the degree of limb 
darkening of stars of the same spectral class. 



26 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

As the limb darkening is a nearly linear function of the wave- 
length the expression of the difference of the degree of limb darkening 
in different wave-lengths as a gradient is strongly suggested. It is 
the nature of the analysis of eclipsing variables that the difference in 
the degree of limb darkening can be measured with much more re- 
liability than the absolute amount of limb darkening, since many of 
the systematic uncertainties in the determination of the absolute 
amount of limb darkening cancel out when we form the gradient. Thus 
we have for the gradient (difference in limb darkening coefficient 
divided by difference in wave-length in thousands of Angstroms). 

Observed Theoretical 



TW Drac 


0.15 


0.15 


YZ Cass 


0.07 


0.13 


Z Here 


0.2 ± 0.1 


0.12 


RS Vulp 


0.2 ± 0.1 


0.12? 



The gradients for TW Drac, RS Yulp and Z Here are derived from 
this study. The gradient for YZ Cass is derived from Kron's mea- 
sures. Strictly speaking the gradient derived from Kron's measures 
will be slightly affected by the fact that he reduced his measures in 
the two colours independently, and there is a small difference in the 
radii he finds for the stars in reducing the light curves in the two 
colours. The difference is probably not real, and a better estimate of 
the gradient would be obtained by forcing the geometrical elements 
to be the same in each colour. The effect would probably be to in- 
crease the gradient of the limb darkening estimated from the ob- 
servations. The theoretical estimate of the gradient for the B5 star 
of the system RS Yulp is only rough as it is derived from an interpola- 
tion between the value Miss Underhill 18 gives for an 09.5 star, and 
the values given by Chandrasekhar and Munch for an A star. 

It seems from these data that the wave-length dependence of the 
limb darkening coefficient is well represented by current theories. 

This brief study is perhaps sufficient to show that accuracy of 
observation is now sufficiently good to allow us to obtain data on the 
limb darkening effect in a variety of systems. At the least, observa- 
tions in two colours will allow a determination of the differential 
limb darkening effect, if systems showing a well-defined total phase 
are chosen. There are a number of systems which offer some hope of 
determining the absolute value of the limb darkening coefficient, 
among them TX Cass, VV Orio, TT Auri, CP Orio and TW Andr. 



Two- Colour Photometric Studies 27 

Some of these are systems in which two spectra are observed. Obser- 
vations of a number of such systems offer hope of clearing up some of 
the uncertainties about the reflection and ellipticity effects. A better 
understanding of these effects would go far towards removing the 
existing systematic uncertainties in the analysis of the light curves 
of eclipsing binaries. 

The writer desires to express his gratitude to Prof. E. F. Carpenter 
of the Steward Observatory for the generous facilities he provided, 
and to colleagues at the David Dunlap Observatory for steady 
support and encouragement. He is much indebted to the late Prof. 
F. S. Hogg, who initiated the construction of a photometer at the 
David Dunlap Observatory. 

This study has been submitted in partial fulfilment of the require- 
ments for the degree of Ph.D. at the University of Cambridge, 
England. 



References 

1. Baker, Laws Obs. Bull Coll. vol. 33, 1921. 

2. Fetlaar, Rec. Asl. Utrecht, vol. 9, part I, 1923. 

3. Baker, Laws Obs. Bull. vol. 32, 1921. 

4. Dugan, Princ. Cont. vol. 6, 1924. 

5. Kron, P.A.S.P. vol. 59, p. 261, 1947. 

6. Tsesevitsch, Bull. A str. Inst, of the U.S.S.R. Acad. Set. No. 45, 1939, and 
No. 50, 1940. 

7. Irwin, Ap. J. vol. 106, p. 380, 1947. 

8. Wood, Ap. J. vol. 112, p. 199, 1950. 

9. Kopal, Harv. Mon. No. 8, p. 141. 

10. Adams and Joy, Ap. J. vol. 49, p. 192, 1919. 

11. Stilwell, R.A.S.C, Jour., vol. 40, p. 144, 1946. 

12. Russell, A p. J., vol. 104, p. 153, 1946. 

13. Petrie, D. A. 0., Pub., vol. XVIII, No. 10, 1950. 

14. Walter, Z.f. Ap., vol. 14, p. 62, 1937. 

15. Chandrasekhar and Munch, Harv. Circ, No. 453, 1949. 

16. Kron, Ap. J. vol. 96, p. 173, 1942. 

17. Kopal, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 36, p. 350, 1943. 

18. Underhill, K. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Mat.-fvs. Medd., vol. 25 No. 13, 1950. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
May 28, 1952 



28 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



APPENDIX 

Normal Points of Observation for TW Draconis 

Heliocentric phase from epoch 2433032.351 Julian Date 

Period 2,8067655 days. The phases of the Ephemeris have been 

corrected bv — 0.030 D. 



1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


L (blue) 


1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


(Lblue) 


Jun. 14/15 


0.102 


0.908 




Jun. 20/21 


0.505 


1.994 


1.864 




0.119 


1.133 


0.987 


Jun. 23/24 


0.659 


2.030 


1.891 




0.123 


1.175 


1.059 




0.683 


2.038 


1.901 




0.128 


1.213 




May 12/13 


0.832 


1.934 


1.857 




0.135 


1.283 


1.143 


May 15/16 


1.031 


2.009 


1.866 




0.140 


1.384 


1.255 


May 4/5 


1.162 


2.000 


1.850 




0.157 


1.495 


1.375 




1.182 


1.997 


1.860 




0.166 


1.580 


1.490 




1.200 


1.979 


1.868 




0.170 


1.628 






1.219 


1.914 


1.776 




0.182 


1.660 






1.207 


2.008 


1.851 




0.183 




1.573 




1.235 


1.928 


1.808 




0.187 


1.708 






1.261 


1.908 


1.828 




0.188 




1.573 




1.323 


1.867 


1.738 




0. 192 


1.734 


1.611 




1.349 


1.880 


1.750 




0.197 


1.813 




May 18/19 


1.375 


1.840 


1.745 




0.198 




1.746 




1.131 


1.993 


1.899 




0.202 


1.834 






1.163 


2.000 


1.875 




0.203 




1.763 




1.190 


2.004 


1.831 


May 31 


0.187 


1.650 


1.530 




1.232 


2.007 


1.836 


Jun. 1 


0. 191 


1.734 






1.257 


1.918 


1.811 




0.192 




1.610 


May 21/22 


1.299 


1.912 


1.820 




0.195 


1.770 


1.672 




1.322 


1.850 


1.754 




0.199 


1.763 


1.669 


Jun. 7/8 


1.341 


1.847 


1.772 




0.204 


1.795 






1.433 


1.817 


1.748 




0.205 




1.735 




1.467 


1.840 


1.766 




0.209 


1.870 






1.479 


1.861 


1. 775 




0.210 




1. 755 




1.503 


1.860 


1.780 


Jun. 3/4 


0.297 


1.979 


1.852 




1.548 


1.932 


1.829 




0.327 


1 . 945 


1.841 


May 10/11 


1.577 


1.966 


1.846 




0.345 


1.965 


1.850 




1.613 


1.910 


1.785 




0.363 


1.992 


1.856 


Jun. 9/10 


1.631 


1.962 


1.824 




0.383 


1 . 993 


1.870 




1.695 


1.984 


1.868 




0.411 


2.015 


1.868 




1.720 


2.013 


1.873 


May 20/21 


0.350 


2.005 


1.844 


May 27/28 


1.726 


2.020 


1.880 




0. 395 


1.997 


1.874 


Apr. 29/30 


1.739 


1.994 


1.851 


May 6/7 


0.397 


1.989 


1.844 




1.824 


1.982 


1.882 




0.417 


1.974 


1.852 


May 16/17 


1.861 


1.978 


1.866 


Apr. 22/23 


0.492 


1 . 967 


1.860 


May 2/3 


1.986 


2.000 


1.849 




0. 534 


2.025 


1.909 


Apr. 21/22 


2.019 


2.009 


1.879 




0.584 


2.026 


1.916 




2.371 




1.854 


Jun. 6/7 


0.527 


2.010 


1.859 




2.372 


1.980 






0.548 


2.018 


1.863 


Mav8/9 


2.404 


1.980 


1.842 


May 26/27 


0.737 


2.049 


1.892 


Apr. 25/26 


2.402 


1.971 


1.856 




0.785 


2.046 


1.919 




2.469 


1.932 


1.832 



Two-Colour Photometric Studies 29 

Normal Points of Observation" for TW Drac. (cow/.) 



1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


(Lblue) 


1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


L (blue) 


May 11/12 


2.535 


1.938 


1.816 


Jun. 11/12 


2.709 




0.773 




2.552 


1.962 


1.836 




2.713 


0.918 


0.773 




2.568 


1.930 


1.815 




2.717 


0.868 






2.584 


1.915 


1.806 




2.718 




0.698 




2.603 


1.847 


1.739 




2.722 


0.792 


0.638 




2.626 


1.682 






2.726 


0.747 






2.627 




1.601 




2.727 




0.628 




2.650 


1.487 






2.731 


0.736 






2.651 




1.379 




2.732 




0.576 




2.672 


1.302 






2.736 


0.657 






2.673 




1.163 




2.737 




0.507 




2.695 


1.049 






2.740 


0.617 






2.696 




0.903 




2.741 




0.475 




2.714 


0.843 






2.746 


0.572 






2.715 




0.695 




2.747 




0.428 




2.722 


0.733 






2.750 


0.520 






2.723 




0.608 




2. 754 


0.493 






2.733 




0.524 




2.758 


0.462 






2.739 




0.447 




2.762 




0.316 




2.740 


0.583 






2.768 


0.426 


0.286 




2.746 


0.531 






2. 773 


0.396 


0.257 




2.747 




0.389 




2.777 


0.389 






2.751 


0.486 






2.778 




0. 257 




2.752 




0.352 




2.780 


0.381 






2.756 


0.435 






2.781 




0.253 




2.757 




0.303 




2.783 


0.372 






2.767 


0.398 






2.784 




0.242 




2.768 




0.302 




2. 785 


0.377 






2.773 


0.385 






2.786 




0.240 




2.774 




0.253 




2.790 


0.374 






2.780 


0.378 






2.791 




0.247 




2.781 




0.244 




2.792 


0.374 






2.785 


0.370 






2. 793 




0. 254 




2.786 




0.248 




2. 7! hi 




0.253 


Apr. 27/28 


2.584 


1.879 


1.802 




2.797 


0.376 






2.607 




1.666 




0.000 


0.382 






2.608 


1.804 






0.002 




0.256 




2.641 




1.481 


May 14/15 


2. 705 


0.972 


0.845 




2.644 


1.508 






2.724 


0.794 


0.642 




2.670 


1.281 






2.740 


0.608 






2.671 




1.181 




2.741 




0.480 


Jun. 11/12 


2.678 


1.153 






2.771 


0.412 






2.679 




1.009 




2.772 




0. 289 




2. 693 


1.091 






2. 789 




0.259 




2.694 




0.957 




2. 790 


0.3855 






2. 698 


1.032 






0.002 


0.383 






2.699 




0.915 




0.004 




0.253 




2.702 


0.992 






0.023 


0.390 


0.252 




2.703 




0.828 




0.044 


0. 450 


0.317 




2.708 


0.952 













30 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Normal Points of Observation for Z Herculis 

Heliocentric phase from epoch 2413086.365 Julian Date 

Period 3.992795 days 



1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


L (blue) 


1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


L (blue) 


May 2/3 


0. 8034 


0.8875 


0.8423 


May 16/17 


2. 7602 


0. 9060 


0. 8663 




0. 8220 


0. 8858 


0. 0456 




2.790 


0. 8949 


0. 8552 




0. 8389 


0. 8885 


0. 8530 




2.924 


0. 8681 


0. 8343 




0. 9089 


0. 8858 


0. 8563 


May 24/25 


2. 8607 


0. 9020 


0. 8445 


May 6/7 


0. 8081 


0. 8906 


0. 8508 




2. 8739 


0. 8876 


0.8510 




0. 8475 


0. 8893 


0. 8504 


Jun. 13/14 


2.9349 


0. 8994 


0.8510 


May 10/11 


0. 8085 


0. 8828 


0. 8525 




2.9475 


0.9031 


0. 8485 




0.8267 


0. 8796 


0. 8484 


May 17/18 


3.7729 


0. 8933 


0. 8442 




0.9400 


0.8929 


0.8528 




3. 7852 


0. 8820 


0.8414 


May 22/23 


0. 8760 


0. 8895 


0. 8560 




3. 7978 


0. 8779 


0. 8360 


May 26/27 


0. 9024 


0.9010 


0. 8656 




3.8111 


0. 8852 


0. 8391 


Jun. 15/16 


0. 9438 


0.8917 


0.8372 




3. 8240 


0.8836 


0.8391 




0.9675 


0.8916 


0. 8477 




3. 8352 


0. 8838 


0. 8363 




0.9808 


0. 8898 


0.8514 




3.8517 


0.8590 


0. 8213 




0. 9868 


0. 8897 


0.8536 




3. 8592 


0. 8383 


0. 7928 


May 3/4 


1.8502 


0. 8924 


0. 8582 




3. 8745 


0. 7781 


0. 7249 


May 7/8 


1.8587 


0.8841 


0. 8584 




3.9099 


0.6311 


0. 5845 


May 15/16 


1.8562 


0. 8803 


0. 8486 




3. 9232 


0. 5837 


0. 5326 


May 27/28 


1.8139 


0. 8851 


0. 8445 




3. 9363 


0. 5494 


0. 4824 




1.8262 


0. 8827 


0. 8478 




3. 9430 


0.5164 


0.4464 




1.8364 


0.8916 


0. 8437 


May 9/10 


3. 8005 


0. 8729 


0. 8435 




1.8512 


0. 8850 


0.8418 




3. 8280 


0.8531 


0. 8078 




1.8636 


0. 8857 


0.8373 




3. 8569 


0.8218 


0. 7838 




1.8779 


0. 8728 


0.8371 




3. 8732 


0. 7788 


0.7371 




1.8932 


0. 8675 


0. 8395 




3. 8925 


0.7014 


0. 6632 




1.9064 


0. 8430 


0. 8231 




3.9151 


0. 6208 


0.5651 




1.9242 


0. 8366 


0. 8333 




3.930 


0. 5548 


0.5071 




1.9442 


0. 8392 


0. 8201 


May 25/26 


3.8102 


0.9053 


0. 8347 




1.9600 


0.8170 


0. 8080 




3. 8227 


0. 8782 


0. 8454 


Jun. 16/17 


1.9481 


0.8123 


0. 7908 




3. 8353 


0. 8736 


0.8361 




1.9567 


0. 8060 


0.7831 




3. 8503 


0. 8554 


0. 8206 




1.9660 


0. 8008 


0. 7763 




3. 8825 


0. 7422 


0. 7063 




1.9760 


0. 8042 


0. 7796 




3. 8977 


0. 6994 


0.6517 




1.9851 


0.8017 


0. 7838 




3.9096 


0. 6566 


0. 6075 




1.9888 


0. 7982 


0. 7733 




3.9233 


0.5955 


0. 5378 




2.0018 


0. 8069 


0.7693 




3.9395 


0. 5425 


0. 4808 


Jun. 20/21 


1.9468 


0.8145 


0.8197 




3.957 


0. 4750 


0.4100 




1.9508 


0.8101 


0. 7931 


Jun. 14/15 


3.9825 


0.4112 


0. 3470 




1.9563 


0.8113 


0. 8073 




3.9926 


0.3913 


0. 3273 




1.9744 


0. 8015 


0. 7924 




3.9961 


0. 3885 


0. 3259 




1.9772 


0. 7989 


0. 7882 


Jun. 22/23 


3.9583 


0. 4606 


0. 3929 




1.979 


0. 7949 


0. 7906 




3.9713 


0. 4303 


0.3633 


May 8/9 


2. 8293 


0. 8930 


0. 8480 




3.9912 


0.4014 


0.3481 




2. 8453 


0. 8805 


0. 8456 




3. 9999 


0. 3924 


0.3305 




2.930 


0. 8980 


0.8481 




4. 0090 


0. 3838 


0. 3233 


May 16/17 


2. 7422 


0.9021 


0.8618 











Two- Colour Photometric Studies 



31 



Normal Points of Observation for RS Vulpeculae 

Heliocentric phase from epoch 2428760.434 Julian Date 

period 4.477666 days 



1950 


Phase 


L(yell.) 


L (blue) 


1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


L (blue) 


Jun. 8/9 


2.082 


1.069 




Jun. 26/27 


0. 1972 


0.822 


0.872 




2.087 


1.065 






0.2114 


0.852 


0.913 




2.098 


1.061 






0. 2250 


0.882 


0.953 




2.102 


1.061 






0. 2390 


0.926 


1.005 




2.109 


1.050 






0. 2560 


0.955 


1.024 




2.126 


1.034 






0. 2698 


0.988 


1.069 




2.132 


1.030 




May 8/9 


0. 4868 


1.053 


1.128 




2.142 


1.038 




May 26/27 


0. 5399 


1.077 


1.128 


Jun. 15 


2.210 


1.045 




Jun. 13/14 


0. 5725 


1.053 


1.125 


Jun. 17/18 


2.419 


1.035 






0.5801 


1.042 


1.124 


Jul. 5/6 


2.247 


1.039 






0. 5986 


1.067 


1.130 


Sep. 6/7 


2.434 


1.057 






0.6134 
0. 6275 


1.045 
1.051 


1.101 
1.132 


1951 








Jun. 4/5 


0. 6493 


1.053 


1.120 


May 12/13 


0. 0024 


0. 4465 


0. 4464 


May 22/23 


1.0644 


1.070 


1.148 




0.0154 


0. 4494 


0. 4447 


Jun. 1 


1.0609 


1.083 


1.163 




0. 0283 


0.453 


0.456 




1.0775 


1.092 


1.160 




0. 0572 


0.5014 


0.4928 


Jun. 9/10 


1 . 0458 


1.072 


1.144 


Jun. 8/9 


0.0140 


0.4562 


0. 4468 




1.0689 


1.089 


1.163 




0.0333 


0.4618 


0. 4690 




1.0896 


1.083 


1.161 




0. 0486 


0.4718 


0. 4861 


Jun. 13/14 


1.6641 


1.097 


1.172 




0. 0650 


0. 4922 


0. 5358 




1.6821 


1.105 


1.177 




0.0830 


0.5391 


0.5487 


Jun. 23/24 


1.6012 


1.109 


1.173 




0.1177 


0.6136 


0. 6402 




1.6272 


1.101 


1.170 




0. 1344 


0.651 


0.715 




1.6516 


1.100 


1.172 




0. 1510 


0.697 


0. 7325 




1.6701 


1.104 


1.179 




0. 1644 


0.7301 


0. 7709 


Jun. 1/2 i[ 


2.0237 


1.080 


1.162 




0. 1738 


0.760 


0.799 




2.0486 


1.100 


1.165 




0.1814 


0.776 


0.831 




2.0691 


1.095 


1.158 


May 21/22 


0.0103 


0.4641 


0. 4575 




2.0972 


1.069 


1.147 




0.0234 


0.4678 


0. 4550 




2. 1243 


1.054 


1.157 




0.0408 


0. 4730 


0.4819 




2. 1458 


1.061 


1.154 




0. 0574 


0.4910 


0.4911 


Jun. 10/11 


2.0229 


1.086 


1.171 




0. 0726 


0.5142 


0.5358 




2.0371 


1.076 


1.172 




0. 0858 


0. 5459 


0. 5654 




2.0482 


1.075 


1.151 


Jun. 26/27 


0. 0492 


0.4762 


0. 4994 




2.0614 


1.075 


1.159 




0. 0622 


0. 4874 


0.5107 




2.0741 


1.075 


1.159 




0.0743 


0. 5206 


0. 5542 




2.0883 


1 . 076 


1.171 




0.0889 


0. 5607 


0. 5805 




2.0979 


1.070 


1.148 




0.1039 


0.5911 


0. 6064 




2.1144 


1.050 


1.150 




0.1142 


0. 6064 


0. 6423 




2. 1322 


1.042 


1.141 




0. 1296 


0. 6408 


0. 6744 




2. 1475 


1.035 


1.130 




0. 1386 


0. 6672 


0. 7091 




2.1619 


1.043 


1.131 




0.1519 


0.7045 


0. 7396 




2.176 


1.037 


1.127 




0. 1650 


0. 7337 


0. 7934 




2.199 


1.043 


1.139 




0. 1764 


0. 7650 


0.8160 


May 10/11 


2. 5253 


1.078 


1.157 




0. 1838 


0.7918 


0.8381 


Jun. 6/7 


2.5434 


1.100 


1.163 



32 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Normal points of Observation for RS Yulp. (cont.^ 



1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


L (blue) 


1951 


Phase 


L (yell.) 


L (blue) 


Jun. 6/7 


2.5685 


1.101 


1.160 


Jun. 16/17 


3. 5808 


1.072 


1.138 




2.5914 


1.089 


1.162 


Mav 16/17 


4.0282 


1.057 


1.134 




2.6081 


1.091 


1.162 


Jun. 12/13 


4.058 


1.043 


1.126 




2.6345 


1.097 


1.161 




4.0747 


1.044 


1.124 


Jun. 15./16 


2.5330 


1.087 


1.178 




4. 0885 


1.033 


1.115 




2.5542 


1.079 


1.186 




4. 1049 


1.035 


1.103 




2. 5062 


1.092 


1.165 




4. 1406 


1.031 


1.124 




2.5927 


1.076 


1.174 




4. 1579 


1.024 


1.099 




2.6172 


1.087 


1.163 




4. 1701 


1.021 


1.088 




2. 6375 


1.116 


1.190 




4. 1862 


1.011 


1.077 


May 2/3 


3.0017 


1.106 


1.172 




4. 1997 


0.998 


1.076 


May 15/16 


3.0190 


1.102 


1.166 


Jun. 21/22 


4. 0403 


1.045 


1.123 


May 24/25 


3.0434 


1.108 


1.177 




4.0618 


1.042 


1.128 


Jun. 2/3 


3.0118 


1.088 


1.160 




4. 0874 


1.043 


1.116 




3. 0293 


1.094 


1.173 




4.0999 


1.041 


1.127 




3.0444 


1.092 


1.167 




4. 1182 


1.035 


1.123 




3.0578 


1.087 


1.159 




4.1381 


1.030 


1.115 




3.0685 


1.095 


1.160 




4.1515 


1.036 


1.117 




3.0875 


1.090 


1.162 




4. 1646 


1.029 


1.110 




3. 1032 


1.073 


1.153 




4. 1774 


1.022 


1.100 




3.1175 


1.099 


1.158 




4. 1898 


1.010 


1.084 


Jun. 11/12 


3. 1504 


1.110 


1.176 




4.2109 


0.990 


1.060 


Jun. 20/21 


3. 1040 


1.096 


1.146 




4. 2200 


0.950 


1.029 




3. 1295 


1.094 


1.155 




4. 2336 


0.931 


0.999 


May 2/3 


3. 4438 


1.075 


1.133 


May 21/22 


4. 4205 


0.5002 


0. 5002 


Mav 20/21 


3.586 


1.073 


1.142 




4.4330 


0.4834 


0.4704 


Jun. 7/8 


3. 5722 


1.081 


1.161 




4.4467 


0. 4654 


0. 4683 




3.585 


1.093 


1.160 




4.4675 


0. 4586 


0. 4500 




3.5976 


1.0S6 


1.160 


Jun. 8/9 


4. 4586 


0. 4586 


0. 4556 




3. 6229 


1 . 093 


1.145 




4. 4686 


0.4482 


0. 4385 




3. 6372 


1.072 


1.155 




4. 4753 


0. 4477 


0.4421 






PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 2 



A SECOND CATALOGUE OF 

VARIABLE STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 

COMPRISING 1,421 ENTRIES 



BY 



HELEN B. SAWYER 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS: 1955 






i 



INTRODUCTION 

It is fifteen years since the first catalogue of variable stars in globular clusters 
was published at this observatory by the writer in Publications of the David 
Dunlap Observatory, vol. 1, no. 4, 1939. The numerous requests we have 
received for this catalogue are evidence that it has proved useful to many 
workers. 

The references to all globular cluster literature were brought up to date in 
1947 by the complete listing in the Bibliography of Individual Globular Clusters 
{David Dunlap Observatory Publications, vol. 1, no. 20), but among this great 
number of references the data on variables were not selectively tabulated. 
Sufficient information has now been added to variable star data to justify 
a second edition of the variable star catalogue. The present catalogue, in a 
form similar to that of the first, aims to include all variables which lie within 
the visible limits of a globular cluster, whether physical members of the 
cluster or not. When such variables are known, or presumed to be, field stars, 
this is noted. A few of the variables in this catalogue are also included in the 
General Catalogue of Variable Stars by Kukarkin and Parenago, and its sup- 
plements. 

Although it would be convenient to have prints of each cluster included in 
the present catalogue, the difficulty in accomplishing this is too great, and 
the reader must be referred to the original publications for these. The co- 
ordinates in x and y in seconds of arc are listed for practically every variable, 
but they do not provide, in many cases, as satisfactory identification as could 
be wished. It is not easy to select the exact centre of a cluster for the point of 
origin. In clusters where only one variable exists, the identification may be 
uncertain, and where large numbers have been found, different observers have 
not always used the same origin. 

Table I contains a list, with 1950 positions, of 34 globular clusters which are 
not included in the main table of this publication. These are clusters for which 
I have no knowledge of a published search for variables, though several of 
them are under investigation at the present time. For the most part they are 
either clusters in the far southern sky, or else difficult objects which can be 
properly attacked only by a telescope of at least 100 inches. Table I and 
Table II (the 72 globular clusters which have been searched for variables) 
together contain the complete list of globular clusters in our galactic system 
as known to me at the present time. The remarks following Table I explain 
the changes in the list of globular clusters made since 1947. 

35 



36 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I 
Thirty-four Globular Clusters Not Searched for Variables 



NGC 


R.A. 


1950 


Dec. 1950 


NGC 


R.A 


1950 


Dec. 1950 


1261 


03 h 


10 m 


.9 


-55° 25' 


6388 


17 h 


32 m 


.6 


-44° 43' 


1841 


04 


52 


.5 


-84 05 


6401 


17 


35 


.6 


-23 53 


2158 


06 


04 


.3 


+24 06 


6440 


17 


45 


.9 


-20 21 


2682 


08 


48 


.5 


+ 12 00 


6441 


17 


46 


.8 


-37 02 


IC 4499 


14 


52 


.7 


-82 02 


6453 


17 


48 


.0 


-34 37 


5824 


15 


00 


.9 


-32 53 


6496 


17 


55 


.5 


-44 15 


5927 


15 


24 


.4 


-50 29 


6517 


17 


59 


.1 


-08 57 


5946 


15 


31 


.8 


-50 30 


6558 


18 


07 


.0 


-31 45 


6101 


16 


20 


.0 


-72 06 


IC 1276 


18 


07 


.5 


-07 15 


6139 


16 


24 


.3 


-38 44 


6569 


18 


10 


.4 


-31 50 


6304 


17 


11 


.4 


-29 24 


6624 


18 


20 


.5 


-30 23 


6316 


17 


13 


.4 


-28 05 


6637 


18 


28 


.1 


-32 23 


6325 


17 


15 


.0 


-23 42 


6638 


18 


27 


.9 


-25 32 


6342 


17 


18 


.2 


-19 32 


6642 


18 


28 


.4 


-23 30 


6352 


17 


21 


.6 


-48 26 


6652 


18 


32 


.5 


-33 02 


6355 


17 


20 


.9 


-26 19 


6681 


18 


40 


.0 


-32 21 


6380 


17 


31 


.0 


-39 03 


6717 


18 


52 


.1 


-22 47 



Remarks on Table I 
Additions to 1947 list 

NGC 2158 and 2682 (M67), formerly considered galactic clusters are listed as globular by 
Rosino and Becker respectively in the I.A.U. report of Commission 37, July 1954. 

NGC 6380 has very recently been shown to be globular by Thackeray with the Radcliffe 
74-inch; NGC 6558, on some early lists as globular (Helwan Butt., nos. 21, and 22, 1921) is 
confirmed as globular by Thackeray; correspondence, 1954. 

IC 1276, NGC 6642 and 6717 are considered globular by Baade and N. U. Mayall, corres- 
pondence, 1948. 

Three other clusters not listed as globular in 1947 are now included among those with 
variables known, in the body of the catalogue. These are the new cluster found by Baade at 
R.A. 15 h 13 m .5, and the clusters NGC 6235 and 6535 which vacillate between lists of globular 
and galactic clusters. 

Deletions from 194-7 list 

The unnumbered object at R.A. 17 h 45 m .7, Dec. -60° 45', and NGC 6684 are now dropped 
from the globular cluster list. From a study of Harvard Southern Station plates, Shapley in a 
private communication states that they are not globular. 



Summary of Data on Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
numbers of variables 

At present 1,421 variable stars are known in the 72 clusters for which 
there is a record of search. This does not include unpublished or suspected 
variables. There is a gratifying reduction in the number of variables listed as 
unpublished, from 99 in 1939 to 41 now. Furthermore in only four clusters 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 37 

are all known variables unpublished. Some of the unpublished variables 
probably correspond to variables now published by other observers. Counted 
as suspected variables, in addition to unpublished suspects, are those numbered 
variables whose variation has been questioned, making a total of 48 suspected 
variables in 17 clusters. Only three clusters, NGC 5286, 5694, and 6584 have 
been searched in vain, but the variables found around NGC 6528 are con- 
sidered by Baade to belong to the rich Milky Way field, so this cluster also is 
listed as one with no variables. 

Since 1939 a total of 329 new variables has been added in 46 clusters. This 
number includes some which were formerly unpublished or suspected. Con- 
trariwise, some stars formerly considered variable are now listed as doubtful, 
or have been dropped entirely. This number also includes a few formerly 
listed only in catalogues of galactic system variables, and now included for the 
sake of completeness. Nearly half the known globular clusters have been 
searched in the last fifteen years, which shows considerable activity in this 
field. The era of finding large numbers of variables in any one cluster seems 
to be pretty well over. Most of the variable-rich clusters were searched by 
Professor Bailey in the early years of this century, and there seems to be no 
more like them. 

Table II gives a summary of the number of variables and number of periods 
known in the 72 globular clusters for which there is a record of search. It has 
been a little difficult to make this table homogeneous because the sources from 
which it is drawn were not uniform, and arbitrary decisions had to be made. 

The first column of the table gives the NGC number, when available. In 
the second column is the total number of variables with published identifica- 
tion. The third column contains the unpublished variables (u), and the 
suspected (s). In a few cases the unpublished variables may no longer exist; 
when a worker publishes new variables in a cluster, it is sometimes not pos- 
sible to find out whether they correspond with earlier, unpublished variables 
of another worker. The totals of suspected variables include those published 
only as suspects, as well as numbered variables which are now considered 
doubtful. 

Table II, when used alongside Table I of the 1939 catalogue, gives a com- 
plete summary of variables in globular clusters to date. The fourth column, 
headed "New" is the number of variables which have been added since 1939, 
and the fifth column gives the name of the person responsible for their addition. 
In most cases this name is that of the discoverer, but occasionally it is that 
of a worker who first catalogued the variable in a globular cluster. 

The sixth column of the table gives the total number of precise periods 
known, and the seventh, the number which are new since 1939. In the total 
of new periods I have included not only those periods which are completely 
new, but also revised periods in which the period as revised differs markedly 
from the earlier period. Small refinements of period, however, are not counted 



38 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE II 
Summary of Variable Stars in 72 Globular Clusters 



NGC 


No. 


Sus. 


New Added by 


Total 


New Added by 


RR 


Prob. 


Non- 




Vars. 


Unpub. 






Per. 






Lyr 


RR 


RR 


104 


11 


2s 


4 


McKibben-Nail 


3 












9 


288 


1 


2u 


1 


Oosterhoff 


1 


1 


Oosterhoff 







1 


362 


14 









10 






7 


1 


3 


1851 


2 


lu 





















1904 


5 


Is 


1 


Rosino 


3 


3 


Rosino 


3 




1 


2298 




6u, 5s 





















2419 


36 



















23 


5 


2808 




4u, 7s 





















3201 


77 




17 


Dowse (16) 
Wright (1) 


59 


59 


Wright 


58 




2 


4147 


4 









3 






3 






4372 




3u, lis 





















4590 


31 




3 


Rosino 


20 


20 


Rosino 


20 


10 


1 


4833 


10 


Is 


10 


Bailey (2) 
Swope (5) 
Dowse (2) 

Wright (1) 


9 


9 


Wright 


6 





4 


5024 


43 




4 


v.d. Hoven v. 
Genderen 


32 


3 


Oosterhoff (2) 
y.d. H. v.G. (1) 


32 


6: 


1 


5053 


10 




1 


Sawyer 


10 


10 


Sawyer (7) 
Rosino (3) 


10 








5139 


164 




1 


Hertzsprung 


153 


3 


van Gent (1) 
Oosterhoff (1) 
Kooreman (1) 


137 


3: 


21 


5272 


187 


2s 


3 


Schwarzschild(l) 171 


19 


Martin 


170 


3: 


3 










Sandage (2) 














5286 




























5466 


18 




4 


Sawyer 


18 


18 


Sawyer 


18 








5634 


7 




7 


Baade 


1 


1 


Baade 


1 


6 





5694 



























Baade 


5 


5s 


5 


Rosino 












5 




5897 


4 




4 


Sawyer 












5 




5904 


97 


Is 


11 


Oosterhoff 


92 


26 


Oosterhoff 


90 


3 


4 


5986 


1 























6093 


7 




4 


Sawyer 


1 


1 


Sawyer 





3 


3 


6121 


43 




11 


de Sitter 


41 


25 


de Sitter, 
Oosterhoff 


41 





2 


6144 


1 




1 


Sawyer 
















6171 


24 



















22 


1 


6205 


10 


5s 


5 


Sawyer (4) 
Arp'(l) 


6 


5 


Sawyer (3) 
Kollnig- 


3 


2 


6 
















Schattschneider (1) 




















Arp (1) 








6218 


1 









1 













1 


6229 


22 




21 


Baade (20) 
Sawyer (1) 












20 


2 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
TABLE II (cont.) 



39 



NGC 


No. 


Sus. 


New Added by 


Total 


New 


Added by 


RR 


Prob. 


Non- 




Vars. 


Unpub. 








Per. 






Lyr 


RR 


RR 


6235 


2 




2 


Sawyer 














2 




6254 


3 




1 


Arp 




2 


1 


Arp 








3 


6266 


26 

























6273 


4 




4 


Sawyer 














2 


1 


6284 


6 




6 


Sawyer 


















6287 


3 




3 


Sawyer 


















6293 


5 




2 


Sawyer 














4 




6333 


13 




12 


Sawyer 




11 


11 


Sawyer 


11 


1: 




6341 


16 


Is 









13 


4 


Oosterhoff 


12 




1 


6356 


5 




5 


Sawyer 


















6362 


15 


2u 























6366 


2 




2 


Sawyer 














1 




6397 


3 




1 


Swope 




3 


1 


Swope, 
Greenbaum 


1 





2 


6402 


72 











3 










60 


4 


6426 


11 




11 


Baade 



















6522 


9 




9 


Baade 




8 


8 


S. Gaposchkin 


8 





1 


6528 










Baade 


















6535 


1 


lu 


1 


Sawyer 


















6539 




lu 























6541 


1 

























6553 


6 


2s 


6 


Thackeray (5) 
M. Mayall (1) 


3 


3 


Thackeray 


3 





3 


6584 




























6626 


16 




7 


Sawyer 




1 


1 


Sawyer 





7 


5 


6656 


24 


Is 


8 


Sawyer 




22 


15 


Sawyer 


18 





6 


6712 


12 


3u 


11 


Sawyer 
Oosterhi 


(10) 

3ff (1) 


1 


1 


Oosterhoff 







2 


6715 


28 




28 


Rosino 














24 


4 


6723 


19 











19 







19 








6752 


1 


























6760 


4 


2u 


4 


Sawyer 


















6779 


12 




9 


Sawyer (7) 


4 


4 


Sawyer (2) 


2 


2 


7 










Rosino 


(2) 






Rosino (2) 








6809 


6 




4 


King 




5 


5 


King 


5 


1 





6838 


4 




4 


Sawyer 

















3 


6864 


11 


5s 
























6934 


51 






















45 




6981 


39 




8 


Sawyer 
Rosino 


(7) 
(1) 


27 


12 


Rosino 


27 


7 




7006 


40 


Is 


32 


Hubble, 




1 


1 


Hubble, 





39 


1 










Sandage 






Sandage 








7078 


93 


8u?2s 


29 


Rosino 




61 







60 


28 


2 


7089 


17 











17 


1 


Sawyer 


13 





4 


7099 


4 




1 


Rosino 




3 


3 


Rosino 


3 





1 


7492 


1 


8u, 6s 

























40 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



as new periods. The next column gives the name of the computer of the 
period. 

The last three columns of the table give the types of variables in the cluster. 
Under the heading "RR Lyr" is given the number of RR Lyrae periods 
actually determined and published in the cluster. The following column gives 
the number of stars which are probably RR Lyrae type, though without 
published periods. A blank indicates that no definite number can be assigned 
at present. For example, in a cluster like NGC 6266 where no magnitudes of 
variables have ever been published, no estimate as to the number of probable 
RR Lyrae stars appears justified. The final column gives the number of non- 
RR Lyrae stars in the cluster. This number includes all stars, with both known 
and unknown periods, which present observations indicate are not RR Lyrae 
variables. Because these stars are of increasing importance, each one of them 
is listed individually in Table III. The total of the last three columns of 
Table II will not necessarily equal the total number of variables in the cluster, 
since some variables remain of unknown type. 

Figure 1 shows the frequency distribution of the number of variables per 



o 

u. 

o 

I 



FREQUENCY OF VARIABLE STARS 

»N GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 

1954- 



NGC 5139 ( I64-) 
NGC 5272 087) 



30 

NUMBER. 



4-0 SO 

OF VAR.IABI.ES 



Figure 1. Distribution of the known, published variables per cluster for 68 clusters. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 41 

cluster, giving the numbers of clusters which have the number of variables 
indicated by the abscissa. More than 50 per cent of the clusters examined, 
37 in all, have 10 variables or less. On the other hand, 18 clusters, about 25 
per cent, have more than 20 variables. It is not possible to say at present how 
the observed frequency of variables in these clusters will compare with the 
true frequency; we might comment, however, that there have been very few 
cases in which, once a globular cluster had been searched for variables, further 
work changed it from a variable-poor to a variable-rich category. That is to 
say, additional hunting for variables increases the numbers in a moderate 
rather than a radical way. 

This actual frequency of variables in globular clusters is interesting because 
it is at variance with common impressions that variable stars abound in 
globular clusters. Of the 72 clusters now examined, only 7 contain more than 
50 variables each; and probably few, if any, clusters will be added in the 
future to this list of variable-rich objects. Since most of the clusters left to be 
studied are small and difficult, they will almost certainly increase the number 
with few variables. Three-quarters of the clusters examined contain less than 
20 variables. It is rather surprising to note that the most frequent number of 
variables found in a globular cluster is one! 

The richest cluster still remains XGC 5272, Messier 3, with 187 variables 
and 2 suspected. A close second is Omega Centauri, NGC 5139, with 164. 
Next in order of richness are Messier 5 (XGC 5904) and Messier 15 (NGC 
7078), with about half as many variables, 97 and 93 respectively. 

NUMBER OF KNOWN PERIODS 

Of the known variables, periods have now been determined for 843 in 38 
clusters, compared with 656 in only 20 clusters in 1939. Hence though the 
studies of the past fifteen years have not enormously increased the number of 
known variables or new periods, they have brought us a better over-all picture 
of the variable content of the entire system of globular clusters than we had 
earlier when the four rich clusters cast their weight too heavily. 

Of the periods now listed, 274 are new, in 30 clusters. For a number of clus- 
ters there have been revisions and redeterminations of periods. For statistical 
purposes I have counted the period as new only if the value was changed by 
more than 0.01 day. 

DISTRIBUTION OF PERIODS AND TYPES 

There are 779 definite RR Lyrae periods known in 28 clusters. In addition 
there appear to be at least 335 more stars which are probably of this character. 
Probably also most of the 185 stars for which the data do not permit a definite 
assignment of type will also prove to be of this class. 

Attention has often been drawn to the difference in frequency of period 
from one cluster to another. It is interesting, however, to portray the frequency 



42 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



of all known RR Lyrae periods in globular clusters. This is shown in figure 2 
for period intervals of 0.01 day. The outstanding feature of the distribution 
is the conspicuous gap in periods slightly under 0.45 day. It is difficult to 
think that this gap is caused by any observational selection (unless some 
factor causes stars of this period to have a very small range). There certainly 
would appear to be no reason why periods of this length are more difficult to 
determine. The double maximum in this distribution of period frequency 
raises the question as to whether we are concerned with two different types 
of stars. Are RR Lyrae variables whose periods are shorter than 0.45 day the 
same kind of variable as those whose periods are longer? Numerous studies of 
the RR Lyrae stars in the galactic system, for example by Kukarkin, Struve 
and Joy, and Shapley suggest that all RR Lyrae stars do not constitute a 
homogeneous group. 

Nearly 10 per cent of the known variables in globular clusters are definitely 
not RR Lyrae stars, 122 stars in 36 clusters. Table III, which is similar to 
Table II in the first catalogue, lists these 122 stars which are within the visible 
limits of globular clusters and are not RR Lyrae variables. The table in the 
present catalogue is considerably more inclusive than the earlier one, which 
was restricted to stars with known periods over a day. The present table 
includes the W Ursae Majoris types such as Var. 141 in NGC 5272, stars with 
irregular light variation, and stars of unknown type which are listed as 
probably not RR Lyrae stars. Many of these stars are field variables, and not 
cluster members. Any definite information in this regard has been listed, 
but in most cases more observational evidence is necessary to decide whether 
a variable is an actual cluster member. 



40 



30 



20 



FREAUENCY OF 
RR LXRAE PltUODS 



10 



^ MtH ^S 



%»%»%»—* 




KO 



01 



0-2 0-3 

DAYS 



08 09 



Figure 2. Numbers of RR Lyrae periods at intervals of 0.01 day for 781 periods in 28 
globular clusters. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 43 

TABLE III 
Variables which are not RR Lyrae Stars 



NGC 


No. 


Magnitudes 


Period 


Remarks 






Max. 


Min. 


(days) 




104 


1 


11.3 


[16.0 


212.40 


long per. 




2 


11.55 


15.3 


202.84 


long per. 




3 


11.35 


16.1 


192.34 


long per. 




4 


12.0 


14.0 




cycles 150 ± 




5 


13.0 


14.0 




irreg. 




7 


13.3 


13.8 




irreg. 




8 


12.7 


14.7 




cycles 150± 




10 


13.1 


13.6 




irreg. 




12 


13.2 


14.0 




irreg. 


288 


1 


13.5 


14.1 


103. 


semireg. 


362 


2 


13.0 


14.5 


105.22 


prob. Small Cloud 




8 


14.8 


16.3 


3.901447 


prob. Small Cloud 




10 


14.7 


16.2 


4.20519 


prob. Small Cloud 


1904 


2 


14.2 


14.8 




irreg. or semireg. 


2419 


1 


17.59 


18.32 




bright irreg. 




8 


17.50 


18.10 




bright irreg. 




10 


17.31 


17.93 




bright irreg. 




18 


17.84 


18.53 




bright irreg. 




20 


17.65 


18.16 




bright irreg. 


3201 


65 
68 


14.01 


15.03 


1.6599990 


eclipsing 

red, prob. long per. 


4590 


27* 


10.88 


15.04 




FI Hya, field, long per. 


4833 


2 


13.0 


16.2 


333.7 


RZ Mus, long per. 




9 


14.5 


15.16 


87.7 or 1 


HV 10781 




10 


15.14 


15.9 




Cepheid, HV 10782 




11 


14.5 


16.0: 


303.8 


long per., HV 10783 


5024 


24 


15.71 


16.43 


3? 


type unknown 


5139 


1 


10.7 


12.6 


58.7027 


RV Tauri type 




2 


J13.06 


16.12 


484. 


per. poss. 242 d 




6 


13.84 


15.24 




irreg. 




17 


14.18 


14.61 


60: 


irreg. 




29 


12.44 


13.50 


14.72429 


Cepheid 




42 


12.5 


14.9 


149.4 






43 


13.41 


14.55 


1 . 1568183 


Cepheid 




48 


13.09 


13.95 


4.474293 


Cepheid 




53 


13.30 


13.87 


87: 


irreg. 




60 


13.32 


14.48 


1.349464 


Cepheid 




61 


13.72 


14.48 


2.27358 


Cepheid 




78 


14.17 


14.84 


1.1681179 


eclipsing 




92 


14.10 


14.58 


1.3450659 


Cepheid 




129 


14.18 


14.74 




irreg., long per.? 




133 


13.74 


14.53 


0.31709628 


W UMa type, field 




138 


12.5 


13.6 


74.6: 


irreg. 




148 


12.9 


13.8 


90: 


irreg. 




152 


12.8 


13.7 


124: 


irreg. 



44 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE III (cont.) 



NGC 


No. 


Magnitudes 


Period 


Remarks 






Max. 


Min. 


(days) 






161 


13.3 


13.8 




irreg. 




162 


12.9 


13.6 




irreg. 




164 


13.7 


14.0 




irreg., prob. red 


5272 


95* 


13.31 


14.50 


103.19 


semireg. 




141 


14.88 


15.65 


0.2695477 


RV CVn, W UMa type 




154* 


11.86 


13.5 


15.2828 


W Vir type 


5904 


42* 


10.76 


12.46 


25.738 


Cepheid 




50* 


13.6 


14.0 


106? 


irreg. or semireg. 




84* 


11.00 


12.77 


26.5 


Cepheid 




101 


17.16 






SS Cyg type 


6093 


1* 


13.1 


14.5 


15.70 


W Vir type 




6 


9.3 


15.8 


177.13 


S Sco; prob. field 




7 


9.5 


15.5 


222.53 


R Sco; prob. field 




Nova 


6.8 






Nova T Sco 1860 


6121 


4* 


11.0 


13.0 


65 ± 


semireg. 




13* 


12.37 


13.08 




semireg. 


6171 


1 


]14.16 


[16.75 




prob. long per. 


6205 


1* 


13.27 


14.61 


1.45899 


Cepheid 




2* 


12.67 


13.90 


5.11003 


Cepheid 




6* 


13.90 


14.73 


2.11283 


Cepheid 




10* 


13.4 


13.7 




semireg. 




11* 


12.92 


13.71 


92.5 


semireg. 




15 


13.32 


13.67 




irreg. 


6218 


1* 


11.9 


13.2 


15.508 


W Vir type 


6229 


8 


15.30 


16.64 




Cepheid 




22 


15.2 


16.3 




prob. slow 


6254 


1* 


12.8 


13.2 




semireg. 




2* 


11.91 


13.34 


18.754 


W Vir type 




3 


13.10 


13.82 


7.87 


Cepheid 


6273 


2 


13.4 


14.7 




Cepheid? 


6341 


14 


14.8 


15.1 


0.346178 


W UMa type, field 


6397 


1 


11.2 


16.0 


314.6 


long per. , poss. field 




2 


13.8 


14.8 


45 or 60 


semireg., poss. field 


6402 


1* 


14.3 


16.0 


18.75 


W Vir type 




2* 


15.4 


16.3 


2.7952 


Cepheid 




7* 


14.9 


16.2 


13.59 


W Vir type 




17* 


14.8 


15.7 




field? type unknown 


6522 


7 


17.02 


17.61 




irreg., field 


6541 


1 


12.5 


[16 




prob. long per. 


6553 


Nova 
4 
5 


7.5 




]100 
]100 


Nova Sgr 1943 


6626 


2 


14.3 


14.8 




poss. slow 




3 


14.6 


15.4 




poss. slow 




4* 


13.6 


14.8 


14.0 


W Vir type 




6 


14.3 


15.2 




per. many weeks 




10 


13.5 


14.6 




slow 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 45 

TABLE III (cont.) 



NGC 


No. 


Magnitudes 




Period 


Remarks 






Max. 


Min. 




(days) 




6656 


5* 


12.0 


12.8 






slow 




8* 


12.0 


12.7 






semireg. 




9* 


12.7 


13.3 






semireg. 




11* 


12.9 


13.8 


1. 


69050 


Cepheid 




14* 


13.8 


[15.5 


200.2 


long per., field 




17 


14.6 


[15. 






prob. irreg. 


6712 


2 


14.0 


14.9 


105 




APSct; RVTau type? 




7 


14.2 


[17.0 






prob. long per. 


6715 


8 


16.8 


17.6 






poss. not RR Lyr 




12 


16.7 


17.3 






poss. not RR Lyr 




19 


16? 


16.5 






poss. not RR Lyr 




25 


16.8 


17.4 






poss. not RR Lyr 


6779 


1* 


15.2 


16.3 


1. 


510019 


Cepheid 




3* 


14.4 


15.1 






semireg. 




5 


14.4 


15.2 


43 ± 


semireg. 




6* 


12.9 


14.8 


90.02 


RV Tau type 




7 


15.6 


16.3 


40-50 


semireg. 




8 


15.9 


16.7 


68 ± 


semireg. 




9 


15.6 


16.1 






semireg. 


6838 


1 


13.5 


14.9 






slow, Z Sge 




2 


13.8 


14.7 






slow 




3 


15.2 


17.0 






eclipsing 


7006 


19 






252: 




long per. 


7078 


1* 


14.39 


15.75 


1 


437478 


Cepheid 




86 


13.4 


14.6 






prob. Cepheid 


7089 


1* 


13.29 


14.78 


15 


.5647 


W Vir type 




5* 


13.30 


14.47 


17.5548 


W Vir type 




6* 


13.07 


14.31 


19 


.3010 


W Vir type 




11* 


12.12 


13.25 


67.086 


RV Tau type 


7099 


4 


16.4 


[18 


11- 


-15 


U Gem type 



*Spectrum available. 

Almost all types of variable stars are represented. Table III lists 2 novae, 
15 Cepheids with periods up to 10 days, 13 stars with periods from 10 to 26 
days, either Cepheids or W Virginis stars, 18 long period variables, 3 eclipsing 
variables, 3 W Ursae Majoris, 2 SS Cygni, and 4 RV Tauri stars, as well as 
39 irregular and semi-regular variables of several kinds. The remainder are of 
indefinite type. No flare stars or R Coronae Borealis variables have been 
noted as yet. 

Description of the Catalogue 

The catalogue contains every cluster for which there is a published record 
of a search for variables, and a few others for which the unpublished data 
have been supplied to the writer. The clusters are arranged in order of NGC 



46 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

number, or, lacking that, by right ascension. If the cluster has a Messier 
number, it is given. The right ascension and declination are for the equinox 
of 1950. 

The variables are numbered according to the number given by the discoverer 
except in a few cases where an adjustment has had to be made. The x and y 
co-ordinates are given in seconds of arc and correspond in direction to right 
ascension and declination. Whenever they have been published, magnitudes, 
epochs, and periods are given. A blank in these columns indicates lack of 
published data. When an observer has given a table of maximum and minimum 
magnitudes, these have been taken. However, in many cases the writer has 
had to read these values from published measures of many plates by taking 
the brightest and faintest estimates of magnitude for the variable. Epoch of 
maximum gives the number of days past J.D. 2,400,000.000. For stars in 
clusters like Omega Centauri and Messier 3 where many investigations of 
small period changes have been made, only one value (usually the latest or 
best determined) is given for the period. 

Suspected variables have not been included in the catalogue in general, 
except for those where numbers had been previously assigned. Announced 
variables which are now considered not to vary have been left in the catalogue 
so that a reader may be aware of them, but they have not been included in 
the totals of known variables. 

In an attempt to clear up some of the confusion which has existed for years 
in Messier 3, NGC 5272, the writer has identified the variables whenever 
possible in von Zeipel's catalogue. A similar process has been followed for 
Messier 15, XGC 7078, with Kiistner's catalogue, since Rosino published 
some of these identifications for his new variables in that cluster. 

W T hen necessary, notes pertaining to a cluster are given after the data on 
that cluster. 

References to Literature on Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 

To the catalogue is appended a complete bibliography of literature on variable 
stars in globular clusters. The 125 references given in the 1939 catalogue have 
now been expanded to 193, including 6 references before 1939 found after the 
publication of that list. This total does not include references to unpublished 
correspondence, which contains much vital information. As formerly, the 
references are arranged by years, and alphabetically under author for any 
given year. At the end of each cluster, the list of numbers indicates the refer- 
ences to that cluster, and special note is made of the references in which 
photographs or charts of the clusters giving identification of the variables 
can be found. 

Acknowledgments 

In the preparation of this catalogue I have had a great deal of co-operation 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 47 

from astronomers working on variables in clusters, who sent results in advance 
of publication. It is a pleasure to acknowledge help from the following: 
Dr. Harlow Shapley and his co-workers at the Harvard College Observatory, 
including Mrs. Virginia McKibben-Xail, Miss Frances Wright, Miss Arville 
Walker, and Mr. Ivan King; from the astronomers at Mount Wilson and 
Palomar Observatories, especially Dr. Walter Baade, Dr. Allan Sandage, 
Dr. Halton Arp, and Miss Henrietta Swope; from Dr. David Thackeray of 
the Radcliffe Observatory, Dr. P. Th. Oosterhoff of the Leiden Observatory, 
and Dr. L. Rosino of the Bologna Observatory. Dr. H. Wilkins of the National 
Observatory of Argentina has been exceedingly helpful in picking up incon- 
sistencies or errors in existing literature and drawing them to my attention, 
in order that they may be remedied as far as possible in this edition of the 
catalogue. The identification of the variables in Messier 3 with von Zeipel's 
numbers was aided by charts supplied from Mount Wilson and Palomar 
Observatories; much of the computation was done at this observatory by Mr. 
Donald Morton. I am deeply grateful to the Publications Fund of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto Press for help with this publication. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
September 30, 1954 



SECOND CATALOGUE OF VARIABLE STARS 
IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 

NGC 104 (47 Tucanae) a 00 h 21 m .9, 5-72° 21' 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






1 


+ 


36.8 


-112.6 


11.3 


[16.0 


12717. 


212.40 




2 


+ 


64.7 


-193.9 


11.55 


15.3 


12685. 


202.84 




3 


+ 


328.4 


+ 52.8 


11.35 


16.1 


12755. 


192.34 




4 


— 


18.8 


-160.4 


12.0 


14.0 




150 ± 


cvcles 


5 


+ 


271.9 


-284.6 


13.0 


14.0 






irreg. 


6 


+ 


97.3 


-103.8 


13.2 


13.8 


var? 






7 


+ 


349.2 


-113.0 


13.3 


13.8 






irreg. 


8 


+ 


16.0 


+ 57.0 


12.7 


14.7 




150 ± 


cvcles 


9 


- 


108 


- 78 


13.5 


14.5 




short 


HV 810 


10 


+ 


72 


+702 


13.1 


13.6 




irreg. 


HV811 


11 


+ 


306 


+ 138 


13.2 


14.0 




irreg. 


HV 813 


12 


+ 1254 


-348 


13.6 


14.4 




short 


HV 814 



A suspected variable, HV 812, is not listed above. 
Refs. 9, 14, 20, 68, 139, 173, 175. Plate in 20. 



NGC 288 a 00 h 50 m .2, 5 -26° 52' 



- 55 



+ 79 



13.5 



14.1 



25576 



103 



2 unpublished variables? 
Refs. 87, 150 with chart. 



NGC 362 a 01 h 01 m .6, 5 -71° 07' (Corrected position) 



1 


_ 


246.2 


- 67.6 


14.9 


16.1 


23751 . 558 


0.5850512 




2 


+ 


41.4 


-204.4 


13.0 


14.5 


24391.8 


105.22 


HV206 


3 


+ 


93.6 


-143.2 


14.6 


16.1 


23604.806 


0.4744151 




4 


- 


50.2 


- 27.3 


14.0 


15.8 








5 


- 


79.2 


- 31.9 


15.1 


16.4 


24025.729 


0.4900846 




6 


+ 


82.4 


+ 15.5 


14.9 


16.3 


24461.642 


0.5146080 




7 


+ 


131.1 


- 21.2 


14.8 


16.0 


24468.687 


0.5285492 




8 


+ 


33.4 


-308.5 


15.0 


16.5 


24433.677 


3.901447 


HV 212 


9 


- 


400.4 


+224.4 


14.7 


16.0 


24404.670 


0.5476126 




10 


+ 


282.8 


-381.8 


14.9 


16.4 


23315.643 


4.20519 


HV 214 


11 


- 


136.1 


- 26.0 


15.1 


16.0 








12 


- 


30.4 


-115.4 


15.2 


16.1 


24391.839 


0.65254518 




13 


+ 


14.5 


+ 38.8 


14.6 


16.3 








14 


- 


23.8 


- 66.8 


14.8 


16.2 









Refs. 11, 14, 20, 90, 94, F, J. Plate in 20, 94. 

48 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 1851 a 05 h 12 m .4, 5 -40° 05' 



49 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Remarks 



4- 261 
- 45 



- 9 
+ 30 



14 
14 



15| 



1 unpublished variable. 
Refs. 72, 87. No map. 



NGC 1904 (Messier 79) a 05 h 22™2, 5 -24° 34' 



1 


+ 


29.6 


-199.6 


var.? 






2 


+ 


78.3 


- 68.3 


14.2 


14.80 




3 


+ 


34.8 


- 64.4 


15.9 


16.7 


34032.40 


4 


+ 


93.4 


- 50.1 


15.6 


16.7 


32877.50 


5 


- 


11.6 


+ 20.2 








6 


- 


70.8 


4-115.6 


16.0 


16.6 


32940.25 



med. 16.0 
semireg. 



0.73602 
0.63492 

0.33522 



Refs. 14, 20, 181. Plates in 20, 181. 



NGC 2298 a 06 h 47 m .2, 5 -35° 57' 
6 unpublished variables, 5 suspected. 
Ref. F. 



C 2419 


a t 


I7 h 34" 


'.8, 5 4-39° 00' 






1 


+ 


40 


- 52 


17.59 


18.32 


2 


- 


4 


- 19 






3 


+ 


52 


- 24 


18.66 


19.96 


4 


+ 


80 


- 15 


18.84 


19.65 


5 


+ 


33 


+ 47 


18.75 


19.72 


6 


+ 


56 


-127 


18.86 


19.64 


7 


+ 


91 


+ 87 


18.69 


19 . 77 


8 


- 


17 


+ 41 


17.50 


18.10 


9 


— 


32 


4- 88 


18.59 


19.76 


10 


+ 


20 


- 51 


17.31 


17.93 


11 


+ 


95 


- 8 


18.55 


19.81 


12 


+ 


133 


+ 111 


18.69 


19.71 


13 


+ 


101 


- 10 


18.55 


19 . 75 


14 


- 


115 


- 13 


18.81 


19.62 


15 


+ 


62 


+ 40 


18.62 


19.76 


16 


+ 


47 


+ 72 


18.77 


19.85 


17 


+ 


109 


+ 111 


18.65 


19.75 


18 


- 


15 


+ 114 


17.84 


18.53 


19 


- 


107 


- 40 


18.77 


19.86 


20 


- 


28 


+ 45 


17.65 


IS L6 



irreg. 



irreg. 
irreg. 



irreg. 
irreg. 



50 



NGC 2419 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of Period 
Maximum 



Remarks 



21 


— 


55 


+ 30 


18.76 


19 . 74 


22 


+ 


109 


- 5 


18.60 


19.84 


23 


+ 


27 


+ 79 






24 


— 


147 


- 10 


18.94 


19.58 


25 


- 


59 


+ 38 


18.78 


19.70 


26 


- 


70 


- 50 






27 


+ 


19 


-103 


19.10 


19.55 


28 


- 


192 


+ 59 


18.72 


19.78 


29 


- 


58 


- 7 


19.01 


19.92 


30 


- 


26 


+ 23 






31 


+ 


154 


-146 


19.08 


19.53 


32 


- 


19 


+ 48 


18.60 


19.71 


33 


+ 


47 


- 17 


19.11 


20.13 


34 


+ 


21 


+ 157 


19.00 


19.66 


35 


+ 


43 


+ 8 


18.88 


20.00 


36 


+ 


23 


+ 44 


19.10 


19.83 



Ref. 108, with plate, I. 

NGC 2808 a 09 h 10 m .9, 8 -64° 39' 
4 unpublished variables, 7 suspected. 
Refs. F, N. 



NGC 3201 alO h 15 m .5, 5 -46° 09' 



1 


+ 


59 


-118 


14.71 


15.76 


22484 . 504 


0.6048761 


2 


+ 


29 


-117 


14.61 


15.60 


28272 . 352 


0.5326722 


3 


+ 


182 


- 43 


14.90 


15.49 


22100.533 


0.5994093 


4 


+ 


155 


+ 3 


14.76 


15.60 


23198.539 


0.6300006 


5 


+ 


42 


- 24 


14.63 


15.75 


23172.676 


0.5015359 


6 


- 


116 


-143 


14.50 


15.55 


23166.545 


0.5256131 


7 


- 


91 


-189 


14.87 


15.35 


23566 . 533 


. 6303322 


8 


- 


69 


- 99 


15.00 


15.46 


23166.613 


0.6286280 


9 


— 


51 


- 91 


14.86 


15.57 


23506 . 605 


0.5266970 


10 


- 


181 


+235 


14.66 


15.59 


22429 . 597 


0.5351571 


11 


— 


104 


+ 112 


14.87 


15.40 


29696 . 446 


0.2990471 


12 


- 


86 


+ 108 


14.50 


15.53 


23547.577 


. 4955583 


13 


- 


160 


+ 92 


14.57 


15.50 


23163.664 


0.5752145 


14 


- 


156 


+ 133 


14.61 


15.67 


23961.495 


0.5092897 


15 


- 


279 


-173 


14.34 


15.43 


23164.572 


0.5346644 


16 


- 


197 


-238 










17 


+ 


11 


- 25 


14.84 


15.80 


28253.276 


0.5655773 


18 


+ 


23 


- 24 










19 


+ 


23 


+317 


14.54 


15.45 


29696.361 


0.5250201 


20 


+ 


39 


+284 


14 45 


15.55 


29273 . 322 


0.5291064 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



51 



NGC 3201 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




21 


+ 


94 


+ 135 


14.75 


15.62 


23191.514 


0.5666509 


22 


- 


100 


- 56 


14.72 


15.45 


23165.679 


0.6059842 


23 


- 


49 


- 50 










24 


- 


339 


+ 17 


14.76 


15.35 


23166.521 


0.5889798 


25 


+ 


93 


+ 173 


14.68 


15.53 


23566.533 


0.5147963 


26 


+ 


219 


-140 


14.80 


15.61 


23198.542 


0.5689949 


27 


+ 


58 


-323 


14.11 


15.32 


23164.508 


0.4842943 


28 


+ 


66 


- 48 


14.98 


15.74 


23932.478 


0.5786766 


29 


- 


256 


+ 113 










30 


- 


289 


+272 


14.56 


15.36 


23166.488 


0.5158559 


31 


+ 


182 


+ 131 


14.65 


15.51 


23505.620 


0.5194894 


32 


+ 


195 


+ 199 


14.55 


15.56 


23190.624 


0.5611656 


33 


+ 


48 


- 40 


not var. 






34 


+ 


296 


+285 


14.37 


15.62 


23547.577 


0.4678883 


35 


- 


11 


+ 121 


14.90 


15.45 


22484.504 


0.6155244 


36 


- 


108 


- 11 








0.484 


37 


- 


68 


- 74 










38 


- 


61 


- 60 


14.70 


15.60 


23877.612 


0.5091616 


39 


+ 


41 


+ 54 


14.83 


15.80 


23181.537 


0.4832092 


40 


- 


96 


+ 68 










41 


+ 


291 


+ 28 










42 


- 


301 


+ 197 


14.39 


15.44 


27565.286 


0.5382490 


43 


- 


377 


+ 15 


14.80 


15.39 


23166.665 


0.6761289 


44 


+ 


31 


+ 67 


15.01 


15.66 


23190.635 


0.6107344 


45 


+ 


127 


- 32 


14.85 


15.60 


23165.684 


0.5374165 


46 


- 


396 


-510 


14.56 


15.35 


23167.570 


0.5431990 


47 


+ 


108 


+245 










48 


- 


252 


+ 12 










49 


- 


38 


+ 151 


14.74 


15.43 


23172.499 


0.5814870 


50 


- 


13 


+ 27 










51 


- 


205 


- 26 


14.37 


15.50 


28273.328 


0.5205454 


52 


+ 


14 


-812 










53 


- 


873 


-758 


14.57 


15.38 


23191.540 


0.5334705 


54 


+ 


671 


-804 


14.67 


15.44 


23548.660 


0.5558721 


55 


- 


338 


+767 










56 


+ 


246 


+ 94 


14.95 


15.62 


23164.591 


0.5903376 


57 


+ 


288 


- 72 


14.80 


15.58 


28628.317 


0.5934373 


58 


+ 


346 


- 80 


14.94 


15.45 


23164.538 


0.6220418 


59 


- 


490 


- 70 


14.32 


15.40 


23528.608 


0.5177106 


60 


- 


850 


+ 95 


14.22 


15.47 


23165.526 


0.5035723 


61 




1125 


+ 175 










62 


-: 


1060 


-186 


14.62 


15.28 


23506.538 


0.5697558 


63 




1000 


+ 59 


14.36 


15.39 


23914.582 


0.5680998 


64 


— 


646 


+863 


14.40 


15.36 


23191.538 


0.5224218 


65 


- 


544 


+797 


14.01 


15.03 


26417.421 


1.6599990 eel. 


66 


- 


398 


+289 


not var 









52 

NGG 3201 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magni 
Max. 


tudes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period Remarks 


67 


— 


374 


-120 










68 


- 


283 


+846 








long per. 


69 


- 


221 


+995 


14.34 


15.50 


23914.575 


0.5122704 


70 


- 


221 


- 13 


not var. 








71 


- 


182 


-117 


14.65 


15.46 


23506.605 


0.6011859 


72 


- 


161 


+596 


not var. 








73 


- 


128 


+86 


14.39 


15.60 


23172.569 


0.5199500 


74 


- 


94 


+ 36 


not var. 








75 


- 


81 


+ 147 


not var. 








76 


- 


62 


- 42 








0.526 


77 


- 


10 


- 52 


14.67 


15.40 


22429.592 


0.5676648 


78 


- 


8 


-143 










79 


+ 


10 


-101 


not var. 








80 


+ 


60 


+ 23 










81 


+ 


96 


-153 










82 


+ 


161 


-166 


not var. 








83 


+ 


177 


+ 172 


14.58 


15.67 


23190.624 


0.5451918 


84 


+ 


358 


+703 


14.65 


15.43 


22077.566 


0.5136787 


85 


+ 


569 


-403 


not var. 








86 


+ 


611 


-315 


not var. 








87 


+ 1013 


-460 


14.65 


15.30 


23164.633 


0.6038866 



Unpublished epochs and magnitudes, ref. Q. 
Refs. 46, 59, 127, 140 with print. 



NGC 4147 


ol 12 h 07 m 


6, 


8 +18° 49' 










1 


- 100.1 




- 45.7 


15.90 


16.95 


25324.68 


0.4993 


2 


- 20.2 




- 28.8 


15.95 


17.25 


25305.541 


0.4920 


3 


- 28.5 




- 35.3 


16.32 


16.78 


25321.528 


0.3834 


4 


+ 1 




+ 18 


16.5 


17.1 







Refs. 36, 85, 89. Print in 85. 

NGC 4372 a 12 h 23 m .0, 5 -72° 24' 

3 unpublished variables, 11 suspected. Ref. N. 



NGC 4590 (Messier 68) a 12 h 36 m .8, 5 -26° 29' 



1 


- 280 


+ 109 


15.55 


16.11 


34067.792 


. 349599 


2 


- 168 


- 45 


15.05 


16.29 


33663.695 


0.5781805 


3 


- 140 


+ 91 


15.40 


16.15 


33661.66 


0.4128? 


4 


- 117 


-131 


15.65 


16.20 




0.2864? 


5 


- 56 


+ 170 


15.47 


16.11 


33741.570 


0.3878 



NGC 4590 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



53 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




6 


_ 


54 


+ 17 


15.75 


16.07 


33741.542 


0.269261 


7 


- 


50 


- 79 


15.71 


16.07 


34093.461 


0.279294 


8 


- 


38 


-134 


15.69 


16.08 


34093.509 


0.280560 


9 


- 


31 


+ 40 


15.43 


16.28 






10 


- 


25 


- 16 


15.28 


16.62 






11 


- 


18 


-112 


15.65 


16.16 


33741.541 


0.369499 


12 


- 


10 


- 1 


15.07 


16.23 






13 


- 


6 


- 56 


15.72 


16.11 


34149.415 


0.265638 


14 


- 


4 


+218 


15.02 


16.25 


33663.714 


0.5567753 


15 


+ 


9 


+ 58 


15.65 


16.36 






16 


+ 


11 


+ 80 


15.65 


16.22 


34071.536 


0.418330 


17 


+ 


16 


- 75 


15.65 


16.60 






18 


+ 


19 


- 96 


15.69 


16.19 


33741.46 


0.367345 


19 


+ 


33 


+ 70 


15.65 


16.20 






20 


+ 


34 


-114 


15.69 


16.14 


34118.451 


0.385763 


21 


+ 


48 


+ 8 


15.82 


16.60 






22 


+ 


61 


— 22 


15.30 


16.52 






23 


+ 


64 


+380 


14.85 


16.13 


34506.392 


0.658898 


24 


+ 


74 


- 8 


15.64 


16.13 


34093 . 522 


0.376495 


25 


+ 


141 


+ 123 


15.01 


16.15 


33770.450 


0.6415354 


26 


+ 


158 


- 44 


15.63 


16.11 


33799.370 


0.413217 


27 


+ 


380 


+263 


10.88 


15.04 




long Sp., field 


28 


+ 


440 


+ 160 


14.81 


16.18 


34120.498 


0.6067773 


29 


+ 


287 


-252 


15.65 


16.15 






30 


+ 


112 


- 78 


15.70 


16.15 






31 


- 


109 


+ 90 


15.49 


16.10 


33741.461 


0.399658 



Variables Xos. 29, 30, 31 are unpublished, found by Rosino, ref. L. 
Refs. 44, 49, 117a, 159, 186, L. Print in 49. 



NGC 4833 a 12 h 56™.0, 8 -70° 36' 



1 


— 


264 


+468 


15.32 


15.86 


29375 251 


0.750101 


RY Mus 


2 


+ 


378 


-354 


13.0 


16.2: 


26166 


333.7 


RZ Mus 


3 







+ 6 


15.46 


15.9 


29363.248 


0.744526 


HY 10775 


4 







+ 24 


15.24 


15.88 


29381.249 


0.655536 


HV 10776 


5 


+ 


132 


- 66 


15.4 


16 


29381.240 


0.629414 


HY 10777 


6 


+ 


120 


+ 120 


15.3 


15.9 


29381.297 


0.653967 


HV 10778 


7 


+ 


72 


- 6 


15.49 


16.05: 


29374 . 256 


0.668422 


HV 10779 


8 


- 


168 


+498 


15.59 


15.79 


var? 




HV 10780 


9 


- 


42 


- 6 


14.5 


15.16 


28635 


87.7: 


HV 10781 


10 


+ 


72 


+414 


15.14 


15.9 






HV 10782 


11 


- 


336 


-828 


14.5 


16.0: 


24320 


303.8 


HV 10783 



Refs. 65, 87, 149. 



54 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5024 (Messier 53) a 13 h 10 m .5, 5 + 18° 26' 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




1 


+ 


9.6 


-171.0 


16.05 


16.95 


22789.486 


0.6098214 


2 


_ 


78.0 


-183.6 


16.38 


16.88 


22787.498 


0.3861005 


3 


_ 


60.6 


-138.0 


16.14 


16.93 


22763.412 


0.6306111 


4 


_ 


169.5 


-156.6 


16.41 


16.84 


23113.482 


0.3851668 per. var. 


5 


_ 


237.0 


-258.0 


15.89 


16.98 


22790.515 


0.6394274 


6 


+ 


123.6 


+ 13.5 


16.08 


17.11 


22790.620 


0.6640168 


7 


+ 


79.5 


+ 83.5 


16.02 


16.95 


22763.515 


0.5448337 


8 


+ 


72.0 


+ 60.0 


16.28 


16.95 


22762.584 


0.615531 


9 


+ 


67.5 


- 40.5 


16.03 


17.10 


22789.484 


0.6003729 


10 


— 


138.6 


+ 54.0 


15.90 


16.98 


22789.443 


0.6082560 


11 


— 


143.4 


- 58.5 


16.04 


16.82 


22762.647 


0.6299539 


12 


+ 


409.5 


4-187.5 


16.05 


16.91 


22789.497 


0.6125863 


13 


+ 


462.0 


-299.7 


15.87 


17.03 


22789.533 


0.6274465 


14 


+ 


354.6 


-207.0 


15.88 


17.00 


22790.490 


0.5454024 


15 


+ 


248.4 


+228.0 


16.39 


16.67 


23113.458 


0.308724 


16 


— 


136.5 


-202.5 


16.43 


16.90 


22790.520 


0.3031707 


17 


— 


214.5 


+ 114.0 


16.29 


16.80 


22762.612 


0.3814992 


18 


— 


96.0 


+ 12.6 


15.83 


16.42 






19 


+ 


165.6 


- 42.0 


16.34 


16.85 


22789.465 


0.3918418 


20 


+ 


188.4 


-351.6 


16.32 


16.81 


23113.615 


0.3844312 per. var. 


21 


+ 


437.4 


- 27.0 


16.32 


16.81 


22790.410 


0.3384650 


22 


— 


53.4 


-288.0 


16.56 


16.85 


var? 




23 


+ 


96.0 


- 89.7 


16.34 


16.88 


23113.460 


0.3658077 per. var. 


24 


— 


118.5 


- 29.2 


15.71 


16.43 




3.? 


25 


+ 


130.3 


+ 31.7 


16.16 


16.90 


22787.552 


0.7051762 


26 


— 


288.0 


-279.9 


16.29 


16.74 


22789.485 


0.3911185 


27 


— 


203.8 


-157.9 


16.16 


16.93 


22790.376 


0.6710576 


28 


— 


181.4 


+459.0 


15.78 


16.94 


22790.500 


0.6327877 


29 


+ 


125.4 


- 79.5 


16.56 


17.04 


22808.33 


0.823239 


30 


+ 


57.7 


-482.8 


16.18 


17.04 


22790.47 


0.5354938 


31 


+ 


60.6 


- 0.1 










32 


— 


111.9 


- 86.6 


16.26 


16.65 


22790.475 


0.3901324 


33 


— 


165.0 


+ 12.2 


16.58 


17.14 






34 


— 


144.0 


-216.7 


16.48 


16.70 


not var. 




35 


+ 


104.1 


+ 153.2 


16.38 


16.88 


22789.480 


0.3726736 


36 


+ 


120.3 


+306.5 


16.33 


16.71 


23113.698 


0.3732511 per. var. 


37 


— 


44.0 


+ 62.2 


15.68 


16.48 






38 


+ 


21.3 


-143.2 


16.08 


16.81 


22789.483 


0.7057825 


39 


— 


234.0 


+212.5 


16.84 


17.26 


not var. 




40 


+ 


8.9 


+ 111.5 


16.55 


16.89 


26418.664 


0.3148076 


41 


+ 


19 


+ 66 










42 


- 


67 


+ 17 


15.54 


16.33 






43 


- 


34 


+ 53 










44 


+ 


53 


- 2 


15.20 


15.99 






45 


- 


5 


- 36 










46 


- 


12 


+ 34 











Refs. 51, 58, 79, 92, 97, 132, 160. Prints in 51, 92, 160. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 



55 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5053 a 13 h 13 m .9, 5 +17° 57' 



Xo. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Remarks 



1 


- 380 


+ 158 


15.80 


16.60 


30519.640 


0.647178 


2 


- 193 


- 3 


16.00 


16.50 


30556.611 


0.378953 


3 


+ 140 


+ 138 


15.90 


16.55 


30519.640 


0.592946 


4 


+ 31 


-114 


15.75 


16.55 


31969.580 


0.667061 


5 


+ 220 


-220 


15.90 


16.45 


29786.690 


0.714861 


6 


+ 126 


+ 77 


16.00 


16.45 


30555.617 


0.292199 ' 


7 


- 87 


+ 169 


16.05 


16.40 


30880.610 


0.351581 


8 


+ 117 


+ 50 


16.05 


16.55 


31203.460 


0.362842 


9 


- 199 


+382 


15.95 


16.55 


31911.500 


0.741741 


10 


+ 94 


+ 56 


16.10 


16.45 


30883.640 


0.437397 



Refs. 83, 158, 168. Prints in 83, 168. 



NGC 5139 (« Centauri) a 13 h 23 m .8, 5 -47° 13' (corrected position) 



1 


— 


416.16 


+298.89 


10.7 


12.6 




58.7027 


2 


- 


340.00 


+238.51 


)13.06 


16.12 




484. 


3 


- 


507.93 


+ 167.43 


14.19 


15.11 


26524.245 


0.8412205 


4 


- 


337.61 


+262.10 


13.89 


15.18 


26473.374 


0.6273172 


5 


- 


282.75 


+328.29 


14.06 


15.34 


26460.409 


0.5152828 


6 


- 


162.43 


+252.95 


13.84 


15.24 




irr. 


7 


+ 


153.19 


+879.15 


13.98 


15.11 


26470.425 


0.7130181 


8 


+ 


629.43 


+ 16.20 


13.90 


15.29 


26472.238 


0.5212846 


9 


- 


473.17 


+ 137.14 


14.35 


15.32 


26453.421 


0.5233358f 


10 


- 


397.76 


+244.48 


14.38 


14.90 


26524.241 


0.374950 


11 


- 


158.63 


+338.73 


14.3 


15.0 


irr. 


0.56481 


12 


- 


193.16 


+274.34 


14.43 


14.95 


26469.446 


0.3867486 


13 


- 


487 . 26 


+ 199.54 


13.98 


15.12 


26438.457 


0.6690480 


14 


- 


473.51 


— 627.56 


14.40 


15.01 


26472.456 


0.3771799 


15 


- 


194.09 


+242.62 


14.13 


14.98 


26469.427 


0.8106198 


16 


+ 


517.05 


-536.81 


14.38 


14.95 


26435.488 


0.3301694 


17 


+ 


522.24 


+200.00 


14.18 


14.61 




60: irr. 


18 


+ 


596.64 


+220.15 


13.89 


15.18 


26454.408 


0.6216682 


19 


+ 


444.14 


+ 32.44 


14.68 


15.22 


26434.540 


0.2995533 


20 


+ 


280.88 


+ 32.06 


14.01 


15.20 


26469.388 


0. 6155547f 


21 


- 


355.75 


+ 162.07 


14.20 


14.81 


26469.257 


0.3808180 


22 


+ 


552.18 


-330.22 


14.43 


14.97 


irr. 


0.39609 


23 


+ 


2.54 


+240.71 


14.26 


15.39 


26470.392 


0.5108651 


24 


+ 


524.71 


-336.96 


14.41 


14.88 


26468.520 


0.4622108 


25 


- 


210.77 


+ 17.48 


13.98 


15.07 


26469 . 433 


0.5885005 


26 


- 


229 . 58 


+ 101.21 


14.36 


15.06 


26459 . 469 


0.7847199f 


27 


- 


205.47 


+ 24.11 


14.50 


15.19 


26471.386 


0.6156764 


28 








not vai 








29 


- 


193.25 


- 6.45 


12.44 


13.50 


26465.88 


14.72429 


30 


- 


307.92 


- 75.01 


14.40 


14.86 


irr. 


0.40448f 


31 








not var 








32 


+ 


174 39 


4-420 01 


13 87 


15 20 


26469.421 


0.6204317 



56 

NGC 5139 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Remarks 



33 


- 554.54 


- 24.00 


13.88 


15.24 


26461.436 


0.6023262 


34 


- 396.87 


-269.04 


14.18 


15.13 


26471.369 


0.7339450 


35 


+ 71.70 


+365.07 


14.37 


14.94 


26468.484 


0.3868382 


36 


+ 246.11 


+789.42 


14.38 


14.93 


irr. 


0.37984f 


37 






not var 








38 


+ 169.10 


-470.37 


14.36 


15.11 


26469.456 


0.7790480 


39 


+ 741.86 


-365.80 


14.33 


14.99 


26469.474 


0.3933567 


40 


- 220.99 


-125.30 


13.95 


15.15 


26471 . 364 


0. 6340969 t 


41 


+ 151.80 


-142.18 


14.03 


15.06 


26523.185 


0.6629590 


42 


+ 0.21 


- 50.21 


12.5 


14.9 




149. 4 


43 


- 119.23 


+ 103.16 


13.41 


14.55 


26470.385 


1.1568183 


44 


- 243.40 


-354.05 


14.24 


15.36 


26466.380 


0.5675440 


45 


- 764.48 


+ 80.97 


13.94 


15.19 


26473.404 


0.5891259 


46 


- 770.61 


+ 170.11 


14.03 


15.17 


26454.471 


0.6869382 


47 


- 504.32 


+269.26 


14.27 


14.73 


irr. 


0.48517f 


48 


- 86.54 


-104.54 


13.09 


13.95 


26523.70 


4 . 474293 


49 


- 391.98 


-553.77 


14.16 


15.28 


26470.407 


0.6046505 


50 


- 530.75 


+ 65.40 


14.57 


15.10 


26472.336 


0.3861815 


51 


- 36.85 


+258.73 


13.86 


15.16 


26441.448 


0.5741359 


52 


- 112.85 


+ 36.47 


13.60 


14.22 


26461.348 


0.6603737 


53 


- 482.79 


-447.74 


13.30 


13.87 




87: irr. 


54 


- 229.39 


+592.76 


14.22 


15.05 


26472.412 


0.7728973 


55 


- 617.73 


-816.68 


14.38 


15.39 


26471.323 


0.5816930 


56 


- 515.93 


-541.96 


14.37 


15.38 


26428.437 


0.5680030 


57 


+ 635.72 


-493.26 


14.31 


15.06 


26471.342 


0.7944118 


58 


- 335.44 


+277.68 


14.49 


14.74 


26524.233 


0.3699057 


59 


- 282.90 


- 65.84 


14.20 


15.18 


26523.231 


0.5185176f 


60 


- 108.42 


-247.33 


13.32 


14.48 


26473.513 


1 . 349464 


61 


+ 280.44 


+ 68.07 


13.72 


14.48 


26468.345 


2.273582 


62 


- 199.80 


+ 45.28 


13.88 


15.10 


26424.515 


0.6197937 


63 


- 996.82 


-491.46 


14.47 


15.04 


26438.567 


0.8259507 


64 


- 448.01 


-457.49 


14.45 


15.02 


26466.410 


0.3444512 


65 


- 454.49 


-474.32 


14.77 


15.22 


26523.238 


0.06272282 


66 


- 133.37 


+375.15 


14.46 


14.95 


irr. 


0.40745f 


67 


- 178.11 


+593.57 


14.18 


15.28 


26470.377 


0.5644551 


68 


- 338.18 


+545.12 


14.15 


14.67 


26469.366 


0.5344773 


69 


- 965.76 


-530.94 


14.10 


15.25 


26438.468 


0.6532165 


70 


+ 417.83 


-304.65 


14.45 


14.94 


26524.219 


0.3906091 


71 


+ 220.39 


+ 47.13 


14.38 


14.92 


26523.271 


0.3574826 


72 


+ 477.85 


+ 734.87 


14.42 


14.94 


26471.459 


0.3845163 


73 


- 532.49 


+750.76 


13.87 


15.18 


26472.358 


0.5752184 


74 


+ 215.47 


+664.83 


13.75 


15.24 


26454.399 


0.5032505 


75 


+ 341.44 


+591.55 


14.42 


14.87 


26456.501 


0.4222508 


76 


+ 113.31 


+511.81 


14.40 


14.82 


26523 . 135 


0.3378438 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 



57 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5139 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




77 


+ 


352 . 29 


+392.42 


14.45 


14.93 


irr. 


0.42593f 


78 


+ 


586.10 


+ 146.68 


14.17 


14.84 


27943.307 


1.1681179 


79 


+ 1000.12 


- 51.02 


13.97 


15.27 


26456.423 


. 6082747 


80 


+ 1304: 


-108: 


14.1: 


14.8 




0.45or0.31 


81 


+ 


511.36 


+228.72 


14.46 


14.98 


26523.110 


0.3894022 


82 


+ 


499.94 


+ 126.98 


14.43 


14.96 


26463.452 


0.3358520 


83 


+ 


226.09 


+424.66 


14.43 


15.00 


26471.427 


0.3566071 


84 


-1202.81 


- 74.70 


14.09 


14.90 


26472.382 


0.5798722 


85 


-1010.51 


+307.98 


14.23 


15.09 


26523.243 


0.7427555 


86 


+ 


293.14 


+ 147.26 


13.96 


15.18 


26470.383 


0.6478442 


87 


+ 


113.68 


+ 184.13 


14.40 


14.90 


26454.448 


0.3965019 


88 


+ 


98.13 


+203.28 


14.01 


14.81 


26523.273 


0.6901992 


89 


- 


2.95 


+ 159.29 


14.47 


14.97 


26523 . 329 


0.3748505 


90 


- 


5.30 


+ 137.09 


13.81 


14.73 


26460.432 


0.6034020 


91 


+ 


43.72 


+ 144.35 


14.25 


14.91 


26459.480 


0.8951422 


92 


- 


317.86 


+446.38 


14.10 


14.58 


26473.345 


1.3450659 


93 








not var. 






94 


- 


504.09 


+355.09 


14.64 


14.95 


26463.416 


0.2539318 


95 


- 


824.80 


- 11.05 


14.49 


14.98 


26473.448 


0.4049213 


96 


- 


71.20 


+ 97.06 


13.93 


14.82 


26455.467 


0.6245312 


97 


+ 


225.50 


+ 187.93 


14.11 


15.16 


26523.234 


0.6918869 


98 


+ 


198.25 


+ 102.38 


14.57 


15.09 


26524.265 


0.2805657 


99 


+ 


160.35 


+ 50.36 


13.77 


14.90 


26472.390 


0.7660839 


100 


+ 


179.49 


+ 65.68 


14.05 


15.05 


26434.489 


0.5527119 


101 


+ 


444.11 


- 73.28 


14.50 


14.94 


26523.291 


0.3408843 


102 


+ 


361.83 


- 94.10 


14.16 


15.22 


26468.445 


0.6913841 


103 


+ 


283.14 


+ 2.35 


14.46 


14.80 


26456.354 


0.3288461 


104 


+ 


822.98 


-309.01 


14.54 


14.95 


26471.370 


0.8678506 


105 


+ 


603.23 


-246.92 


14.57 


15.12 


26524.300 


0.3353375 


106 


+ 


130.35 


+ 26.92 


13.88 


15.02 


26523.189 


0.5699074 


107 


+ 


279.83 


-139.13 


14.07 


15.39 


26466.424 


0.5141010 


108 


+ 


185.66 


- 46.36 


13.84 


14.81 


26472.360 


0.5944533 


109 


+ 


153.91 


- 57.13 


13.99 


15.03 


26469.395 


0.7440653 


110 


+ 


158.94 


- 87.08 


14.41 


14.96 


26524 . 256 


0.3221021 


111 


+ 


27.26 


- 0.30 


14.18 


14.80 


26438.498 


0.7628923 


112 


+ 


79.83 


-103.36 


13.92 


14.92 


26470.380 


0.4743558 


113 


+ 


99.99 


-187.65 


13.94 


15.22 


26523 . 244 


0.5733636 


114 


+ 


38.08 


-101.15 


14.00 


14.75 


26470.416 


0.6753065 


115 


- 


345.49 


-336.14 


14.03 


15.21 


26467 . 406 


0.6304590 


116 


— 


109.66 


+ 33.71 


14.12 


14.77 


26472.437 


0.7201327 


117 


- 


267.73 


- 40.22 


14.40 


14.92 


26456.506 


0.4216653 


118 


- 


58.87 


- 98.67 


13.88 


15.02 


26473.380 


0.6116200 


119 


- 


82.04 


-157.45 


14.51 


14.83 


26472.319 


0.3058774 


120 


- 


211.29 


-247.61 


14.26 


15.23 


26523 . 264 


0.5485722 


121 


- 


184.36 


-189.58 


14.48 


14.81 


26524.259 


0.3041814 



58 



NGG 5139 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period Remarks 



122 


— 


162.92 


-261.41 


13.99 


15.17 


26437.512 


0. 6349307 t 




123 


+ 


46.11 


-512.55 


14.41 


14.90 


26473.331 


0.4739051 




124 


+ 


78.88 


-626.81 


14.37 


14.97 


26524.107 


0.3318614 




125 


+ 


23.74 


-742.59 


13.87 


15.29 


26471.408 


0.5928902 




126 


+ 


822.95 


-730.44 


14.45 


14.97 


26453 . 493 


0.3418933 




127 


— 


880.16 


+ 4.31 


14.54 


14.92 


26524.177 


0.3052752 




128 


— 


289.77 


- 92.09 


14.25 


14.86 


26469.401 


0.8349748 




129 


+ 


192.02 


- 25.83 


14.18 


14.74 




irr.? 




130 


- 


366.17 


+900.99 


14.30 


15.40 


irr. 


0.4932377 




131 


— 


165.05 


- 59.95 


14.40 


14.86 


26523.329 


0.3921392 




132 


— 


72.44 


- 29.31 


13.97 


14.96 


26469.386 


0.6556410 




133 


- 


L914.22 


+ 1053.78 


13.74 


14.53 


26473.334 


0.31709628 W UMa 




134 


- 


942.87 


+972.72 


13.93 


15.20 


26466.386 


0.6529039 




135 


— 


184.88 


- 37.25 


13.87 


14.85 


26470.314 


0.6325795 




136 


- 


154.26 


+ 60.08 


14.22 


14.64 


26472.409 


0.3919136 




137 


— 


149.54 


+ 96.23 


14.38 


14.90 


26473 . 286 


0.3342134 




138 


— 


111.12 


-187.55 


12.5 


13.6 




74.6 irr. 




139 


— 


86.94 


+ 65.18 


14.00 


14.90 


26462.404 


0.6768666 




140 


— 


42.65 


- 86.80 








short 




141 


- 


55.47 


- 47.46 


14.05 


14.75 


irr. 


0.6975651 




142 


- 


37.35 


- 2.56 


14.2 


14.8 




short 




143 


— 


37.45 


+ 71.40 


14.24 


14.77 


26470.394 


0.8207020 




144 


- 


33.28 


+ 22.44 


14.33 


14.81 


26454.329 


0.8353054 




145 


+ 


49.07 


-148.51 


14.40 


14.87 


irr. 


0.37315f 




146 


+ 


65.96 


- 48.03 


13.87 


14.77 


26469.386 


0.6331021 




147 


+ 


298.70 


-151.04 


14.35 


14.80 


26473.333 


0.4226945 




148 


+ 


299 . 20 


+ 44.21 


12.9 


13.8 




90: irr. 




149 


+ 


477.33 


+894.18 


13.92 


15.13 


26523.256 


0.6827332 




150 


+ 


543.18 


-442.23 


14.07 


14.94 


26462.387 


0.8991585 




151 


+ 1010.06 


+ 753.35 


14.42 


14.84 


26523.333 


0.4077805 




152 


+ 


13.84 


- 48.83 


12.8 


13.7 




124: irr. 




153 


+ 


34.46 


+ 136.32 


14.48 


14.88 


26524.176 


0.3864509 




154 


+ 


169.59 


-113.20 


14.55 


14.72 


26524.165 


0.3223311 




155 


+ 


75.25 


+237.31 


14.43 


14.88 


26473.344 


0.4139117 




156 


+ 


15.06 


-191.94 


14.41 


14.83 


26468.432 


0.3591887 




157 


+ 


1.77 


+ 82.58 


14.42 


14.79 


26523.370 


0.4064970 




158 


- 


10.58 


-119.80 


14.32 


14.74 


26472.442 


0.3673350 




159 


-. 


2039.94 


-891.45 


14.39 


14.96 


27565.332 


0.3431150 




160 


- 


711.13 


+969.21 


14.46 


14.98 


26473.439 


0.3972932 




161 


- 


96.81 


-129.27 


13.3 


13.8 




irr. 




162 


- 


392.40 


-252.39 


12.9 


13.6 




irr. 




163 


- 


575.24 


+499.91 


14.51 


14.78 


26472.451 


0.3132294 




164 


+ 


152.75 


+478.38 


13.7 


14.0 




irr. prob. red 




165 


- 


69.92 


+ 104.59 













Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 



59 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5139 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Remarks 



166 


- 2.89 


+ 144.71 


167 


- 352.63 


-321.43 


168 


- 543.66 


-201.42 



14.96 15.46 



0.3212933 



So many of the RR Lyrae variables in this cluster have been shown to be variable in period 
or form of light curve that this information cannot be included in the table. For further 
particulars see especially Martin, ref. 118, and Wright, ref. 136. 

fTwo periods given by Martin. 

Variables Nos. 28, 31, 37, 93 are said by Bailey to be not variable. 

Epochs of maximum from ref. D. 

Refs. 14, 17, 20, 31, 40, 62, 67, 90, 99, 113, 116, 118, 119, 129, 131, 136, 143, 162, 165. 
Plates in 20 and 118. 



NGC 5272 (Messier 3) a 13 h 39™.9, 5 +28° 38' 



1 


_ 


5.2 


-128.5 


14.80 


16.14 


15021.378 


0.5206324 


765 


2 


+ 


15.8 


+ 52.6 










894 


3 


+ 


57.9 


- 66.0 


14.91 


16.16 


15021.225 


0.558207 


none 


4 


- 


43.5 


- 8.8 


14.9 


16.0 






559 


5 


+ 


261.0 


- 22.3 


14.76 


16.09 


15021.239 


0.505894 


1357 


6 


- 


123.9 


+ 60.1 


14.75 


16.19 


15021.452 


0.5143207 


361 


7 


- 


4.8 


+ 87.2 


14.69 


16.25 


15021.064 


0.4974290 


775 


8 


- 


81.7 


- 23.4 


not vai 








437 


9 


— 


291.4 


-207.8 


14.84 


16.22 


15021.111 


0.5415672 


226 


10 


+ 


153.6 


+ 138.0 


15.03 


16.17 


15021.270 


0.5695127 


1291 


11 


- 


152.6 


-209.7 


14.89 


16.22 


15021.131 


0.5078919 


321 


12 


- 


3.8 


-145.4 


15.35 


15.98 


15021.015 


0.3178890 


776 


13 


- 


26.0 


-137.5 


15.08 


16.14 


15021.323 


0.4830535 


644 


14 


- 


49.0 


-161.0 


15.01 


16.10 


15021.179 


0.6358993 


537 


15 


— 


90.8 


-273.2 


14.83 


16.24 


15021.299 


0.5300771 


411 


16 


— 


301.4 


- 93.1 


14.73 


16.24 


15021.418 


0.5115072 


221 


17 


+ 


142.4 


-440.4 


15.24 


16.37 


15021 . 265 


0.5761344 


none 


18 


+ 


97.6 


-295.3 


15.08 


16.34 


15021.142 


0.5163462 


1202 


19 


+ 


350.5 


-245.6 


15.64 


16.20 




0.631981 


1388 


20 


+ 


333.5 


-271.6 


14.74 


16.13 


15021 . 289 


0.4912607 


1380 


21 


+ 


346.9 


+ 17.9 


14.88 


16.29 


15021.171 


0.5157298 


1386 


22 


+ 


190.2 


- 10.7 


14.83 


16.25 


15021 . 200 


0.481466 


1320 


23 


— 


113.0 


+279.2 


14.79 


15.70 


15021.082 


0.5953756 


374 


24 


- 


147.0 


+ 10.4 


15.07 


16.09 


15021.563 


0.6633499 


328 


25 


— 


124.4 


- 31.4 


14.77 


16.23 


15021.089 


0.480048 


362 


26 


— 


177.4 


- 43.0 


14.89 


16.15 


15021.239 


0.597747!) 


296 


27 


— 


110.2 


-102.8 


15.17 


16.21 


15021.566 


0.5790981 


379 


28 


- 


25.0 


-105.8 


15.03 


16.28 


24290.335 


0.470666 


656 


29 


— 


65.2 


- 73.6 










486 


30 


- 


36.5 


+ .58.0 


14.88 


16.19 


22760.635 


0.5120891 


593 



60 



NGC 5272 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






31 


+ 33.1 


+ 65.1 


14.73 


16.25 


15021.542 


0.5807218 


982 


32 


+ 11.8 


+ 60.1 


14.86 


16.38 


15021 . 108 


0.4953526 


867 


33 


+ 70.5 


- 89.0 


15.01 


16.22 


15021.217 


0.5252255 


1126 


34 


+ 135.4 


+ 170.2 


14.89 


16.16 


15021.136 


0.5591078 


1265 


35 


- 107.3 


-278.2 


15.04 


16.24 


15021.032 


0.530608 


384 


36 


+ 172.0 


- 35.4 


14.86 


16.26 


15021 . 272 


0.5455861 


1308 


37 


- 236.7 


+ 164.7 


15.14 


16.02 


15021.248 


0.3266402 


253 


38 


- 203.0 


+ 127.7 


15.06 


16.26 


24290.304 


0.5580326 


279 


39 


- 243.6 


+ 121.4 


15.07 


16.17 


15021.073 


0.5870732 


249 


40 


- 271.2 


+ 112.4 


14.93 


16.18 


15021.609 


0.5515419 


234 


41 


- 93.3 


+ 54.0 


15.04 


16.21 


15021.441 


0.4850291 


407 


42 


- 78.6 


+ 41.0 


14.85 


16.27 


15021.515 


0.5902069 


445 


43 


+ 99.9 


+ 24.7 


14.86 


16.23 


15021.191 


0.5405023 


1207 


44 


+ 170.0 


+ 99.4 


14.75 


16.21 


15021.368 


0.506443 


1307 


45 


- 241.2 


-129.9 


14.93 


16.30 


15021 . 349 


0.5368966 


252 


46 


- 128.1 


- 51.5 


15.46 


16.24 


15021.264 


0.613367 


355 


47 


- 117.5 


- 73.2 


14.98 


16.20 


15021.459 


0.5410201 


366 


48 


+ 126.9 


-102.7 


15.16 


15.99 


15021.088 


. 6278087 


1253 


49 


+ 140.0 


-100.7 


15.19 


16.23 


15021.266 


0.5482222 


1268 


50 


+ 8.8 


-234.0 


15.15 


16.09 


15021.327 


0.513088 


840 


51 


+ 30.8 


-226.4 


15.08 


16.21 


15021.486 


0.5839856 


965 


52 


- 76.8 


+ 152.0 


14.99 


16.16 


15021.485 


0.516189 


451 


53 


7.4 


+ 122.8 


14.70 


16.13 


15021.006 


0.5048891 


759 


54 


- 32.6 


+ 106.4 


14.94 


16.22 


15021 . 193 


0.506493 


616 


55 


- 204.2 


+324.4 


14.85 


16.21 


15021.699 


0.5298114 


278 


56 


- 141.1 


+358.6 


15.20 


15.94 


22760.623 


0.3295969 


338 


57 


+ 155.2 


- 0.2 


14.97 


16.22 


15021.618 


0.5122311 


1292 


58 


- 86.2 


+ 46.2 


14.78 


16.16 


22760.621 


0.517101 


425 


59 


- 109.8 


-228.4 


15.22 


16.24 


15021.332 


0.5888026 


378 


60 


- 297.4 


-315.4 


15.20 


16.14 


15021.389 


0.7077216 


222 


61 


+ 190.2 


+363.0 


14.88 


16.20 


15021.076 


0.5209367 


1321 


62 


+ 90.2 


+417.0 


15.21 


16.10 


15021.331 


0.6524063 


1187 


63 


+ 37.2 


+341.9 


14.93 


16.14 


15021.094 


0.5704204 


999 


64 


+ 114.8 


+330.4 


15.05 


16.10 


15021.324 


0.6054592 


1234 


65 


+ 125.4 


+327.5 


14.74 


16.09 


15021.503 


0.6683397 


1250 


66 


- 101.4 


+ 121.4 


15.20 


16.01 


15021.323 


0.6201973 


396 


67 


- 131.4 


+ 123.0 


15.21 


16.12 


15021.411 


0.5683681 


351 


68 


+ 21.9 


+ 174.8 


14.8 


16.3 




0.355974 


922 


69 


+ 80.6 


+ 141.0 


15.09 


16.18 


15021.553 


0.5665806 


1164 


70 


+ 37.6 


+ 152.2 


15.12 


15.70 


15021.315 


0.486064 


1003 


71 


+ 160.6 


- 2.0 


15.12 


16.20 


15021.168 


0.5490517 


1298 


72 


+ 445.5 


- 2.2 


14.61 


16.37 


15021.327 


0.4560721 


1409 


73 


+ 438.5 


+ 62.2 


15.0 


16.0 






1406 


74 


+ 88.2 


+ 151.0 


14.87 


16.26 


15021.452 


0.4921415 


1181 


75 


+ 49.0 


+ 159.5 


15.23 


15.99 


15021.411 


0.3140813 


1057 


76 


- 14.4 


- 88.2 


14.72 


16.41 


15021.293 


0.5017529 


710 


77 


- 94.4 


+ 27.8 


14.85 


16.36 


15021.451 


0.4593422 


404 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



61 



NGC 5272 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






78 


+ 


47.5 


+ 66.4 


15.10 


16.13 


15021.249 


0.6119228 


1051 


79 


+ 


43.4 


+349.4 


14.81 


16.24 


15021.229 


0.4832979 


1041 


80 


+ 


416.8 


+284.6 


15.05 


16.27 


15021.433 


0.5385169 


1400 


81 


+ 


342.8 


+351.1 


14.67 


16.28 


15021.325 


0.5291108 


1384 


82 


- 


102.6 


-601.8 


14.92 


16.27 


15021.527 


0.5245027 


391 


83 


- 


441.6 


+ 113.4 


14.66 


16.25 


15021.046 


0.5012423 


181 


84 


+ 


64.0 


+ 165.2 


15.20 


16.14 


15021.248 


0.5957289 


1105 


85 


+ 


306.2 


+225.8 


15.00 


15.83 


22760.517 


0.355820 


1373 


86 


+ 


513.0 


-114.2 


15.31 


16.13 


15021.016 


0.2926615 


1422 


87 


+ 


110.6 


+ 60.2 


15.31 


15.91 


22760.535 


0.357480 


1222 


88 


- 


35.0 


- 70.2 


14.9 


16.0 


24290.324 


0.298519 


597 


89 


+ 


28.0 


-110.8 


14.86 


16.15 


15021.507 


0.5484778 


948 


90 


+ 


97.2 


-188.2 


14.80 


16.24 


15021.461 


0.5170344 


1201 


91 


- 


14.3 


-550.0 


15.05 


16.27 


15021.259 


0.5301710 


713 


92 


- 


29.0 


-408.4 


14.88 


16.23 


15021.083 


0.5035579 


623 


93 


- 


319.4 


-396.6 


15.30 


16.22 


15021.177 


0.6023041 


214 


94 


- 


488.4 


-224.6 


14.84 


16.21 


15021.118 


0.5236921 


173 


95 


- 


154.7 


+ 15.4 


13.73 


14.42 




103.19 


318 


96 


- 


164.2 


-234.0 


14.78 


16.13 


15021.019 


0.4994538 


305 


97 


- 


130.0 


-196.7 


15.53 


16.01 


15021.524 


0.334927 


353 


98 


+ 


132.4 


- 3.2 


not var. 






1259 


99 


+ 


201.8 


- 55.0 


14.8 


15.8 






1330 


100 


+ 


69.9 


+ 97.3 


15.3 


16.2 




0.618813 


1122 


101 


+ 


46.4 


+ 83.7 


15.50 


16.14 


15021.101 


0.643900 


1048 


102 


+ 


58.4 


+ 114.9 


15.2 


15.9 


variable? 




1090 


103 


+ 


58.1 


+ 120.4 


not var. 






none 


104 


- 


25.8 


+ 145.5 


14.74 


16.09 


15021.288 


0.5699246 


650 


105 


- 


20.9 


+ 191.6 


15.17 


15.66 


15021.315 


0.2877445 


679 


106 


- 


48.0 


+ 168.0 


15.17 


16.20 


15021.310 


0.5471636 


541 


107 


- 


75.8 


+335.0 


15.02 


15.99 


15021.443 


0.3090344 


455 


108 


-- 


219.0 


+310.9 


14.77 


16.21 


15021.083 


0.5196047 


264 


109 


- 


89.3 


+ 2.7 


14.86 


16.31 


15021.033 


0.5339259 


416 


110 


- 


99.4 


- 15.8 


15.02 


16.24 


15021.397 


0.5353700 


397 


111 


- 


92.7 


+ 21.9 


14.96 


16.18 


15021.402 


0.5101921 


409 


112 


- 


144.6 


-719.4 


not var 








333 


113 


+ 


199.8 


-689.8 


14.90 


16.43 


15021.241 


0.5130031 


1328 


114 


+ 


11.8 


+622.0 


15.08 


16.24 


15021.515 


0.5977254 


873 


115 


+ 


445.0 


+664.7 


14.69 


16.25 


15021.297 


0.5133533 


1410 


116 


- 


491.8 


+465.2 


14.80 


16.22 


15021.441 


0.5148090 


170 


117 


+ 


89.6 


-467.6 


15.26 


16.23 


15021.579 


0.6005122 


1184 


118 


+ 


144.4 


-292.2 


14.73 


16.28 


15021.272 


0.4993795 


1277 


119 


+ 


253.4 


+ 106.2 


14.73 


16.16 


15021.460 


0.5177510 


1353 


120 


- 


295.8 


+231.4 


15.36 


16.05 


15021.284 


0.6401377 


223 


121 


- 


43.6 


+ 56.1 


15.41 


16.25 


22760.550 


0.5351935 


561 


122 


- 


33.5 


- 46.4 


14.6 


16.1 




0.5017 


608 


123 


- 


259. 


-985. 


15.16 


16.75 


15021.395 


0.5454416 


244 


124 


- 


66.4 


-201.4 


15.3 


16.2 




0.752438 


479 



62 



NGC 5272 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






125 


+ 


186. 3 


-132.8 


15.41 


16.08 


15021.029 


0.3498210 


1317 


126 


— 


15.4 


-146.4 


15.50 


16.03 


15021.208 


0.3484044 


700 


127 


+ 


95.6 


- 63.6 


not var 








1198 


128 


+ 


114.6 


+ 131.4 


15.07 


15.97 




0.2922661 


1231 


129 


— 


43.6 


+ 77.2 


15.2 


16.1 




0.305471 


560 


130 


+ 


4.2 


+ 84.6 


15.10 


16.13 


22760.347 


0.5688389 


818 


131 


— 


73.2 


+ 27.4 


15.18 


15.94 


15021.318 


0.2976902 


459 


132 


— 


53.6 


- 22.0 


15.3 


16.4 


24290.387 


0.3398479 


524 


133 


— 


58.6 


+ 43.5 


14.89 


15.96 


15021.482 


0.5507230 


503 


134 


- 


22.4 


+ 52.4 


14.9 


16.3 


24290.282 


0.6190 


669 


135 


— 


27.0 


+ 38.0 


15.0 


16.5 




0.56843 


636 


136 


— 


25.4 


+ 33.4 


15.6 


16.2 






643 


137 


+ 


53.0 


- 18.8 


14.9 


16.2 


15021.155 


0.575146 


1072 


138 


— 


263.6 


+ 41.9 


not vai 








238 


139 


+ 


34.5 


+ 28.0 


15.25 


16.12 


22760.465 


0.560004 


985 


140 


- 


15.7 


+ 108.9 


15.10 


15.88 


22760.216 


0.3331259 


708 


141 


- 1497 . 5 


-249.9 


14.9 


16.4 




0.2695477 


48 


142 


— 


30 


- 59 


15.6 


16.6 


24290.397 


0.568627 


620 


143 


— 


34 


+ 16 


15.4 


16.4 


24290.337 


0.51111 


604 


144 


+ 


54 


-100 


14.8 


16.7 


24290.565 


0.59674 




145 


+ 


29 


+ 8 


14.9 


16.5 


24290.528 


0.514456 


944? 


146 


+ 


96 


- 59 


14.6 


16.5 


24290.563 


0.596740 


1193? 


147 


- 


21 


+ 46 


15.1 


16.3 


24290.005 


0.34644 


671 


148 


— 


7 


+ 37 


15.3 


16.4 


24290.170 


0.467246 


755 


149 


+ 


34 


+ 52 


14.7 


16.5 


24290.228 


0.54985 




150 


+ 


69 


+ 37 


14.8 


16.7 


24290.359 


0.52397 


1119 


151 


+ 


4 


- 40 


14.9 


16.3 


24290.191 


0.51705 




152 


+ 


77 


+ 50 


15.0 


16.3 


24290.355 


0.32641 


1151? 


153 


- 


38 


+ 60 


not var. 






585 


154 


+ 


2 


- 29 


12.9 


14.0 


24647: 


15.7677 


801 


155 


- 


64 


- 74 










486 


156 


- 


21 


- 42 


not var. 






678 


157 


- 


17 


+ 35 


14.2 


15.7 


24647.650: 


0.5283 


698 


158 


- 


16 


- 41 


15.2 


16.5 


24647.564: 


0.50809? 


703 


159 


- 


15 


+ 16 


14.9 


16.6 


24647.602: 


0.5337 


714 


160 


- 


9 


- 44 


14.9 


16.1 


24647.446 


0.64792 


742 


161 


+ 


17 


- 58 


15.4 


16.4 


24647.567: 


0.49874 


901 


162 


+ 


28 


- 32 


not var. 






950 


163 


- 


16 


- 32 


not var. 






702 


164 


+ 


21 


- 36 


15.3 


15.9 






909 


165 


+ 


73 


+ 20 


14.7 


16.5 


24647.544 


. 483638 




166 


- 


97 


- 8 


15.1 


16.2 






402 


167 


- 


78 


- 37 


15.4 


16.5 


24647.448 


0.69245 


447 


168 


- 


45 


+ 7 


14.9 


16.0 


24647.617 


0.3770 


553 


169 


— 


29 


- 35 


not var. 






627 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 



63 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 5272 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






170 


— 


28 


+ 32 


15.1 


16.1 


24647.716: 


0.43725 


633 


171 


- 


27 


+ 16 


15.0 


16.1 


24647.864 


0.4303 


638 


172 


- 


21 


+ 25 


14.9 


16.5 


24647.700 


. 59400 


677 


173 


- 


13 


+ 39 


15.2 


16.6 


24647.670: 


0.606990 




174 


- 


9 


- 34 


15.1 


16.1 


24647.710 


0.4082 


743 


175 


+ 


42 


+ 26 


14.9 


16.2 


24647.914 


0.60780 




176 


+ 


46 


+ 32 


14.8 


16.4 


24647.621 


. 55599 




177 


+ 


63 


- 29 


15.0 


16.3 


24647.953 


0.34835 


1102 


178 


+ 


79 


+ 46 


15.2 


16.5 


24647.755 


0.26499 


1153 


179 


+ 


39 


-774 


not var 










180 


- 


19 


- 27 


not var 








676? 


181 


- 


30 


- 14 


not var 










182 


- 


19 


+ 60 


not var 










183 


+ 


29 


+ 7 


not var 








944? 


18-1 


- 


25 


- 14 


14.9 


16.4 


24647.841 


0.517 


645? 


185 


- 


15 


+ 32 


15.2 


16.1 






705? 


186 


+ 


12 


- 64 


15.1 


16.1 


24647.670 


0.675 




187 


— 


23 


+ 9 


14.9 


16.2 


24647.961 


0.3927 




18? 


- 


27 


+ 24 


15.0 


16.0 


24647.615: 


0.3677 


641? 


189 


- 


25 


- 21 


15.2 


16.0 


24647.964 


0.668 


654 


190 


- 


8 


+ 28 


14.8 


16.5 


24647.936 


0.501 


749 


191 







+ 24 


15.1 


16.1 


24647.981 


0.512 


802 


192 


- 


2 


+ 3 


15.0 


16.1 


24647.933: 


0.525 


783 


193 


+ 


15 


— i 


14.8 


16.3 


24647.777 


0.630 


881 


194 


+ 


17 


- 13 


15.1 


16.4 


24647. 75S 


0.549 


892 


195 


- 


13 


- 29 


15.0 


16.2 


24647.470: 


0.600 


720 


196 


+ 


47 


+ 1 










1052 


197 


+ 


58 


+ 10 


15.1 


16.5 


24647.689 


0.500075 


1092 


198 


- 


23 


+ 15 


15.2 


16.0 


24647 .! (2: 1: 


0.3617 


666 


199 


- 


19 


+ 13 


14.8 


16.3 


24647.699: 


0.488 




200 


- 


4 


+ 21 










769 


201 


+ 


4 


- 9 










none 


202 


- 


379 . 7 


+ 101 


15.4 


15.8 






190 


203 


- 


30.2 


-308 


15.56 


15.72 




0.28719 


632 


204 


- 


106.4 


- 18 


15.76 


15.93 




0.9170 


390 



Refs. 1,8, 10, 11, 14, 17, 19, 20, 22, 25, 28, 31, 32, 38, 40, 43. 45, 50, 55, 56, 60a, 61. 76. 
80a, 84, 86, 98, 101, 105, 109, 110, 111, 115, 130, 135, 141, 144, 165, 179, M. Plates in 20, 25. 

Sandage and Roberts (ref. M) strongly suspect v.Z. 329 is variable with small amplitude, 
0.15, and hope other observers will try to corroborate this. 

Just as for NGC 5139, most of the variables have been shown to have period changes, see 
especially Martin, ref. 144 and Hett, ref. 141. These cannot be included in the table. The value 
given for the period is usually from the latest work on the star. 

The data for this cluster have been combined from many sources as follows: Positions: 
Nos. 1-137 Bailey, 138-141 Larink, 142-183 Midler, 184-199 Greenstein, 200-201 Shapley. 
Magnitudes from Greenstein. Epochs: 1-153 from Midler, 154-199 Greenstein, data on No. 
202 from Schwarzschild, Nos. 203 and 204 from Sandage, with von Zeipel's positions. 



64 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 5272 

In a further attempt to clear up some of the confusion of identification of the variables in 
this cluster (discussed in detail in the last catalogue), I have identified as far as possible the 
variables with the numbers in von Zeipel's catalogue (Ann. VObs. Imp. Paris, Mem., v. 25, 
F 1-101, 1908). In cases where the variable is definitely not in the catalogue, this is indicated 
by "none" in the number column. Where no satisfactory identification has been made, a 
blank is left; and the number is questioned if doubt exists. 

There is doubt as to whether vars. 145 and 183 correspond to v.Z. 944 or 961. Shapley's 
Variable 18 is definitely v.Z. 944; but it is not certain whether his Var. 18 is the same as either 
145 or 183. 

NGC 5286 a 13 h 43 m .O, 5 -51° 07' 
No variables found. Ref. 71. No map. 



NGC 5466 a 14 h 03 m .2, 5 +28° 46' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






1 


+858 


- 95 


15.6 


16.7 


30553 . 674 


0.577415 




2 


- 62 


-110 


15.5 


16.6 


30554.720 


0.588523 


64 


3 


- 31 


- 8 


15.4 


16.7 


30550.623 


0.578065 


95 


4 


- 80 


+ 9 


15.5 


16.6 


30556 . 602 


0.337968 


56 


5 


- 64 


+ 112 


15.7 


16.7 


30519.697 


0.380519 


61 


6 


+ 122 


- 24 


15.2 


16.6 


29786.653 


0.62096 


202 


7 


-210 


-225 


15.7 


16.7 


30519.697 


0.703423 


20 


8 


+ 23 


- 6 


15.8 


16.7 


30520.617 


0.629120 


141 


9 


+ 31 


+ 15 


15.5 


16.7 


30170.656 


0.685027 


148 


10 


+ 85 


+ 46 


15.8 


16.7 


30519.697 


0.709273 


186 


11 


+ 117 


+ 68 


15.7 


16.7 


30884.625 


0.37799 


198 


12 


+ 17 


- 88 


16.0 


16.5 


30880.665 


0.2942387 


134 


13 


- 49 


- 73 


16.0 


16.7 


30556.702 


0.341557 


83 


14 


- 47 


+ 52 


15.8 


16.5 


30880.599 


440041 


84 


15 


+223 


+ 20 


15.9 


16.5 


30519.618 


0.28672 


227 


16 


-149 


-175 


16.0 


16.5 


30553.612 


0.29667 


37 


17 


- 60 


- 30 


15.9 


16.4 


30519.713 


0.370117 


68 


18 


+ 44 


+ 41 


16.0 


16.7 


30519.697 


0.37406 


166 



No. is from Hoptnann's Catalogue, A.N., v. 229, p. 209, 1927. 
Refs. 78, 79, 157. Prints in 78, 157. 



NGC 5634 


a 14 h 27 m .0, 


5 -05° 45' 






1 


- 56.5 


- 19.5 


16.41 


17.39 


2 


- 25.4 


+ 83.1 


16.19 


17.38 


3 


- 45.1 


+ 41.9 


16.48 


17.47 


4 


+ 54.2 


- 65.2 


16.55 


17.39 


5 


- 11.6 


-162.9 


16.72: 


17.19 


6 


+ 43.4 


- 52.6 


16.69 


17.05 


7 


- 0.4 


- 4.0 







0.65872 



Ref. 156, with plate. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



65 



NGC 5694 « 14 h 36 m .7, 5 -26° 19' 
No variables found. Ref. 104. No map. 

Baade's Cluster a 15 h 13 m .5, 5 +0° 4' 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Remarks 



1 


- 97 


+ 25 


16.80 


17.55 


2 


- 85 


-246 


16.90 


17.60 


3 


+ 143 


-166 


16.95 


17.50 


4 


+ 35 


-238 


16.90 


17.60 


5 


- 84 


+ 94 


17.05 


17.50 



5 suspected variables. 
Ref. 176 with print. 

NGC 5897 a 15 h 14 m .5, 5 -20° 50' 



1 


-109 


-201 


15.8 


16.5 


2 


- 57 


- 97 


15.8 


16.4 


3 


- 40 


- 4 


15.8 


16.5 


4 


+ 71 


+ 20 


15.5 


15.9 



Ref. 187 with plate. 



NGC 5904 (Messier 5) a 15 h 16 m .O, 5 +02° 16' 



1 


+ 27.7 


+ 161.1 


14.31 


15.41 


27563 . 794 


0.52178673 


2 


-343.5 


- 31.5 


14.74 


15.60 


27601 . 700 


0.526 


3 


+ 160.1 


+ 113.7 


14.64 


15.33 


27567.842 


0.60018398 


4 


- 12.3 


+ 73.8 


14.65 


15.89 


27627.708 


0.44963886 


5 


- 7.8 


+ 51.6 


14.83 


16.06 


27567.929 


0.545903 


6 


+ 27.2 


- 46.6 


14.55 


15.61 


27567.856 


0.54883108 


7 


- 5.1 


-191.3 


14.42 


15.57 


27601 . 730 


0.49439008 


8 


+ 134.0 


-133.2 


14.55 


15.58 


27605 . 697 


0.54622519 


9 


+ 195.0 


+ 88.0 


14.68 


15.50 


27563 . 855 


0.6988956 


10 


+107.4 


+382.0 


14.43 


15.77 


27567 . 825 


0.53066335 


11 


-154.5 


+ 84.5 


14.43 


15.58 


27563.817 


0.59589173 


12 


-175.5 


- 17.3 


14.40 


15.73 


27601.762 


0.46771968 


13 


+ 11.0 


- 65.4 


14.75 


15.64 


27567.800 


0.5131237 


14 


-145.6 


+ 103.7 


14.28: 


15.34: 


27567.974 


0.4872433 


15 


+ 192.0 


+ 3.6 


14.84 


15.32 


27567.908 


0.33676094 


16 


+ 91.0 


+ 83.9 


14.29 


15.53 


27567.781 


0.64762455 


17 


- 26.1 


+ 44.3 


14.80 


15.91 


27567 . 723 


0.601354 


18 


+ 151.7 


-107.7 


14.83 


15.39 


27567.773 


0.464 


19 


+233.7 


-129.9 


14.11 


15.68 


27601 . 706 


0.46995413 


20 


-255.5 


- 25.0 


14.50 


15.29 


27601.729 


0.6094760 


21 


+322.6 


+ 74.0 


14.46 


15.52 


27605.684 


0.6048946 


22 


-205.7 


+383 . 5 


not var 








23 


-253.4 


- 10.9 


not var 









66 



NGG 5904 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magn 
Max. 


tudes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period Remarks 


24 


- 46.8 


- 71.7 


14.77 


15.65 


27567.821 


0.47837785 


25 


- 28.9 


-128.0 


13.83 


14.73 


27567.766 


short 


26 


+ 21.8 


+ 101.5 


14.42 


15.46 


27601.761 


. 6225647 


27 


- 6.7 


- 59.2 


14.37 


15.74 


27888.894 


0.4703 


28 


4-132.2 


-121.1 


14.50 


15.68 


27540.882 


0.54394489 


29 


-374.7 


- 76.6 


14.56 


15.52 


27567.700 


0.4514 


30 


+ 22.8 


-212.8 


14.80 


15.49 


27567.761 


0.5921760 


31 


+ 151.7 


-141.7 


14.79 


15.36 


27567.872 


0.30058294 


32 


+201.9 


-150.6 


13.98 


15.50 


27605.754 


0.45778653 


33 


- 21.1 


+ 127.5 


14.24 


15.55 


27601.738 


0.50147264 


34 


+ 84.3 


+ 59.5 


14.65 


15.52 


27567 . 727 


0.56814350 


35 


- 12.2 


-114.7 


14.68 


15.16 


27567.866 


0.30811974 


36 


- 8.4 


- 52 2 


14.96 


15.91 


27563 . 868 


0.6277 


37 


+ 44.7 


- 67.0 


14.49 


15.60 


27605 . 762 


48879470 


38 


- 44.2 


+ 117.2 


14.49 


15.90 


27889.937 


0.47042783 


39 


-125.3 


-205.2 


14.23 


15.61 


27563.832 


0.5890352 


40 


+ 124.8 


+ 113.5 


14.83 


15.26 


27605.698 


0.31732857 


41 


+ 19.3 


+231.4 


14.23 


15.64 


27567.879 


0.48857528 


42 


-123.2 


-120.8 


11.20 


12.24 


27567.8 


25.738 Sp. 


43 


-201.8 


+ 154.3 


14.82 


15.48 


27601 . 767 


0.6602275 


44 


-102.5 


+ 31.1 


14.97 


15.33 


27601.732 


0.247? 


45 


-116.7 


+ 65.7 


14 74 


15.90 


27567. 774 


0.61663546 


46 


- 80.0 


+ 69.1 


not var 








47 


- 75.3 


+ 58.1 


14.84 


15.96 


27563.861 


0.5397300 


48 


- 62.5 


+ 106.3 


not var 








49 


+ 52.7 


+ 177.5 


not var 








50 


+ 38.0 


+ 109.1 


14.00: 


14.54: 




irr.? Sp. 


51 


+ 0.3 


+ 135.5 


var? 








52 


+ 107.9 


+ 35.3 


14.49 


15.57 


27563 . 804 


0.50178498 


53 


+ 68.9 


+ 19.2 


14.98 


15.28 


27601.70 


0.37360 


54 


+ 30.3 


+ 57.2 


14.62 


15.68 


27567.721 


0.45410915 


55 


+ S0.1 


-163.2 


14.87 


15.26 


27601.734 


0.32889680 


56 


- 68.9 


+ 96.5 


14.75 


15.86 


27889.931 


. 53469099 


57 


- 30.6 


+ 99.7 


14.94 


15.43 


27507.897 


0.28467869 


58 


- 605.1 


+ 168.2 


14.63 


15.65 


27601.716 


0.491266 


59 


- 150.0 


- 35.5 


14.42 


15.33 


27540.936 


0.54202572 


60 


- 109.7 


+ 8.2 


15.04 


15.74 


27567.75 


0.285218? 


61 


- 254.9 


- 31.4 


14.63 


15.60 


27567.826 


0.56861702 


62 


+ 166.8 


-216.8 


14.73 


15.40 


27601.704 


0.281409 


63 


+ 212.9 


+ 51.8 


14.25 


15.57 


27567.851 


0.49767716 


64 


- 51.2 


-248.9 


14.54 


15.64 


27540.853 


0.5445076 


65 


- 159.9 


- 93.8 


14.28 


15.60 


27628.729 


0.48065810 


66 


+ 218.3 


+406.8 


14.81 


15.36 


27567 SI 3 


. 35068 


67 


-1028.2 


- 59.8 


14.83 


15.30 


27567 . 733 


. 349046 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



NGG 5904 
















No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




68 


+ 


897.5 


+ 47.6 


14.80 


15.33 


27628.727 


0.3342771 


69 


+ 


653.3 


+ 751.6 


14.80 


15.72 


27567 761 


0.49487432 


70 


+ 


393.8 


+626.4 


14 . 55 


15.63 


27567 . 930 


0.5585282 


71 


+ 


664.1 


+290.3 


14.45 


15.70 


27541.011 


0.5024681 


72 


+ 


689.7 


+ 38.3 


14.53 


15.57 


27596.82 


0.562 


73 


+ 


17.3 


+604.7 


14.63 


15.31 


27601 .753 


0.34011278 


74 


+ 


202.8 


+ 162.8 


14.18 


15.46 


27626.684 


0.45399611 


75 


+ 


78.6 


-412.8 


14.66 


15.42 


27596.816 


0.6854141 


76 


+ 


80.5 


-309.2 


14.73 


15.18 


27563.813 


0.4324211 


77 


- 


171.5 


-184.8 


14.68 


15.42 


27605.721 


0.8451134 


78 


+ 


65.5 


+ 159.7 


14.86 


15.28 


27567.727 


0.26481742 


79 


- 


133.5 


- 32.2 


14.95 


15.51 


27567.884 


0.33313840 


80 


- 


48.6 


+ 111.6 


15.05 


15.54 


27562.986 


0.33654242 


81 


- 


72.2 


-121.7 


14.62 


15.54 


27567 '.172 


0.5573241 


82 


— 


67.8 


+ 12.4 


14.86 


15.72 


27563 . 798 


0.5584455 


83 


— 


84.7 


- 87.8 


14.80 


15.66 


27567.783 


0.5533080 


84 


+ 


43.7 


- 31.9 


11.54 


12.61 


27602 


26.5 Sp. 


85 


+ 


38.3 


- 34.4 


14.80 


15.70 


27567.970 


0.52741 


86 


+ 


34.6 


- 33.0 


14.50 


15.83 


27567.856 


0.56733 


87 


+ 


122.0 


- 1.8 


14.84 


15.21 


27540.914 


0.7383875 


88 


+ 


65.2 


+ 61.8 


15. OS 


15.48 


27563.832 


0.32808270 


89 


+ 


60.0 


+ 64.7 


14.79 


15.69 


27626.707 


0.55844189 


90 


— 


44.7 


+ 15.3 


14.67 


15.88 


27540.828 


0.5571534 


91 


— 


36.0 


+ 35.0 


15.04 


15.96 


27567.927 


0.584944 


92 


— 


56.6 


-123.5 


14.28 


15.58 


27567.963 


0.46358 


93 


+ 


44.0 


— 35.7 


14.54 


15.81 


27567 771 


0.55231 


94 


— 


23.5 


+ 17.4 


15.26 


16.11 


27601 . 728 


0.53141 


95 


— 


47.2 


+ 102.8 


15.13 


15.80 


27626.689 


0.29082 


96 


— 


12.4 


+ 32.9 


14.96 


16.15 


27563 . 778 


0.51225 


97 


+ 


48.9 


- 92.5 


14.18 


15.61 


27601.754 


0.544ii(i 


98 


+ 


37.3 


+ 20.0 


15.26 


15.71 


27605 7:;7 


0.30639 


99 


+ 


34.4 


- 0.1 


15.32 


15.89 


27567 739 


0.32134 


100 


+ 


2.8 


+ 48.7 


15.30 


16.01 


27628.710 


0.29434 


101 


- 


281.6 


+ 36.0 


17.15 






SS Cy S ? 


102 


+ 


14.8 


- 14.8 








prob. RR Lyr 


103 


+ 


20.5 


- 8.8 








prob. RR Lyr 



Epochs from ref. K, unpublished. 

Refs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 20, 24, 26, 31, 33, 40. 42, 53, 54, 60, 82, 137. L65, K. 
i lates in 20, 33, 137. 



NGC 5986 a 15 h 42"'.8, 8 -37° 37' 

1 variable at a radial distance of 1'.7 from centre. 
Kefs. 14, 20. No map. 



68 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6093 (Messier 80) a 16 h 14 m .l, 5 -22° 52' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






1 


-137 


+ 49 


13.1 


14.5 


29406.8 


15.70 


Sp. 


2 


+ 22 


- 19 


14.7 


15.3 








3 


+ 104 


+ 56 


15.6 


16.3 






short per. 


4 


- 85 


+ 61 


15.6 


16.2 






short per. 


5 


+ 14 


- 67 


15.7 


16.2 






short per. 


6 


+520 


+296 


9.3 


15.8 


32036 


177.13 


S Sco 


7 


+502 


+ 112 


9.5 


15.5 


32142 


222.53 


RSco 


Nova 


+ 4.0 


+ 2.7 


6.8 




00551 




T Sco 



A suspected variable near this cluster is No. 101570 in Russian "Catalogue of Stars Probably 
Variable," 1951. 

Refs. 20, 69, 122, 148, 165. Plates in 20, 148. Ref. 122 gives bibliography of nova. 



NGC 6121 (Messier 4) a 16 h 20 m .6, 8 -26° 24' 



1 




281 


+ 42 


13.46 


13.97 


29706.315 


0.288872 


2 




248 


-195 


13.05 


14.10 


29676.448 


0.5356817 


3 




208 


-507 


12.92 


14.08 


29723.221 


0.506651 


4 




185 


-340 


11.0 


12.5 




semireg. Sp. 


5 




185 


- 93 


13.57 


13.99 


29522.035 


0.622401 


6 




115 


+318 


13.54 


14.09 


29705.377 


0.320504 


7 




113 


+231 


12.99 


14.28 


29748.231 


0.4987743 


8 




110 


+ 111 


12.88 


14.22 


29676.458 


0.5081753 


9 




104 


+ 105 


12.75 


14.16 


29676.332 


0.5718921 


10 




68 


+ 159 


12.68 


14.18 


29717.391 


0.4907161 


11 




64 


-297 


13.32 


14.14 


29496.021 


0.4930763 


12 




53 


-207 


13.04 


14.38 


29676.323 


0.4461309 


13 




47 


+270 


12.37 


13.08 




Sp. 


14 


- 


47 


-244 


12.96 


14.40 


29717.295 


0.4635292 


15 


- 


32 


+436 


12.98 


14.25 


29496.035 


0.4437854 


16 


- 


29 


+ 69 


13.05 


14.18 


29705.381 


0.5425452 


17 


- 


8 


+ 20 


13.40 


13.74 


29708.319 


0.855469 


18 


+ 


4 


+ 27 


12.84 


14.20 


29676.446 


0.4787915 


19 


+ 


11 


+358 


12.76 


14.18 


29511.075 


0.4678119 


20 


+ 


13 


- 63 


13.24 


13.60 


29676.381 


0.3094164 


21 


+ 


19 


- 4 


12.73 


14.10 


29705.436 


0.471986 


22 


+ 


34 


+ 80 


13.40 


13.98 


29676.410 


0.6030634 


23 


+ 


38 


- 26 


13.26 


13.77 


29676.389 


0.2985478 


24 


+ 


49 


+ 48 


13.12 


14.06 


29676.450 


0.5467733 


25 


+ 


70 


+ 70 


13.08 


14.08 


29723 . 276 


0.6127352 


26 


+ 


94 


- 72 


12.80 


14.14 


29538.993 


0.5412200 


27 


+ 


118 


+255 


12.90 


14.09 


29723 . 260 


0.6120184 


28 


+ 


259 


+ 84 


12.60 


14.02 


29676.411 


0.522322 


29 


+ 


326 


+598 


12.88 


14.02 


29705.367 


0.5224857 


30 


+ 


340 


- 69 


13.29 


13.87 


29676.458 


0.2697501 


31 


+ 


353 


+ 45 


12.72 


14.03 


29676.272 


0.5053135 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 



69 



NGC 6121 



Catalogue — Continued 



No. 




x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period Remarks 










Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 




32 


+ 


746 


- 40 


12.98 


13.96 


29705.446 


0.579109 


33 


+ 


805 


+630 


12.70 


13.96 


29676.340 


0.6148277 


34 


- 


820 


+416 


13.16 


14.36 


29723.338 


0.554843 


35 


- 


377 


+ 62 


13.44 


14.15 


29705.441 


0.627042 


36 


- 


208 


-259 


13.26 


14.18 


29676.370 


0.541310 


37 


- 


39 


+ 2 


13.46 


13.76 


29522.064 


0.247352 


38 


- 


23 


- 92 


13.38 


14.09 


29496.053 


0.577848 


39 


+ 


1 


- 80 


13.62 


14.06 


29676.463 


0.623980 


40 


+ 


25 


+ 49 








0.40151 


41 


+ 


65 


-150 


13.53 


13.97 


29676.402 


0.2517311 


42 


+ 


377 


+558 


13.33 


13.78 


29526.164 


0.303708 


43 


+ 1263 


+332 


12.92 


13.48 


29748.245 


0.320637 



Refs. 21, 90, 93, 126, 138, 145, 161, 165. Plates in 90, 126. 



NGC 6144 a 16 h 24 m .2, 5 -25° 56' 



1 



+481 



-117 



15.3 



16.3 



Ref. 187. 



NGC 6171 a 16 h 29 m .7, 5 -12° 57' 



1 


- 


112.8 


-522.0 


J14.16 


[16.75 


2 


+ 


148.8 


-388.8 


15.62 


16.29 


3 


- 


224.4 


-183.6 


15.55 


16.14 


4 


- 


99.6 


-156.6 


15.64 


16.14 


5 


+ 


231.0 


-161.4 


15.74 


16.21 


6 


- 


10.8 


- 67.2 


15.68 


16.15 


7 


+ 


42.0 


- 61.2 


15.57 


16.64 


8 


+ 


12.0 


- 42.0 


15.57 


16.52 


9 


- 


26.4 


- 19.8 


15.91 


16.33 


10 


- 


57.0 


+ 8.4 


15.48 


16.65 


11 


+ 


9.6 


+ 33.0 


15.69 


16.46 


12 


+ 


58.8 


+ 61.2 


15.27 


16.48 


13 


- 


27.0 


+ 72.0 


15.45 


16.59 


14 


+ 


17.4 


+ 82 2 


15.35 


16.45 


15 


+ 


19.2 


+ 120.0 


15.57 


16.12 


16 


- 


67.2 


+ 113.4 


15.69 


16.51 


17 


- 


99.0 


+ 71.4 


15.35 


16.45 


18 


+ 


77.4 


+215.4 


15.75 


16.46 


19 


+ 


232.8 


+ 162.6 


15.77 


16.25 


20 


+ 


31.2 


+ 51.0 


15.66 


16.40 


21 


+ 


81.0 


-144.6 


16.33 


16.78 


22 


-] 


1354.2 


-183.0 






23 


- 


263.4 


+ 19.2 


15.61 


16.13 


24 




0.0 


+ 8.4 


15.66 


16.46 



long per. 



Ref. 121, with chart. 



70 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6205 (Messier 13) a 16 h 39 m .9, 5 +36° 33' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






1 


+ 73.06 


- 24.86 


13.2 


15.0 


27685.763 


1 . 45899 


816, Sp. 


2 


- 54.10 


- 3.04 


12.6 


14.1 


27308.868 


5.11003 


306, Sp. 


3 


-127.70 


+ 16.52 


15.58 


15.79 


prob. 


iot var. 


135 


4 


- 47.34 


+ 58.18 


15.04 


15.23 


prob. i 


lot var. 


322 


5 


+ 71.62 


- 14.06 


14.33 


14.94 


24313.429 


0.298? 


806/3 


6 


+ 92.68 


+ 76.60 


13.5 


14.8 


27274.867 


2.11283 


872, Sp. 


7 


- 39.78 


- 82.72 


14.72 


15.17 


24313.102 


0.24? 


344 


8 


- 93.02 


+ 11.29 


14.2 


15.6 


28038.654 


0.750306 


206 


9 


+ 71.62 


- 14.06 


14.0 


15.1 




short? 


806« 


10 


- 5.40 


- 70.73 


13.1 


14.0 




semireg. 


487, Sp. 


11 


- 45.78 


- 75.88 


12.9 


13.8 




92.5 


324, Sp. 


12 


-105.88 


+ 53.46 


15.0 


15.35 


prob. 


lot var. 


187 


13 


- 45.37 


- 31.30 


14.26 


14.50 


prob. 


lot var. 


327 


14 


+ 3.18 


+207.64 


16.16 


16.45 


prob. 


lot var. 


527 


15 


+ 79.03 


-115.34 


13.32 


13.67 




irreg. 


835 



Yar. No. 15 and period for No. 11, found by Arp, unpublished, ref. H. Numbers in right- 
hand column are identification in Ludendorff's Catalogue, Potsdam Pub., v. 15, no. 50, 1905. 
Kollnig-Schattschneider's No. 5, for which the Ludendorff no. was erroneously given as 200, 
is the same as No. 8 above. 

Variability of Nos. 3, 4, 12, 13, 14 questioned by Arp and Sawyer from unpublished material. 

Refs. 18, 20, 23, 27, 29, 30, 37, 40, 76, 133, 134, 142, 147, 165. Plates in 20, 134. 

NGC 6218 (Messier 12) a 16 h 44"\6, 5 -01° 52' 



1 



+34 



-62 



11.9 



13.2 27306.708 15.508 



Sp. 



Refs. 11, 102, 113, 123, 124, 165. Plate in 123. 



NGC 6229 a 16 h 45 m .6, 5 +47° 37' 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



- 24.6 

- 71.9 
-195.7 

- 56.8 
+ 14.5 
+ 44.1 

- 41.7 

- 4.1 

- 38.9 

- 29.5 
+ 23.9 
+ 34.2 
+ 140.2 

- 15.5 



105.5 



+ 4 

+ 41 

- 14 

+ 44 



+ 



+ 



41 

49.9 

42.1 

38.3 

72 7 

25.0 

23 . 6 

61.3 

50.7 



16.84 
17.18 
17.21 
17.36: 
17.21 
17.28: 
16.84 
15.30 
17.12: 
17.28 
]17.44 
17.12 
17.15 
16.88 



17.90 
17.93 
17.82 
17.89 
17.95 
17.96 
18.01 
16.64 
17.91 
17.99 
18.01 
18.02 
18.01 
17.95 



l.per. Cep. 



+ 34.2 + 27.5 



17.39 17.92 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 71 

Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6229 



No. x" y" Magnitudes Epoch of Period Remarks 

Max. Min. Maximum 



16 + 47.0 - 24.2 17.31 17.94 



17 


- 96.3 


- 75.0 


17.08 


17.72 


18 


- 36.1 


+ 32.2 


17.34 


18.00 


19 


+ 53.4 


- 44.4 


16.96 


18.00 


20 


- 27.5 


- 36.1 


16.91 


18.05 


21 


+ 117.3 


- 61.6 


17.12 


17.94 


22 


4- 4 


— 7 


15.2 


16.3 



prob. slow 



Note: Yar. Xo. 1 in 1939 catalogue is now No. 8. 
Refs. 36, 113, 156, 187. Plate in 156. 



NGC 6235 a 16 h 50™4, 5 -22° 06' 



1 


-16 


+ 39 


16 


5 


17 


.2 


2 


+58 


-211 


16 


5 


17 


.3 



Ref. 187 with plate. 
NGC 6254 (Messier 10) a 16 h 54 m .5, 8 -04° 02' 



1 


+ 5 


4- 22 


13.2 


13.8 


2 


+ 30 


+ 120 


11.9 


13.7 


3 


-209 


+ 106 


13.10 


13.82 



Sp. 
26607.712 18.754 Sp. 
7.87 



Var. No. 3 found by Arp, unpublished, ref. H. 
Refs. 14, 102, 113, 123, 124, 165. Plate in 123. 



NGC 6266 (Messier 62) a 16 h 58 m .l, 8 -30° 03' 



1 + 41.0 + 6.1 

2 - 26.6 - 68.9 

3 - 89.2 - 5.8 

4 - 94.6 - 39.6 

5 -163.4 +123.4 

6 - 81.2 + 33.1 

7 + 22.6 +169.1 

8 - 94.6 +163.4 

9 - 92.7 +214.0 

10 -452.7 +160.0 

11 -456.2 +128.3 

12 -203.4 +268.9 

13 + 1.6 + 30.2 

14 - 92 2 +264.7 

15 +122.8 +303.0 

16 - 74.8 + 94.1 



72 



NGC 6266 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


Remarks 


17 


- 21.4 


+ 102.7 










18 


- 33.4 


+ 91.4 










19 


- 15.3 


+ 65.2 










20 


+ 131.4 


+ 159.8 










21 


+ 105.4 


+ 80.6 










22 


+ 62.6 


+ 12.6 










23 


- 74.3 


- 37.4 










24 


+ 62.6 


- 39.0 










25 


+ 150.4 


- 73.4 










26 


-186.8 


-302.1 











Refs. 14, 20 with plate. 



NGC 6273 (Messier 19) a 16 h 59 m .5, 5 -26° 11' 



1 


+ 4 


+ 48 


14.1 


15.1 


2 


+ 14 


+ 123 


13.4 


14.7 


3 


-28 


- 6 


14.2 


15.2 


4 


- 2 


- 24 


15.1 


15.7 



Ref. 152 with plate. 



NGC 6284 a 17 h 01 m .5, 8 -24° 41' 



1 


- 24 


+ 36 


15.6 


16.1 


2 


- 47 


- 17 


16.1 


17.0 


3 


- 28 


- 13 


15.3 


15.7 


4 


+ 22 


- 18 


15.4 


16.3 


5 


+ 109 


-205 


16.4 


17.0 


6 


+ 139 


+221 


15.9 


16.4 



Ref. 152 with plate. 




NGC 6287 a 17 h 02™. 1, 5 -22° 38' 




1 -152 -40 16.2 


17.1 


2 +46 -26 15.7 


15.9 


3 +26 +44 16.1 


16.8 



Ref. 152 with plate. 



NGC 6293 a 17 h 07 m .l, 5 -26° 30' 



1 


+ 81.0 


+49.5 


15.9 


16.6 


2 


-135.6 


+64.5 


15.8 


16.7 


3 


+ 48.6 


+ 18.6 


15.5 


15.8 


4 


+ 92 


-81 


16.1 


17.1 


5 


+ 78 


-83 


15.7 


16.5 



Refs. 5J, 152 with plate. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6333 (Messier 9) a 17 h 16 m .2, 5 -18° 28' 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



73 



Remarks 



1 


+ 91 


- 76 


15.6 


16.9 


29427 . 886 


0.585727 


2 


+ 40 


- 31 


15.6 


16.4 


29436.854 


0.628191 


3 


+207 


-210 


15.7 


16.85 


32000.735 


0.605397 


4 


+ 23 


- 35 


15.8 


16.95 


30520.749 


0.670076 


5 


+ 34 


— 7 


16.0 


16.8 


29435.870 


0.274708 


6 


- 70 


- 14 


15.7 


16.95 


29435 . 870 


0.607795 


7 


-111 


- 80 


15.95 


17.2 


29434.860 


0.628456 


8 


- 73 


- 99 


16.05 


16.9 






9 


+334 


-191 


16.0 


16.75 


30933.704 


0.322990 


10 


+ 37 


+ 26 


16.2 


16.9 


30553.653 


0.242322 


11 


- 4 


- 7 


15.7 


16.8 






12 


-275 


-136 


15.85 


16.95 


29408.951 


0.571784 


13 


+259 


+ 11 


16.7 


17.8 


30554.694 


0.47985 



Ref. 32a, 87, 163, 177 with plate. 



NGC 6341 (Messier 92) a I7 h 15 m .6, 5 +43° 12' 



1 


+ 127.5 


+ 41.3 


14.64 


15.53 


27340.211 


0.702807 


2 


+ 91.2 


+ 69.2 


14.50 


15.52 


27340.329 


0.643886 


3 


+ 53.7 


+252.7 


14.58 


15.70 


27340.344 


0.637494 


4 


- 76.0 


+ 58.0 


14.52 


15.43 


27340.111 


0.628911 


5 


+ 81.6 


- 53.7 


14.50 


15.51 


27340.302 


0.619707 


6 


+ 38.7 


+ 43.3 


14.53 


15.40 


27340.360 


0.600001 


7 


+ 1.6 


- 50.5 


14.14 


14.58 


27340.373 


0.515075 


8 


+208.9 


+208.0 


14.70 


15.79 


27430.366 


0.6735605 


9 


+ 18.0 


- 48.1 


14.75 


15.24 


27340.218 


0.61 


10 


+ 83.0 


+ 36.3 


14.79 


15.39 


27340.283 


0.377315 


11 


+ 71.2 


- 67.1 


14.74 


15.29 


27430.301 


0.3084416 


12 


- 29.9 


- 97.8 


14.80 


15.16 


27340.009 


0.4099586 


13 


+ 153.4 


- 60.1 


14.93 


15.08 






14 


-316.0 


+245.7 


14.80 


15.10 


27340.089 


0.346178 field, 

WUMa 


15 


+ 30 


-102 


14.6 


15.2 






16 


- 2 


+ 77 


14.0 


14.5 







Of 2 other stars suspected by Nassau as variables, his No. 15 is considered non-variable, 
No. 16 is still suspect, ref. 184. 

Refs. 64, 76, 114, 120, 125, 153, 184. Plates in 120, 184. 



NGC 6356 


a 17 h 20" 


'.7, 5 -17 c 


46' 






1 


- 15 


- 24 




16.3 


17.2 


2 


+ 101 


-110 




16.8 


17.1 


3 


- 24 


+ 45 




16.0 


[17.5 


4 


+ 187 


+ 47 




15.9 


[17.5 


5 


-255 


+ 152 




15.7 


[17.5 



Ref. 187 with plate. 



74 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6362 a 17 h 26 m .6, 5 -67° 01' 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Remarks 



1 


00 


00 


2 


- 29 


-100 


3 


- 83 


- 89 


4 


- 79 


- 88 


5 


+ 81 


- 14 


6 


+ 54 


+ 175 


7 


+ 22 


+ 104 


8 


-263 


+ 108 


9 


-207 


+ 138 


10 


+ 186 


+352 


11 


- 28 


+ 48 


12 


-245 


-104 


13 


-234 


-120 


14 


+370 


+ 28 


15 


+ 51 


+ 2 



2 unpublished variables. 
Refs. 47, 87. No map. 

NGC 6366 a 17 h 25 m .l, 5 -05° 02' 



- 26 

+305 



- 42 
■390 



15.5 
15.7 



17.0 
16.8 






Ref. 134, with plate. 



NGC 6397 a 17 h 36™8, 5 -53° 39' 



1 


+210.7 


+448.4 


11.2 


16.0 


13727.6 314.6 


2 


-279.0 


-424.6 


13.8 


14.8 


45 or 60? 


3 


-220.0 


- 33.5 


14.6 


15.5 


33119.320 0.330667 



Unpublished co-ordinates and magnitudes for No. 3 from Swope, ref. O. 
Refs. 11, 20, 66, 90, 183. Plate in 20. 



NGC 6402 (Messier 14) a 17 h 35 m .O, 5 -03° 13' 



1 


+ 17 


+ 47 


14.3 


16.0 


2 


-116 


-119 


15 4 


16.3 


3 


- 3 


- 90 


16.2 


17.0 


4 


+ 169 


+ 73 


16.3 


17.5 


5 


-136 


+ 90 


16.1 


17.5 


6 


+ 34 


— 77 


15.8 


16.4 


7 


+ 62 


- 97 


14.9 


16.2 


8 


+ 96 


+ 35 


16.6 


17.7 


9 


+ 151 


- 39 


16.3 


17.5 





- 51 


-205 


16.3 


17.4 



18.75 
2.7952 



13.59 



Sp. 
Sp. 



Sp. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 75 

Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6402 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magni 
Max. 


tudes Epoch of Period Remarks 
Min. Maximum 


11 


+ 196 


-223 


16.0 


17.3 




12 


+224 


-177 


16.2 


17.6 




13 


- 29 


-118 


16.3 


17.6 




14 


+ 54 


+ 1 


16.2 


17.5 




15 


-135 


+ 147 


16.1 


17.5 




16 


- 79 


- 36 


16.2 


17.4 




17 


-228 


+ 122 


14.8 


15.7 


Sp., field? 


18 


+ 61 


- 22 


16.1 


17.7 




19 


-128 


+ 2 


16.3 


17.6 




20 


-145 


+ 98 


16.3 


17.4 




21 


+ 72 


+ 125 


16.3 


17.4 




22 


+ 70 


+ 95 


16.4 


17.6 




23 


+ 74 


+281 


15.9 


17.4 




24 


- 2 


+ 75 


16.1 


17.6 




25 


- 28 


-312 


16.4 


17.5 




26 


- 85 


+ 27 


16.5 


17.5 




27 


-421 


+ 151 


15.4 


16.2 




28 


-465 


+372 


15.0 


16.0 




29 


- 68 


-152 


15.7 


16.2 




30 


+ 76 


- 12 


16.2 


17.5 




31 


- 41 


+ 32 


16.0 


17.0 




32 


+ 36 


+ 147 


16.2 


17.1 




33 


-138 


+ 12 


16.2 


17.3 




34 


- 70 


+ 26 


16.4 


17.6 




35 


-112 


- 49 


16.2 


17.4 




36 


+204 


-346 


16.4 


17.5 




37 


+ 5 


+ 18 


16.4 


17.7 




38 


+ 11 


- 17 


16.0 


17.0 




39 


+ 46 


- 2 


16.1 


17.6 




40 


+253 


+310 


16.4 


17.1 




41 


- 13 


- 3 


16.0 


17.1 




42 


+ 36 


+ 12 


15.9 


17.1 




43 


+ 68 


+ 23 


16.2 


17.3 




44 


+ 20 


+ 116 


16.3 


17.5 




45 


- 90 


+ 94 


15.7 


16.4 




46 


+ 91 


- 66 


16.4 


17.4 




47 


- 89 


+ 26 


16.5 


17.6 




48 


- 4 


+ 40 


16.3 


17.7 




49 


- 98 


- 19 


16.0 


16.9 




50 


- 15 


- 38 


16.1 


17.0 




51 


+ 104 


-305 


16.5 


17.5 




52 


+ 82 


+ 39 


16.5 


17.0 




53 


+ 134 


+ 129 


16.4 


17.3 




54 


+ 121 


+ 113 


16.6 


17.6 




55 


+ 33 


+ 106 


16.5 


17.5 





76 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6402 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magni 
Max. 


tudes 
Min. 


Epoch of Period 
Maximum 


Remarks 


56 


- 68 


-184 


16.4 


17.4 






57 


+ 134 


-116 


16.3 


17.6 






58 


-123 


- 34 


16.4 


17.3 






59 


- 32 


+ 30 


16.4 


17.7 






60 


+ 41 


+ 54 


16.2 


17.7 






61 


+ 12 


- 43 


16.1 


17.7 






62 


-232 


-154 


16.5 


17.6 






63 


+ 122 


- 63 


16.5 


17.4 






64 


- 51 


-169 


16.5 


17.5 






65 


-125 


+ 13 


16.4 


17.2 






66 


-133 


+ 37 


16.6 


17.4 






67 


+ 34 


+ 14 


16.1 


17.5 






68 


+ 10 


- 19 


16.6 


17.5 






69 


+ 140 


+ 26 


16.6 


17.3 






70 


+ 43 


- 23 


16.0 


17.2 






71 


-116 


- 50 


16.5 


17.7 






72 


+ 122 


-119 


16.5 


17.5 







Refs. 102, 113, 117, 123, 165. Plate in 123. 



NGC 6426 


a 17 h 42" 


.4, 8 +03° 12' 


1 


-170 


+44 


2 


-204 


-53 


3 


- 94 


-33 


4 


- 77 


-74 


5 


- 68 


-22 


6 


- 46 


+52 


7 


+ 10 


- 4 


8 


- 15 


-53 


9 


- 39 


-85 


10 


+ 40 


+ 11 


11 


+285 


— 7 



prob. field 



Variables found by Baade, unpublished, ref. I; positions measured by Sawyer, ref. R. 



NGC 6522 


a 18 h 00 m .4, 


5 -30° 02' 












1 


-67.5 


+34.4 


17.29 


17.65 


32416.672 


0.269949 


222 


2 


+ 0.5 


+39.7 


17.18 


18.28 


32740.861 


0.4S1903 


133 


3 


+ 14.7 


+37.2 


17.30 


18.11 


32705.874 


0.223892 


44 


4 


+25.6 


+ 8.3 


17.27 


18.59 


32387 . 747 


0.563826 


170 



NGC 6522 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Remarks 



5 


+66.0 


-42.6 


17.62 


18.09 


32349.871 


0.222755 


37 


6 


+96.5 


+30.5 


17.77 


18.23 


32416.753 


0.192392 


247 


7 


-51.5 


+62.7 


17.02 


17.61 




irreg. 


172, field 


8 


-20.2 


+49.6 


15.94 


17.11 


32290.987 


0.635019 


27, held 


9 


-19.5 


-64.9 


16.79 


17.27 


32740.786 


. 426448 


232, field 



New variables found by Baade, light elements by S. Gaposchkin, ref. I. 

Baade considers Xos. 2, 3, 4, 5, cluster members, Nos. 1 and 6 possible members, 7, 8, 9, 
field stars. Numbers at right are those assigned by Baade and Gaposchkin to variables in 
this galactic centre field. 

Ref. 164. 

NGC 6528 a 18 h 01 m .6, 8 -30° 04' 

Baade finds a few variables from rich galactic centre field projected against this cluster, 
but considers no variables vet found are cluster members. Ref. I. 



NGC 6535 a 18 h 01 m .3, 8 -00° 18' 



1 



-197 



+65 



16.3 17.3 



1 variable unpublished? Ref. A. 
Ref. 187 with plate. 

NGC 6539 a 18 h 02<M, 8 -07° 35' 
1 unpublished variable. Ref. A. 

NGC 6541 a 18 h 04 m .4, 5 -43° 44' 



18 



126 



12.5 [16 



New position for Wood's variable determined by McKibben-Xail, ref. J. 
Refs. 63, 70. No map. 



NGC 6553 a 18 h 06 m .3, 8 -25° 56' 



1 


+ 186 


+ 20 


2 


+ 75 


-152 


3 


- 23 


- 38 


4 


+ 16 


- 2 


5 


- 71 


- 12 


Nova 


-131: 


-281 



8 [12 



30955 



0.5642 




0.5818 


prob. field 


0.4886 




100 




100 






N Sgr 1943 



2 suspected variables. 

Unpublished data on new variables from Thackeray, co-ordinates of nova by Thackerav 
and Morrisby, ref. P. 

Refs. 51,166 (cluster no. is misprinted as 6533), 178. No map. 



78 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 6584 a 18 h 14 m .6, 5-52° 14' 

No variable in cluster. Ref. 71. No map. 

NGC 6626 (Messier 28) a 18 h 21 m .5, 5 -25° 54' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magni 
Max. 


tudes 
Min. 


Epoch of Period 
Maximum 


Remarks 


1 


+ 174.0 


+ 188.5 


15.1 


16.4 






2 


- 47.3 


+ 63.1 


14.3 


14.8 






3 


- 32.9 


+ 111.0 


14.6 


15.4 






4 


- 34.5 


+ 33.6 


13.6 


14.8 


32759.765 14.0 : 


Sp. 


5 


- 44.8 


+ 16.4 


14.9 


15.8 






6 


+ 34.1 


+ 50.4 


14.3 


15.2 






7 


+ 172.2 


+ 102.7 


15.9 


17.0 






8 


+227.3 


-222.3 


14.9 


16.3 






9 


-158.6 


-252.4 


14.9 


15.9 






10 


+ 96 


- 79 


13.5 


14.6 






11 


- 14 


+ 35 


15.0 


16.3 






12 


+ 148 


- 49 


14.9 


16.5 






13 


- 92 


- 24 


15.2 


16.7 






14 


-131 


-100 


15.7 


16.2 






15 


-472 


-186 


15.8 


17.0 






16 


+432 


-372 


15.9 


17.0 







Refs. 11, 14, 20, 165, 170. Plate in 20. 



NGC 6656 (Messier 22) a 18 h 33 m .3, 5 -23° 58' 



1 


- 54.0 


- 10.0 


13.9 


14.9 


29425 . 892 


0.615543 


348 


2 


+ 158.6 


+ 69.2 


13.1 


14.3 


29436.917 


0.6418 


857 


3 


+214.7 


+420.2 


14.6 


[15.2 


29434.918 


0.340 




4 


- 4.0 


- 68.0 


13.6 


14.6 


29438.96 


0.716391 


465 


5 


-178.2 


- 33.8 


12.0 


12.8 






158, Sp. 


6 


- 74.4 


-100.0 


13.6 


14.5 


29429.938 


0.638547 


299 


7 


-342.4 


+411.2 


13.5 


14.5 


29424.947 


0.6495191 


82 


8 


- 39.5 


- 64.8 


12.0 


12.7 


13373.6 


61: 


382, Sp. 


9 


— 211.2 


- 35.0 


12.7 


13.3 


16761.5 


87.71 


135, Sp. 


10 


- 39.0 


-125.0 


13.5 


14.6 


29438.919 


0.646020 


389 


11 


- 14.4 


+ 14.0 


12.9 


13.8 


29436.917 


1 . 69050 


461, Sp. 


12 


+ 0.8 


- 77.8 


14.2 


14.5 


var.? 




531 


13 


+ 76.4 


+ 158.9 


13.5 


14.5 


29439.920 


0.6725217 


719 


14 


+250.8 


+486.4 


13.8 


[15.5 


18160.6 


200.2 


field, Sp. 


15 


+ 115.3 


- 83.2 


14.0 


14.5 


29439.844 


0.3721 


804 


16 


+ 185.0 


- 17.8 


14.0 


14.5 


29429.938 


0.3237 


877 


17 


-438.0 


+ 126.0 


14.6 


[15 








18 


- 86 


+433 


13.7 


14.4 


29425.892 


0.3249 


259 


19 


- 33 


+ 130 


13.9 


14.5 


29424.947 


0.384010 


381 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



79 



NGC 6656 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






20 


-120 


-123 


13.7 


14.5 


29429.938 


0.430061 


221 


21 


+ 36 


+ 88 


13.8 


14.8 


29425.892 


0.3265 


601 


22 


-1089 


+213 


13.7 


14.9 


29424.947 


0.624538 




23 


- 5 


- 14 


14.1 


14.9 


29432.919 


0.3557 


505 


24 


- 26 


+ 10 


13.8 


14.2 


29425.892 


0.415: 


427 


25 


+326 


+375 


13.9 


14.4 


29425 . 892 


0.4023595 


952 



Numbers at right identify star in Chevalier's catalogue, Z6-S& Ann., v. 10, C, pp. 1-51, 
1918. 

Refs. 11, 14, 20, 48, 68a, 81, 155, 165. Plates in 20, 155. 

NGC 6712 a 18 h 50 m .3, 5 -08° 47' 



1 


- 63 


- 17 


15.8 


17.0 


2 


+ 71 


+ 17 


14.0 


14.9 


3 


- 28 


- 96 


16.2 


17.0 


4 


+ 181 


- 28 


16.4 


16.9 


5 


+ 67 


- 74 


15.6 


16.8 


6 


+ 18 


- 39 


15.6 


16.6 


7 


-130 


- 17 


14.2 


[17.0 


8 


+ 24 


+ 60 


14.6 


15.8 


9 


- 1 


+290 


16.4 


[17.4 


10 


- 99 


+ 30 


15.2 


16.0 


11 


-122 


-339 


16.0 


16.6 


12 


+ 31 


+ 38 


16.0 


17.4 



28728: 



105: 



AP Set 



Co-ordinates of No. 1 shifted slightly to conform with other variables. Some unpublished 
variables, ref. A. 

Refs. 36, 151, 187. Chart in 151, plate in 187. 



NGC 6715 (Messier 54) a 18 h 52 m .0, 5 -30° 32' 



1 


+ 


83 


+ 10 


16.7 


17.5 


2 


- 


6 


+ 90 


16.8 


17.5 


3 


- 


14 


+ 179 


17.1 




4 


- 


38 


+ 311 


17.1 




5 


- 


129 


+ 43 


17.2 




6 


+ 


210 


- 177 


17.0 




7 


+ 


54 


- 165 


17.2 




8 


+ 


365 


- 330 


• 16.8 


17.6 


9 


- 


67 


- 637 






10 


+ 


115 


- 530 






11 


- 


106 


-1086 






12 


- 


220 


- 248 


16.7 


17.3 


13 


- 


238 


+ 451 







80 



NGC 6715 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 



Magnitudes Epoch of Period Remarks 

Max. Min. Maximum 



14 


+ 240 


+ 


213 


17.2 


15 


+ 124 


- 


63 


17.1 


16 


+ 87 


- 


917 




17 


+ 697 


- 


435 




18 


+ 511 


+ 


382 




19 


-1260 


- 


190 


16? 


20 


+ 106 


+ 


95 


17.2 


21 


+ 85 


- 


231 


17.2 


22 


+ 11 


- 


171 


17.2 


23 


+ 240 


+ 


210 


17.2 


24 


+ 453 


+ 


55 




25 


+ 147 


+ 


337 


16.8 


26 


+ 187 


- 


150 




27 


+ 209 


- 


306 


17.1 


28 


+ 68 


_j_ 


161 


17.1 



17.4 



Ref. 180 with plate. 



NGC 6723 a 18 h 56 m .2, 5 -36° 42' 



1 


+ 75.6 


-197.4 


15.10 


15.80 


23618.56 


0.5384149 


2 


+ 135.2 


- 76.9 


14.45 


16.05 


23618.68 


. 5048 


3 


-244.9 


+ 6.0 


14.70 


15.80 


23618.90 


0.4949 


4 


+ 17.1 


+ 77.4 


14.55 


15.90 


23618.79 


0.4524 


5 


- 4.8 


+ 50.8 


15.20 


16.00 




0.49 


6 


+ 7.1 


+ 46.2 


14.90 


16.05 


23618.80 


0.4812 


7 


+ 197.9 


- 70.1 


15.20 


15.75 


23618.91 


0.4675 


8 


+ 15.9 


+ 10.8 


14.75 


15.60 




0.53 


9 


+ 73.6 


+ 17.2 


14.70 


15.80 


23618.71 


0.5779 


10 


+ 149.6 


+ 84.2 


15.10 


15.60 


23618.60 


0.33855 


11 


+133.3 


+228.8 


14.85 


15.65 


23618.70 


. 5342935 


12 


+ 45.1 


- 45.0 


14.95 


15.85 


23618.53 


0.5333 


13 


- 46.8 


- 70.8 


14.80 


16.00 


23618.48 


0.5078 


14 


- 37.9 


- 43.0 


14.95 


15.80 


23618.91 


0.6190 


15 


- 93.4 


+ 165.7 


14.40 


15.80 


23618.74 


0.4355162 


16 


- 46. 4 


+ 91.6 


14.75 


15. 65 


23618.67 


0.4114 


17 


+ 43.9 


-102.0 


14.4 


15.7 




0.5301595 


18 


-139.2 


- 24: 


14.6 


15.3 




0.5263801 


19 


-174.0 


-120: 


14.6 


15.5 




0.5347108 



The three variables found by van Gent have been given numbers 17, 18, 19. 
Refs. 14, 20, 73, 74, 91, 96. Plate in 20, charts in 96. 



NGC 6752 a 19 h 06 m .4, 5 -60° 04' 
1 variable, 4' from cluster centre. 
Refs. 11, 14, 20. No map. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6760 a 19 h 08 m .6, 5 +00° 57' 



81 



No. 



Magnitudes Epoch of Period Remarks 

Max. Min. Maximum 



1 


+57 


- 57 


15.7 


17.0 


2 


- 6 


-100 


16.7 


17.2 


3 


+31 


- 10 


15.5 


[17.4 


4 


+42 


+ 39 


15.4 


[17.5 



2? unpublished variables. Ref. A. 
Ref. 187 with plate. 

NGC 6779 (Messier 56) a 19 h 14 m .6, 5 +30° 05' 



1 


+ 44.69 


+ 74.10 


15.0 


16.2 


30899.341 


1.510019 


363, Sp. 


2 


+ 18.16 


+ 33.09 


15.1 


15.6 






326 


3 


+ 25.10 


+ 91.69 


14 4 


15.1 




semireg. 


337, Sp. 


4 


-112.13 


-159.46 


15.9 


16.4 






141 


5 


+ 6.79 


-134.78 


14.4 


15.2 




semireg. 


305 


6 


- 2.02 


+ 37.06 


12.9 


14.8 


30172.7 


90.02 


284, Sp. 


7 


+293.48 


-213.24 


15.6 


16.3 




irreg. 


504 


8 


- 97.63 


-335.90 


15.9 


16.7 




semireg. 


150 


9 


+ 177 


+525 


15.6 


16.1 




semireg. 




10 


-431.53 


+ 88.33 


16.4 


17.4 


30967.473 


0.5988948 




11 


-415.58 


+283.80 


15.5 


16.3 


33152.555 


. 07564 


17 


12 


-243.96 


- 95.41 


15.6 


16.4 






68 



Right-hand column gives identification no. in Kiistner's Catalogue, Bonn Veroff., no. 14, 
1920. 

Refs. 35, 51, 134, 146, 154, 165, 169, 171, 187. Plates in 51, 134, 154. 

NGC 6809 (Messier 55) a 19 h 36 m .9, 5 -31° 03' 

32413.39 0.57997286 HV 658 

32467.18 0.4061601 HV 659 

32413.22 0.6619023 HV 12213 

32413.34 0.3841702 HV 12214 

0.2? HV 12215 

32413.32 0.388904 HV 12216 



1 


+304.2 


- 55.6 


2 


-214.9 


- 26.0 


3 


+ 78 


-304 


4 


+ 108 


+ 59 


5 


- 41 


- 74 


6 


+ 111 


- 20 



Refs. 20, 75, 77, 174. Plate in 20. 



NGC 6838 (Messier 71) a 19 h 51 m .5, 5 +18° 39' 



1 


+ 140 


+ 24 


13.5 


14.9 


2 


+ 44 


-146 


13.8 


14.7 


3 


+ 44 


- 70 


15.2 


17.0 


4 


+266 


+ 31 


14.7 


15.3 



Z Sge 

4873 

eel. 



Number for Var. 2 from Russian catalogue of suspected variables, 1951. 
Refs. 83a, 182, 187 with plate. 



82 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 6864 (Messier 75) a 20 h 03 m .2, 5 -22° 04' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


Remarks 


1 


+ 15.6 


-83.4 










2 


- 9.0 


+54.0 










3 


+ 18.0 


+85.5 










4 


- 18.0 


-84.6 










5 


+ 108.0 


-36.0 










6 


+ 8.4 


-81.0 










7 


- 24.6 


+78.0 










8 


- 13.5 


-41.4 










9 


+ 45.6 


-24.0 










*10 


- 43.5 


+50.4 










11 


+ 121.2 


+84.0 










12 


+ 39.6 


+75.0 











*Suspected. Four additional suspected variables, numbered 13-16, are omitted. 
Ref. 51, with plate. 



NGC 6934 


a 20 h 31 m . 


7, 5 +07° 1 


4' 




1 


- 45 


- 39 


15.9 


17.3 


2 


- 40 


- 14 


16.0 


17.4 


3 





+ 58 


15.9 


17.3 


4 


+ 39 


+ 58 


15.6 


17.2 


5 


+ 59 


+221 


15.9 


17.2 


6 


- 27 


- 33 


16.1 


17.5 


7 


+ 92 


+ 59 


16.2 


17.3 


8 


+ 100 


+ 50 


16.3 


17.1 


9 


+ 63 


+ 18 


15.9 


17.4 


10 


- 135 


+ 72 


15.8 


17.2 


11 


+ 17 


+ 28 


16.6 


17.5 


12 


+ 29 


- 44 


15.6 


17.1 


13 


- 47 


+ 25 


16.0 


17.2 


14 


- 7 


- 90 


15.8 


17.4 


15 


+ 10 


- 53 


15.2 


15.8 


16 


+ 36 


+ 18 


16.1 


17.4 


17 


- 73 


-107 


16.2 


17.4 


18 


+ 49 


- 8 


16.1 


17.1 


19 


+ 30 


+ 1 


15.9 


17.4 


20 


- 26 


+ 17 


16.0 


17.3 


21 


- 35 


- 3 


16.1 


17.5 


22 


-240 


-173 


16.0 


17.2 


23 


- 31 


- 16 


16.4 


17.4 


24 


+ 37 


- 53 


16.3 


17.3 


25 


+ 50 


+ 37 


15.9 


17.4 


26 


+ 31 


-196 


16.4 


17.2 


27 


-148 


+ 180 


16.2 


17.2 


28 


-234 


+ 100 


15.7 


17.3 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



83 



NGC 6934 



No. 



Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 



Epoch of 
Maximum 



Period 



Remarks 



29 


- 


85 


-: 


L83 


15.7 


17.3 


30 


+ 161 


+ 127 


16.2 


17.2 


31 


+ 146 


-: 


101 


16.0 


17.3 


32 


- 


10 


+ 


51 


15.8 


17.1 


33 


+ 


37 


+ 


12 


16.0 


17.2 


34 


- 


21 


+ 


16 


16.1 


17.4 


35 


+ 157 


- 


142 


16.0 


17.5 


36 


+ 


10 


- 


35 


15.6 


17.0 


37 


+ 


23 


+ 


10 


16.0 


17.3 


38 


+ 


12 


- 


18 


16.2 


17.3 


39 


+ 


8 


- 


16 


16.1 


17.3 


40 


- 


8 


+ 


26 


15.7 


16.3 


41 


+ 


30 


- 


39 


16.2 


17.5 


42 


+ 


55 


+ 


20 


15.9 


17.3 


43 


+ 


21 


+ 


27 


15.9 


17.4 


44 


- 


43 


- 


30 


15.8 


17.3 


45 


- 


32 


- 


9 


15.8 


17.2 


46 


+ 


14 


- 


24 


16.4 


17.4 


47 


+ 


10 


- 


26 


16.3 


17.3 


48 


+ 


33 


+ 


52 


16.0 


17.4 


49 


+ 


13 


- 


55 


16.2 


17.3 


50 


+ 


15 


- 


37 


16.4 


17.3 


51 


+ 


7 


- 


25 


15.4 


16.1 



Refs. 102, 107, 113, 123. Plate in 123. 

Numerous periods, all RR Lyrae type, are nearly ready for publication by Sawyer, ref. R 



NGC 6981 (Messier 72) a 20 h 50 m .7, 5 -12° 44' 



1 


+ 43.5 


— 


54.0 


16.45 


17.25 


33129.400 


0.619818 


2 


+ 99.0 


+ 194.4 


15.95 


17.30 


33126.405 


0.4652687 


3 


- 52.5 


- 


58.5 


16.10 


17.30 


33809.553 


0.4976104 


4 


-106.5 


+ 


37.5 


16.25 


17.35 


33147.462 


0.5524877 


5 


- 38.4 


- 


21.6 


16.40 


17.43 


22163.738 


0.4991 


6 


+ 78.0 


+ 


78.6 


16.70 


17.10 






7 


- 3.6 


+ 


55.5 


16.20 


17.29 


22163.896 


0.52463 


8 


- 6.6 


+ 


89.4 


16.20 


17.50 


33145.372 


0.568392 


9 


+ 11.4 


+ 


50.4 


16.30 


17.34 


22162.61 


. 5902 


10 


- 48.6 


— 


73.5 


16.20 


17.30 


33857.504 


0.5581805 


11 


+ 57.0 


- 


36.6 


16.35 


17.25 


33856.570 


0.521466 


12 


+ 9.0 


- 


21.6 


16.31 


17.17 


22163.90 


0.4111 


13 


+ 13.5 


+ 


17.4 


16.10 


17.15 


22161.907 


0.54182 


14 


- 13.5 


+ 


36.0 


16.40 


17.06 


22163.90 


0.5904 


15 


- 64.5 


- 


21.0 


16.20 


17.35 


33125.435 


0.5403524 


16 


- 4.5 


- 


19.5 


16.30 


17.37 


22163.83 


0.5641 



84 



NGC 6981 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnil 
Max. 


:udes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period Remarks 


17 


+ 3.6 


- 43.5 


16.45 


17.35 


33125.483 


0.573539 


18 


- 26.4 


- 37.5 


15.70 


16.28 


22162.88 


0.52016 


19 


+ 3.0 


+ 112.5 


17.15 


17.30 


not var. 




20 


- 54.6 


+ 15.0 


16.50 


17.40 


33857.420 


0.595046 


21 


- 82.5 


+ 12.6 


16.10 


17.50 


33145.370 


0.5311618 


22 


-113.4 


+ 1.5 


17.10 


17.25 


not var. 




23 


- 99.0 


+ 116.4 


16.20 


17.25 


33834.550 


0.5850834 


24 


- 15.6 


- 24.0 


16.20 


16.55 


22161.92 


0.4973: 


25 


-133.5 


+ 67.5 


16.50 


17.15 


33481.810 


0.3533494 


26 


- 91.5 


- 45.0 


16.90 


17.20 






27 


+209.4 


-234.0 


15.85 


17.25 


33856.560 


0.6739040 


28 


- 65.4 


+ 81.0 


16.30 


17.15 


33853.437 


0.5672533 


29 


+ 36.0 


- 52.5 


16.40 


17.37 


22161.83 


0.36865 


30 


+ 71.4 


- 97.5 


16.50 


16.90 






31 


+ 5.4 


+ 36.6 


16.50 


17.22 


22162.02 


0.55465 


32 


-138.0 


- 42.0 


16.55 


17.30 


33834.545 


0.5282821 


33 


+ 2.4 


- 60.6 


16.95 


17.25 






34 


- 6.0 


+ 7.5 


16.06 


16.73 






35 


+231 


+ 27 


16.2 


17.4 






36 


- 12 





16.0 


16.8 






37 


+ 7 


- 8 


15.5 


16.5 






38 


+ 5 


- 9 


16.6 


17.3 






39 


+ 195 


+243 


16.8 


17.6 






40 


+ 18 


+ 16 


16.4 


17.4 






41 


- 15 


- 20 


16.7 


17.5 







Refs. 36, 51, 52, 185, 187. Plates in 51, 185, 187. 



NGC 7006 a 20 h 59 m .l, 5 +16° 00' 



1 


-177.9 


+ 114.8 




2 


- 35.3 


- 


37.3 




3 


- 24.4 


+ 


34.2 




4 


- 21.0 


- 


41.1 


not var, 


5 


- 20.9 


+ 


38.4 




6 


- 13.5 


- 


44.5 




7 


+ 3.2 


- 


36.9 


not var. 


8 


+ 34.4 


+ 


13.5 




9 


+ 39.4 


+ 


16.6 


var.? 


10 


+ 42.8 


- 


11.8 




11 


+ 148 


+ 


50 




12 


+ 122.0 


- 


64.0 




13 


+ 102.7 


+ 


40.2 




14 


+ 35.3 


+ 128.3 




15 


- 11.5 


+ 114.8 




16 


- 39.6 


+ 135.5 





Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 



85 



Catalogue — Continued 



NGC 7006 



No. 


X 




> 




Magnitudes 
Max. Min. 


Epoch of Period 
Maximum 


Remarks 


17 


— 


99.3 


+ 


85.5 








18 


- 


29.6 


- 


89.5 








19 


- 


0.6 


- 


25.3 




26586. 252: 




20 


- 


21.2 


- 


24.4 








21 


- 


21.5 


- 


18.4 








22 


- 


12.6 


- 


15.8 








23 


- 


27.6 


- 


7.5 








24 


- 


25.8 


- 


2.9 








25 


- 


19.2 


+ 


5.2 








26 


— 


10.6 


- 


2.9 








27 


- 


11.8 


+ 


0.3 








28 


- 


15.8 


+ 


4.3 








29 


+ 35.0 


+ 


31.6 








30 


+ 


5.2 


+ 


16.6 








31 


+ 


10.0 


+ 


11.2 








32 


+ 


20.9 


+ 


13.8 








33 


+ 


31.9 


+ 


22.4 








34 


+ 


26.4 


+ 


9.2 








35 


+ 


36.2 


- 


2.0 








36 


+ 


25.5 


- 


3.7 








37 


+ 


18.9 


— 


3.4 








38 


+ 


21.5 


- 


18.4 








39 


+ 


11.5 


- 


25.3 








40 


+ 


9.7 


- 


14.3 








41 


+ 


1.4 


- 


11.2 








42 


+ 


9.5 


- 


7.5 








43 


- 


4.0 


- 


28.7 









Data supplied by Sandage who has prepared Hubble's work on these variables for publica- 
tion in P.A.S.P., with print. Co-ordinates of all variables now on Hubble's system, which 
diners from Shapley and Mayberry's by x = +3". 2, y = + l".l. Ref. M. 

Refs. 51, 57. 



NGC 7078 (Messier 15) «21 h 27 m .C, 5 +11° 57' 



1 


-118.6 


+ 24.4 


14.36 


15.54 


15021.990 


1.437478 


156, Sp. 


2 


-171.7 


+ 6.0 


15.14 


15.95 


15021.078 


0.684270 


91 


3 


-248.0 


- 46.8 


15.34 


16.03 


15021.097 


0.3891545 


61 


4 


-112.6 


-163.6 


15.31 


16.08 


15021.277 


0.3135750 


162 


5 


-100.3 


-212.5 


15.33 


16.00 


15021.291 


0.384619 


186 


6 


+ 24.4 


+ 76.5 


15.20 


16.29 


15021 . 603 


0.665971 


680 


7 


+ 10.1 


+ 73.2 


15.56 


16.16 


15021 . 134 


0.367586 


611 


8 


- 0.6 


+ 126.8 


15.22 


16.14 


15021.330 


0.646251 


564 


9 


+ 15.6 


+ 138.7 


15.12 


15.98 


15021.425 


0.715284 


632 


10 


+ 125.6 


+ 1.7 


15.50 


16.04 


15021.370 


0.386395 


976 


11 


+ 172.3 


- 21.8 


15.28 


16.07 


15021.243 


3435678 


1034 



86 



NGC 7078 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
Catalogue — Continued 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnii 
Max. 


tudes 
Min. 


Epoch of 
Maximum 


Period 


Remarks 


12 


+ 163.0 


- 50.7 


15.22 


16.13 


15021.090 


0.592934 


1017 


13 


+ 126.6 


- 68.8 


15.12 


16.20 


15021.365 


0.574961 


980 


14 


+ 84.1 


-256.2 


15.44 


16.00 


15021.128 


0.381999 


905 


15 


+ 81.7 


-304.1 


15.22 


16.16 


15021.064 


0.584386 


894 


16 


+ 101.9 


+ 129.8 


15.50 


15.97 


15021.556 


0.69464 


942 


17 


+ 83.7 


+ 110.6 


15.40 


15.90 


15021.216 


0.666979 


901 


18 


+ 77.3 


+ 100.4 


15.50 


16.00 


15021.331 


0.37816 


886 


19 


+ 111.3 


+ 160.4 


14.85 


16.10 


15021.552 


0.572293 


964 


20 


+ 81.2 


- 9.8 


15.27 


16.17 


15021.261 


0.700570 


891 


21 


+ 34.4 


- 57.5 


15.25 


16.20 


15021.322 


0.624690 


732 


22 


-330.8 


- 45.8 


15.18 


16.04 


15021 . 566 


0.721728 


30 


23 


+ 192.0 


+256.1 


15.07 


15.95 


15021 . 198 


0.632690 


1053 


24 


-106.7 


- 6.1 


15.42 


16.17 


15021.055 


0.369697 


173 


25 


+302.9 


- 10.7 


15.10 


16.00 


15021.499 


0.665329 


1093 


26 


+ 23.5 


+331.9 


15.33 


15.97 


15021.272 


0.402326 


675 


27 


+222.5 


+248.2 


var.? 








1065 


28 


+309.9 


+534.2 


15.19 


16.15 


15021.632 


0.670640 




29 


+ 163.3 


+212.2 


15.13 


16.06 


15021.281 


0.574062 


1020 


30 


-165.0 


- 3.4 


15.42 


16.00 


15021.293 


0.405976 


102 


31 


-112.6 


+245.6 


15.30 


16.07 


15021.375 


0.435693 


164 


32 


- 50.4 


+ 107.8 


15.14 


15.98 


15021.066 


0.605400 


332 


33 


- 41.2 


- 29.4 










380? 


34 


- 55.4 


- 54.5 


var.? 








322 


35 


- 34.0 


-163.6 


15.40 


16.11 


15021.278 


0.383997 


412 


36 


- 27.7 


- 81.6 


15.18 


16.26 


15021.371 


0.624142 


437 


37 


- 25.2 


- 77.4 










451 


38 


+ 7.6 


-146.2 


15.29 


16.16 


15021.328 


0.375274 


600 


39 


+ 20.5 


-124.8 


15.34 


16.14 


15021.259 


0.389984 


659 


40 


+ 131.8 


-116.7 


15.34 


16.00 


15021.320 


0.377390 


986 


41 


+ 62.9 


- 55.4 










835 


42 


+227.5 


- 36.8 


15.34 


16.07 


15021.110 


0.360167 


1066 


43 


+416.7 


+ 103.2 


15.25 


15.88 


15021.041 


0.406744 


1122 


44 


+ 91.3 


+ 3.0 


15.20 


16.11 


15021.373 


0.595568 


920 


45 


+ 66.9 


- 31.0 


15.19 


16.14 


15021.521 


0.66210 


854 


46 


+ 56.0 


+ 33.2 


15.40 


16.32 


15021.210 


0.692730 


814? 


47 


+ 45.7 


- 4.3 


15.32 


16.04 


15021.604 


0.662900 




48 


+ 59.7 


+ 150.6 


15.35 


16.17 


15021 . 266 


0.378881 


827 


49 


+ 40.3 


+ 166.6 


14.75 


15.35 


15021.037 


0.417972 


765 


50 


+ 165.0 


+ 100.0 


15.35 


16.00 


15021.262 


0.29850 


1022 


51 


+ 6.2 


+ 91.4 


15.51 


16.03 


15021 . 158 


0.397757 


590 


52 


+ 192.4 


- 22.6 


15.12 


16.24 


15021 . 106 


0.577608 


1055 


53 


- 92.6 


-111.0 


15.28 


15.91 


15021.301 


0.414135 


210 


54 


+ 10.8 


+ 88.4 


15.58 


16.13 


15021.240 


0.398325 


612 


55 


+ 65.3 


- 18.8 


15.49 


16.30 


15021.675 


0.719615 


850 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 
Catalogue — Continued 



87 



NGC 7078 



No. 


X 




y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 












Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






56 


+ 


57.4 




0.0 


15.19 


16.11 


15021.249 


0.570307 


820 


57 


+ 


75.2 


- 


56.4 


15.26 


15.97 


15021.243 


0.348935 


872? 


58 


- 


55.6 


+ 


8.8 


15.64 


16.32 


15021.388 


0.420463 


321 


59 


+ 


41.3 


+ 


41.5 


15.50 


16.10 


15021.117 


0.565260 


770 


60 


+ 


53.4 


- 


59.3 


15.29 


16.00 


15021.118 


0.691852 


805 


61 


- 


67.3 


- 


40.2 


15.43 


16.16 


15021.526 


0.61030 


281 


62 


- 


71.6 


+ 


39.6 


15.65 


16.26 


15021.161 


0.38818 


264 


63 


+ 


49.8 


+ 


31.0 


15.54 


16.44 


15021.076 


0.67370 


790? 


64 


- 


46.2 


+ 


19.1 


15.61 


16.24 


15021.207 


0.351695 


350 


65 




L02.4 


- 


38.7 


15.43 


16.18 


15021.377 


0.756048 


177 


66 


- 


68.4 


- 


112.4 


15.41 


16.10 


15021.191 


0.379330 


275 


67 


- 


86.6 


- 


10.4 










227 


68 


- 


31.8 


+ 


12.6 










420 


69 


- 


37.0 


- 


25.2 












70 


- 


34.0 


- 


19.2 












71 


- 


34.8 


- 


12.6 












72 


- 


2.2 


+ 


34.8 










556 


73 


- 


3.7 


+ 


20.0 












74 


+ 


36.3 


- 


85.8 










754 


75 


+ 


2.2 


- 


30.3 












76 


+ 


0.7 


- 


28.9 












77 


- 


11.8 


- 


22.9 












78 


- 


6.7 


+ 


47.4 










533 


79 


+ 


21.5 


— 


23.7 












80 


- 


47.4 


- 


26.6 










345 


81 


- 


21.5 


- 


5.9 












82 


- 


20.7 


+ 


1.5 












83 


+ 


16.3 


- 


7.4 












84 


+ 


18.5 


- 


16.3 












85 


+ 


20.7 


+ 


2.2 












86 


+ 


12.6 


+ 


4.4 


13.4 


14.6 






prob. Cep. 


87 


+ 


23.7 


— 


23.7 












88 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


26.6 












89 


- 


23.7 


- 


6.7 










463 


90 


+ 


31.1 


+ 


4.4 












91 


+ 


67.3 


+ 


28.9 










847 


92 


+ 


9.6 


- 


25.2 










610 


93 


+ 


27.4 


- 


33.3 










705 


94 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


28.9 












95 


+ 


5.2 


— 


40.0 










599 



8 variables still unpublished? Ref. 76. Numbers at right are from Kiistner's catalogue, 
Bonn Veroff., no. 15, 1921. (No. 37 might be 452.) 

Refs. 14, J7, 20, 34, 39, 41, 45, 76, 95, 100, 128, 165, 172. Plates in 20, 41, 172. 



88 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Catalogue — Continued 
NGC 7089 (Messier 2) « 21 h 30 m .9, 5 -01° 03' 



No. 


x" 


y" 


Magnitudes 


Epoch of 


Period 


Remarks 








Max. 


Min. 


Maximum 






1 


+ 25.6 


+ 79.4 


13.2 


14.8 


26607 . 800 


15.5647 


Sp. 


2 


- 45.8 


+ 71.1 


14.6 


16.1 


21454.971 


. 527858 




3 


+222.9 


- 39.6 


15.1 


16.4 


26921.936 


0.619705 




4 


- 26.8 


+ 31.5 


15.2 


16.6 


26628.644 


0.564247 




5 


- 44.4 


+ 2.1 


13.2 


14.9 


26628.644 


17.5548 


Sp. 


6 


+ 11.8 


- 45.4 


13.2 


14.9 


22162.928 


19.3010 


Sp. 


7 


+ 153.0 


- 189 . 2 


15.1 


16.4 


27274.901 


0.594857 




8 


- 66.9 


- 56.8 


15.1 


16.4 


27273 . 896 


0.643677 




9 


-173.2 


-128.2 


15.2 


16.4 


27274.901 


0.609291 




10 


+ 90.6 


+ 38.8 


15.2 


16.4 


27275.909 


0.466910 


Sp. 


11 


+ 85 


+ 8 


12.5 


14.0 


31259.8 


67.086 




12 


- 62 


+ 43 


15.1 


16.5 


26628.776 


0.665616 




13 


- 77 


+ 73 


15.1 


16.4 


26924 . 972 


0.706616 




14 


+ 83 


- 68 


15.4 


16.4 


20749.843 


0.693785 




15 


+ 80 


- 76 


15.7 


16.4 


26944.880 


0.430152 




16 


- 31 


- 27 


15.3 


16.5 


27275.950 


0.655917 




17 


+ 2 


- 63 


15.2 


16.3 


27274.901 


0.636434 





Refs. 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, 88, 102, 112, 123, 165, 169. Plates in 20, 112, 169. 



NGC 7099 (Messier 30) a 21 h 37 m .5, 5 -23° 25' 

1 + 30.0 - 60.6 14.98 16.31 32414.485 0.74365 

2 + 58.6 -126.2 14.92 16.04 32060.46 0.6535049 

3 - 96.7 - 39.6 14.91 16.06 32039.59 0.69632 

4 -339: -51: 16.4 [18 32450. 11-15 SS Cyj 



Refs. 11, 14, 20, 167, L. Plates in 20, 167. 



NGC 7492 a 23 h 05 m .7, 5 - 15° 54' 



+ 1.2 



+96.6 



4 suspected variables and 8 unpublished variables. 
Refs. 51, 87. Plate in 51. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 89 

REFERENCES TO VARIABLE STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN 
CHRONOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT 

1. 1889 - Pickering, E. C, A.N., v. 123, p. 207. 

2. 1890 - Common, A. A., M.N., v. 50, p. 517. 

3. 1890 - Fleming, M., Sid. Mess., v. 9, p. 380. 

4. 1890 - Fleming, M., A.N., v. 125, p. 157. 

5. 1890 - Packer, D. E., Sid Mess., v. 9, p. 281; E.M., v. 51, p. 378. 

6. 1890 - Packer, D. E., Sid Mess., v. 10, p. 107. 

7. 1890 - Packer, D. E., E.M., v. 52, p. 80. 

8. 1891 - Porro, F., A.N., v. 127, p. 197. 

9. 1894 - Pickering, E. C, A.N., v. 135, p. 129. 

10. 1895 - Belopolsky, A., A.N., v. 140, p. 23. 

11. 1895 - Pickering, E. C, H.C., no. 2; A.N., v. 139, p. 137; Ap.J., v. 2, p. 321. 

12. 1896 - Pickering, E. C, A.N., v. 140, p. 285. 

13. 1897 - Chevremont, A., Bull. Soc. Astr. France, v. 11, p. 485. 

14. 1897 - Pickering, E. C, H.C., no. 18; A.N., v. 144, p. 191; Ap.J., v. 6, p. 258. 

15. 1898 - Barnard, E. E., A.N., v. 147, p. 243. 

16. 1898 - Chevremont, A., Bull. Soc. Astr. France, v. 12, p. 16, 90. 

17. 1898 - Pickering, E. C, H.C., no. 24; .4.^., v. 146, p. 113; Ap.J., v. 7, p. 208. 

18. 1900 - Barnard, E. E., Ap.J., v. 12, p. 182. 

19. 1900 - Pickering, E. C, H.C., no. 52; A.N., v. 153, p. 115; Ap.J., v. 12, p. 159. 

20. 1902 - Bailey, S. I., H.A., v. 38. 

21. 1904 - Leavitt, H. S., H.C., no. 90; A.N., v. 167, p. 161. 

22. 1906 - Barnard, E. E., A.N., v. 172, p. 345. 

23. 1909 - Barnard, E. E., Ap.J., v. 29, p. 75. 

24. 1909 - Barnard, E. E., A.N., v. 184, p. 273. 

25. 1913 - Bailey, S. I., H.A., v. 78, p. 1-98; Viert. der Astr. Ges., v. 48, p. 418. 

26. 1913 - Barnard, E. E., ,4.^., v. 196, p. 11. 

27. 1914 - Barnard, E. E., Ap.J., v. 40, p. 179. 

28. 1914 - Shapley, H., Ml. W. Cont., no. 91 = Ap.J., v. 40, p. 443. 

29. 1915 - Shapley, H., P.A.S.P., v. 27, p. 134. 

30. 1915 - Shapley, H., P.A.S.P., v. 27, p. 238. 

31. 1916 - Bailey, S. I., H.C., no. 193. 

32. 1916 - Shapley, H., P.A.S.P., v. 28, p. 81. 
32a. 1916 - Shapley, H., P.A.S.P., v. 28, p. 282. 

33. 1917 - Bailey, S. I., H.A., v. 78, pt. 2. 

34. 1917 - Bailey, S. I., Pop. Astr., v. 25, p. 520. 

35. 1917 - Davis, H., P.A.S.P., v. 29, p. 210. 

36. 1917 - Davis, H., P.A.S.P., v. 29, p. 260. 

37. 1917 - Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. 116, p. 79. 

38. 1917 - Shapley, H. and Davis, H., P.A.S.P., v. 29, p. 140. 

39. 1918 - Bailey, S. L, Pop. Astr., v. 26, p. 683. 

40. 1918 - Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. 151 = Ap.J., v. 48, p. 89. 

41. 1919 - Bailey, S. I., Leland, E. F., and Woods, I. E., H.A., v. 78, pt. 3. 

42. 1919 - Barnard, E. E., Pop. Astr., v. 27, p. 522. 

43. 1919 - Sanford, R., Pop. Astr., v. 27, p. 99. 

44. 1919 - Shapley, H., P.A.S.P., v. 31, p. 226. 

45. 1919 - Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. 154 = Ap.J., v. 49, p. 24. 

46. 1919 - Woods, I. E., H.C., no. 216. 

47. 1919 - Woods, I. E., H.C., no. 217. 



90 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

48. 1920 - Bailey, S. I., Pop. Astr., v. 28, p. 518. 

49. 1920 - Shapley, H., Mt. W. ConL, no. 175 = Ap.J., v. 51, pp. 49-61. 

50. 1920 - Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. 176 = Ap.J., v. 51, p. 140. 

51. 1920 - Shapley, H., Mt. W. Cont., no. 190 = Ap.J., v. 52, p. 73. 

52. 1920 - Shapley, H. and Ritchie, M., ML W. Cont., no. 195 = Ap.J., v. 52,'p. 232. 

53. 1920 - Turner, H. H., M.N., v. 80, p. 640. 

54. 1920 - Turner, H. H., M.N., v. 81, p. 74. 

55. 1921 - Larink, J., A.N., v. 214, p. 71. 

56. 1921 - Shapley, H., H.B., no. 761. 

57. 1921 - Shapley, H. and Mayberry, B. W., P.N.A.S., v. 7, p. 152. 

58. 1922 - Baade, W., Ham. Mitt., v. 5, no. 16. 

59. 1922 - Bailey, S. I., H.C., no. 234. 

60. 1922 - Barnard, E. E., Pop. Astr., v. 30, p. 548. 
60a. 1922 - Graff, K., A.N., v. 217, p. 310. 

61. 1922 - Larink, J., Berg. Abh., v. 2, no. 6. 

62. 1922 - Shapley, H., H.C., no. 237. 

63. 1922 - Shapley, H., H.B., no. 764; A.N., v. 215, p. 391. 

64. 1922 - Woods, I. E., H.B., no. 773. 

65. 1923 - Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 792. 

66. 1923 - Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 796. 

67. 1923 - Innes, R. T. A., U.C., no. 59, p. 201. 

68. 1923 - Shapley, H., H.B., no. 783. 
68a. 1923 - Shapley, H., H.B., no. 781. 

69. 1924 - Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 798. 

70. 1924 - Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 799. 

71. 1924 - Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 801. 

72. 1924 - Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 802. 

73. 1924 - Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 803. 

74. 1924 - Bailey, S. I., H.C., no. 266. 

75. 1925 - Bailey, S. I., H.B., no. 813. 

76. 1925 - Guthnick, P. and Prager, R., Sits. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., v. 27, p. 508. 

77. 1925 - ParaskeVopoulos, J. S., H.B., no. 813. 

78. 1926 - Baade, W., Ham. Mitt., v. 6, no. 27, p. 61. 

79. 1926 - Baade, W., Ham. Mitt., v. 6, no. 27, p. 66. 

80. 1926 - Baade, W., Ham. Mitt., v. 6, no. 27, p. 67. 

80a. 1927 - Schilt, J., Ap.J., v. 65, p. 124 = ML W. ConL, no. 330. 

81. 1927 - Shapley, H., H.B., no. 848. 

82. 1927 - Shapley, H., H.B., no. 851. 

83. 1928 - Baade, W., Ham. Mitt., v. 6, no. 29, p. 92; A.N., v. 232, p. 193. 
83a. 1928 - Baade, W., A.N., v. 232, pp. 65-70. 

84. 1929 - Slavenas, P., A.N., v. 240, p. 169. 

85. 1930 - Baade, W., A.N., v. 239, p. 353. 

86. 1930 - Rybka, E., B.A.N. , v. 5, pp. 257-70. 

87. 1930 - Shapley, H., Star Clusters, pp. 45-46. 

88. 1930 - Shapley, H., Star Clusters, p. 51. 

89. 1931 - Baade, W., A.N., v. 244, p. 153. 

90. 1931 - Sawyer, H. B., H.C., no. 366; Pub. A.A.S., v. 7, p. 35. 

91. 1932 - van Gent, H., B.A.N. , v. 6, p. 163. 

92. 1932 - Grosse, E., A.N., v. 246, p. 377. 

93. 1932 - Hogg, F. S. and Sawyer, H. B., P.A.S.P., v. 44, p. 258. 

94. 1932 - Sawyer, H. B., H.C., no. 374. 

95. 1932 - Wemple, L., H.B., no. 889. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 91 

96. 1933 - van Gent, H., B.A.N. , v. 7, p. 21. 

97. 1933 - Grosse, E., A.N., v. 249, p. 389. 

98. 1933 - Guthnick, P., Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., v. 24, p. 24. 

99. 1933 - Hertzsprung, E., B.A.N. , v. 7, p. 83. 

100. 1933 - Levy, M., H.B., no. 893. 

101. 1933 - Miiller, Th., Berl. Babels., Veroff., v. 11, p. 1. 

102. 1933 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. A.A.S., v. 7, p. 185. 

103. 1933 - Shapley, H., Hand. d. Astr. v. V, p. 719. 

104. 1934 - Baade, W., P.A.S.P., v. 46, p. 52. 

105. 1934 - Guthnick, P., Sits. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., v. 25 = Naturwiss., v. 22, p. 319. 

106. 1934 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub.A.A.S., v. 8, p. 20. 

107. 1934 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub.A.A.S., v. 8, p. 149. 

108. 1935 - Baade, W., ML W. Cont., no. 529 = A p. J., v. 82, pp. 396-412. 

109. 1935 - Greenstein, J. L., A.N., v. 257, pp. 301-30. 

110. 1935 - Greenstein, J. L., H.B., no. 901, p. 11. 

111. 1935 - Miczaika, G. R., Pop. Astr., v. 43, p. 260. 

112. 1935 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.A.O., v. 6, no. 14. 

113. 1936 - Shapley, H., Hand d. Astr., v. VII, p. 536. 

114. 1937 - Guthnick, P., Viert. der Astr. Ges., v. 72, p. 160. 

115. 1937 - Joy. A. H., Pub. A.A.S., v. 9, p. 45. 

116. 1937 - Martin, W. Chr., Photographische Photometrie van Veranderlijke Sterren in 

« Centauri. (Proefschrift) Leiden, Luctor et Emerge 

117. 1937 - Sawyer, H. B., J.R.A.S.C, v. 31, p. 57. 

117a. 1938 - Luyten, W. J., Pub. Obs. Univ. Minn., II, no. 6. 

118. 1938 - Martin, W. Chr., Leiden Ann., v. 17, pt. 2, pp. 1-166. 

119. 1938 - Martin, W. Chr., B.A.N. , v. 8, p. 290. 

120. 1938 - Nassau, J. J., Ap.J., v. 87, p. 361. 

121. 1938 - Oosterhoff, P. Th., B.A.N. , v. 8, p. 273. 

122. 1938 - Sawyer, H. B., D.D.O. Comm., no. 1. 

123. 1938 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.A.O., v. 7, no. 5. 

124. 1938 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 2. 

125. 1939 - Hachenberg, O., Zeit. f. Astr., v. 18, p. 49. 

126. 1939 - Greenstein, J. L., Ap.J., v. 90, p. 401. 

127. 1940 - Dowse, ML, H.B., no. 913. 

128. 1940 - Dodson, H. W., Cornwall, E. R., Thorndike, S. L. Pub. A.A.S., v. 10, p. 48. 

129. 1940 - Hertzsprung, E., B.A.N. , v. 9, p. 117. 

130. 1940 - Joy, A. H., Alt. W. Cont., no. 637; Ap.J., v. 92, p. 396. 

131. 1940 - Martin, W. Chr., B.A.N. , v. 9, p. 60. 

132. 1940 - Oosterhoff, P. Th., B.A.N. , v. 9, p. 57. 

133. 1940 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. A.A.S., v. 10, p. 66. 

134. 1940 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O. , v. 1, no. 5. 

135. 1940 - Schwarzschild, M., H.C., no. 437. 

136. 1940 - Wright, F. W., H.B., no. 912. 

137. 1941 - Oosterhoff, P. Th., Leiden Ann., v. 17, pt. 4, pp. 1-48. 

138. 1941 - de Sitter, A., Natuur. Tijds. Ned. Indie., dl. 101, an. 2, pp. 51-3. 

139. 1941 - Shapley, H., P.N.A.S., v. 27, pp. 440-45; Harv. Repr., no. 228. 

140. 1941 - Wright, F. W., H.B., no. 915. 

141. 1942 - Hett, J. H., A.J., v. 50, pp. 77-91. 

142. 1942 - Kollnig-Schattschneider, E., Konigstuhl-Heidel. Veroff., Bd. 15, no. 2; A.N., 

v. 273, Heft. 3. 

143. 1942 - Kooreman, C. J., B.A.N. , v. 9, pp. 271-3. 

144. 1942 • Martin, W. Chr., Ap.J., v. 95, pp. 314-8. 



92 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

145. 1942 - Sawyer, H. B., J.R.A.S.C, v. 36, p. 213; Comm. D.D.O., no. 8. 

146. 1942 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. A.A.S., v. 10, p. 233. 

147. 1942 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 11. 

148. 1942 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 12. 

149. 1942 - Wright, F. W., H.B., no. 916. 

150. 1943 - Oosterhoff, P. Th., B.A.N. , v. 9, pp. 397-9. 

151. 1943 - Oosterhoff, P. Th., B.A.N. , v. 9, p. 411. 

152. 1943 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 14; Pub. A.A.S., v. 10, p. 334 (Abs.). 

153. 1944 - Oosterhoff, P. Th., B.A.N. , v. 10, pp. 55-58. 

154. 1944 - Rosino, L., Pub. Oss. Bologna, v. IV, no. 7. 

155. 1944 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 15. 

156. 1945 - Baade, W., ML W. ConL, no. 706; Ap.J., v. 102, pp. 17-25. 

157. 1945 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 17. 

158. 1946 • Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 18. 

159. 1947 - Greenstein, J. L., Bidelman, W. P., and Popper, D. M., P.A.S.P., v. 59, p. 143. 

160. 1947 - van den Hoven van Genderen, E., B.A.N., v. 10, pp. 241-8. 

161. 1947 - de Sitter, A.; Oosterhoff, P. Th., B.A.N. , v. 10, pp. 287-303. 

162. 1948 - van Gent, H. and Oosterhoff, P. Th., B.A.N. , v. 10, pp. 377-82. 

163. 1948 - Sawyer, H. B., A. J., v. 53, p. 203. 

164. 1949 - Gaposchkin, S., A. J., v. 54, p. 185. 

165. 1949 - Joy, A. H., Ap.J., v. 110, pp. 105-16; ML W. and Pal. Repr. no. 5; A. J., v. 53, 

p. 113 (1948). 

166. 1949 - Mayall, M. W., A. J., v. 54, p. 191. 

167. 1949 - Rosino, L., Pub. Oss. Bologna, v. V., no. 9. 

168. 1949 - Rosino, L., Pub. Oss. Bologna, v. V., no. 10. 

169. 1949 - Sawyer, H. B., J.R.A.S.C, v. 43, pp. 38-44; Comm. D.D.O., no. 18. 

170. 1949 - Sawyer, H. B., A. J., v. 54, p. 193. 

171. 1950 - Rosino, L., Pub. Oss. Bologna, v. V., no. 12. 

172. 1950 - Rosino, L., Ap. J., v. 112, p. 221. 

173. 1950 - Thackeray, A. D., M.N., v. 110, pp. 45-48; Comm. Radcliffe Obs., no. 15. 

174. 1951 - King, I., H.B., no. 920. 

175. 1951 - McKibben-Nail, V., H.B., no. 920. 

176. 1951 - Rosino, L., Pub. Oss. Bologna, v. V., no. 15. 

177. 1951 - Sawyer, H. B., Pub. D.D.O., v. 1, no. 24. 

178. 1951 - Thackeray, A. D., M.N., v. Ill, p. 206. 

179. 1952 - Belserene, E. P., A. J., v. 57, pp. 237-47. 

180. 1952 - Rosino, L., Pub. Oss. Bologna, v.V., no. 18. 

181. 1952 - Rosino, L., Pub. Oss. Bologna, v.V., no. 20. 

182. 1952 - Sawyer, H. B., A.J., v. 57, p. 26. 

183. 1952 - Swope, H. H., Greenbaum, I., A.J., v. 57, pp. 83-91. 

184. 1953 - Arp, H. C, Baum, W. A., Sandage, A. R., A. J., v. 58, pp. 4-10. 

185. 1953 - Rosino, L., Pub. Oss. Bologna, v. VI., no. 2. 

186. 1953 - Rosino, L., Pietra, S., Mem. Soc. Astr. Ital., v. 24, no. 4. 

187. 1953 - Sawyer, H. B., J.R.A.S.C, v. 47, pp. 229-236; Comm. D.D.O., no. 34. 

Unpublished References, 1939 

A. Baade, W., Letter summarizing Mt. Wilson observations. 

B. Greenstein, J. L., Letter. 

C. Nassau, J. J., Letter. 

D. Oosterhoff, P. Th. L., Letter giving Leiden data. 

E. Sawyer, H. B., Unpublished observations. 

F. Shapley, H., Letter summarizing Harvard data. 

G. Hubble, E. P., Conversation with author. 



Variable Stars in Globular Clusters 93 

Correspondence of Recent Years Pertaining to this Catalogue 

H. Arp, H. 

I. Baade, W. 

J. McKibben-Nail, V. 

K. Oosterhoff, P. Th. 

L. Rosino, L. 

M. Sandage, A. R. 

N. Shapley, H. 

O. Swope, H. H. 

P. Thackeray, A. D. 

Q. Wright, F. W. 

R. Unpublished material in files of writer, H. B. Sawyer. 



r 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume II Number 3 



NEW RADIAL VELOCITIES FOR FAINT STARS 
WITH LARGE TANGENTIAL MOTIONS 



NANCY G. ROMAN 



1955 
TORONTO, CANADA 



NEW RADIAL VELOCITIES FOR FAINT STARS 
WITH LARGE TANGENTIAL MOTIONS 

By Nancy G. Roman* 

A search in recent literature for high-velocity stars revealed 
about fifty stars whose radial velocities were unknown but whose 
proper motions and spectral types indicated large space velocities. 
Many of these were A- and F-type stars for which the high proper 
motions, if correct, were particularly unusual. Thus it seemed de- 
sirable to complete the observational data for these stars by 
obtaining radial velocities as well as spectroscopic parallaxes and 
magnitudes. Dr. John F. Heard, Director of the David Dunlap 
Observatory, kindly agreed to the co-operation of that institution 
in this project. The author hoped originally that she could complete 
the major portion of the observing for the programme during a 
two and a half month visit to the David Dunlap Observatory early 
in 1953, but the faintness of the stars and unfavourable weather 
made this impossible. Instead, members of the observatory staff 
co-operated in securing the necessary plates during the following 
year. 

The spectra were photographed with the 123/2-inch camera on 
the one-prism spectrograph which gives a dispersion of 66 A. /mm. 
at H7. These plates were taken and measured in the same manner 
as those for the large programme being carried out by the observa- 
tory on the radial velocities of stars in the A.G. zone, +25° to +30°. 
The measurement of a large number of standard stars taken in 
connection with both programmes indicates that the velocities are 
on the international system. 1 At least three good plates were ob- 
tained for each star. In addition, a number of less well exposed 
plates were also measured. These showed no systematic difference 
when compared with the stronger plates, but, as the accidental 
errors proved to be larger in most cases, the velocities from these 
weaker plates were included in the mean with half weight. 

Table I contains the data for thirty-seven of these stars. The 
designation is either the H.D. number or the B.D. number. V, 
B-V and U-B are respectively the photoelectric yellow magnitude, 
the blue-yellow colour, and the ultra-violet-blue colour, on the 

*Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wisconsin; visiting astronomer at the 
David Dunlap Observatory, 1953. 

97 



98 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

V, B, U system 2 measured at the McDonald Observatory with the 
13-inch reflector. The spectral types have been determined from 
plates of lower dispersion (near 120 A. /mm. at H7) taken with 
either the 40-inch refractor of the Yerkes Observatory or the 
82-inch reflector of the McDonald Observatory and are on the 
MK system. 2 For stars earlier than F2, it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish between luminosity classes IV and V on the plates used, 
and for these stars the symbol "V" is used to indicate that the star 
is not a giant. It is likely that all of these stars are dwarfs. The 
probable errors are computed from the range of the individual 
velocities according to the factors given by Schlesinger. 3 An asterisk 
refers to a note at the end of the table. 

For a few stars on the original list the high tangential velocities 
were found to be spurious because of errors in the published spectral 
types; several stars proved to be too faint for the programme; and 
two are in the General Catalogue of Stellar Radial Velocities* which 
appeared while the programme was in progress. Table II lists the 
data for eight of these stars for which at least one good plate was 
obtained before they were dropped from the list. These velocities 
are of much lower weight than those in Table I and are given only 
because, where no other measure is available, these might prove 
useful for statistical discussions. The arrangement of the data is 
the same as that in Table I. 

Table III lists the proper motions, spectroscopic parallaxes, 
space velocities, and the elements of the galactic orbits for the stars 
in Tables I and II. The sources of the proper motions are as fol- 
lows: Yale, the photographic repetition of the AG zones; 5 GC, the 
Boss General Catalogue; 6 Yerkes, a Yerkes parallax series; AGK 2 , 
the Zweiter Katalog der Astronomishen Gesellschaft; 7 Oxf., the 
Astrographic Catalogue, Oxford Section; 8 and GFH, proper motions 
computed from the positions in the Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels, 9 
in the Index der Sternorter, 10 and the Yale positions. X, Y, and Z 
are the velocities relative to the local centroid in the directions 
(1 = 57°.5, b = 0°), (1 = 147°.o, b = 0°), and b = 90° respectively. 
In computing the orbits, it is assumed that they are Newtonian 
orbits passing through the sun's neighbourhood which is 8.2 kpc. 
from the galactic centre and at which the circular velocity is 
216 km. /sec. A more careful investigation of the proper motions 
of the stars on this programme indicates that some of the motions 
were based on erroneous AG positions and that hence, the high 



New Radial Velocities for Faint Stars 99 

velocities originally derived were fictitious. This is the case for 
B.D. + 53° 104, H.D. 24000, H.D. 27821, B.D. 4- 29° 734, H.D. 
36542, B.D. + 50° 1359, and H.D. 104817. The high velocity for 
B.D. -f- 53° 104 now results from the very small parallax and is 
probably not significant. As is indicated in the notes to Table I, 
the observational data for H.D. 11397 appear to be contradictory. 

The occurrence of radial velocities larger than 60 km. /sec. for 
one quarter of the stars in Table I (although these were chosen for 
high tangential motions) substantiates the fact that most of these 
stars are really high-velocity stars. The subdwarfs have already 
been discussed and shown to belong to an extreme high-velocity 
group. 11 Several of the stars show their membership in the high- 
velocity class by the decided weakness of their spectral lines; as 
indicated in the notes, two of the latter may be somewhat below 
the main sequence. Perhaps the most interesting stars are the 
apparently normal A dwarfs, H.D. 60778, 74721, 86986 and 117880, 
whose space velocities relative to the sun are 258, 323, 363 and 
384, km. /sec. respectively. Although effectively all of these motions 
are in the tangential direction, the proper motions have been 
checked and the stars would have to lie appreciably below the main 
sequence to reduce these velocities to values of the order of 40 km./ 
sec. 

The author wishes to express her sincere appreciation to the 
members of the David Dunlap Observatory Staff for their willing 
co-operation in this project. The programme was supported by a 
grant from the United States Office of Naval Research. 

References 

1. Trans. I.A.U., vol. 7, p. 311, 1950. 

2. Morgan, W. W. and Johnson, H. L., Ap. J., vol. 117, p. 313, 1953. 

3. Schlesinger, F., A. J., vol. 46, p. 161, 1937. 

4. Wilson, R. E., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. 601, Washington, 1953. 

5. Trans. Yale Astr. Obs. vols. 4, 5, 7, 9-12, 16-22, 24, 1925-1953. 

6. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Washington, 1937. 

7. Hamburg-Bergedorf. 

8. Edinburgh, 1907. 

9. Karlsruhe. 

10. Schorr, R. and Kruse, W., Bergedorf, 1928. 

11. Roman, N. G., A. J., vol. 59, p. 307, 1954. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
May 11, 1955 






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PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume II Number 4 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES, SPECTRAL CLASSES 

AND PHOTOGRAPHIC MAGNITUDES OF 1041 

LATE-TYPE STARS 



JOHN F. HEARD 
Director 



1956 
TORONTO, CANADA 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES, SPECTRAL CLASSES AND 
PHOTOGRAPHIC MAGNITUDES OF 1041 LATE-TYPE 

STARS 

Introduction 

In 1946 the late Frank S. Hogg, then Director of this Observatory, 
set out to design a long-range programme to measure the radial 
velocities of a large group of late-type stars, believing that stars 
of this kind had been neglected in comparison with early-type stars. 
To make the observational material most useful he decided to 
choose stars for which proper motion data were already available 
and to choose them so that the observational material would 
provide information well suited to galactic studies. With these 
points in mind, he chose the declination zone +25° to +30° which 
includes both the solar apex and the north galactic pole, and he 
selected from the Yale Catalogue of the Positions and Proper Motions 
(Schlesinger and Barney, 1933) the stars listed with photographic 
magnitudes brighter than 9.01 and of spectral types GO and later 
for which radial velocities were not then known. The final pro- 
gramme included 1041 stars. Because of systematic errors in the 
photographic magnitudes of the Yale Catalogue the selected stars 
are for the most part fainter than 9th magnitude, and because of 
errors in the Henry Draper classification many are of type F. 

The observations for this programme occupied a large part of the 
observing time of the 74-inch telescope from 1946 until 1954. As the 
observing and measuring of the spectrograms proceeded, it became 
apparent that the velocity data would be much more useful if 
spectral and luminosity classes and improved photographic magni- 
tudes could be added. Accordingly, classification and photometric 
programmes were undertaken for the same stars. The present 
report combines the results of these three separate programmes. 

107 



108 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

The Radial Velocities 

Observations. In conformity with earlier practices at this Observa- 
tory, four or more measurable spectrograms distributed over a 
reasonable interval of time were obtained for each star; the total 
number for this programme was about 4600. Eighty-three per cent, 
of the spectrograms were obtained with the 12|-inch camera of the 
one-prism spectrograph yielding a dispersion of 66 A./mm.at Hy, 
the remainder (mostly of the brighter stars) with the 25-inch 
camera, dispersion 33 A. /mm. Kodak Spectroscopic 103a-O 
plates were used almost exclusively. Exposure times ranged from 
one-half hour to two hours. 

Throughout the observations of the programme stars, spectro- 
grams were also obtained of a selection of the fainter standard 
velocity stars of G- and K-type listed in the Transactions of the 
International Astronomical Union, vol. 7; in all, 156 spectrograms 
of 18 standards were obtained with the smaller dispersion and 45 
spectrograms of 14 standards with the larger dispersion. The 
purpose was to provide a control in the manner outlined below. 

All regular observers took part in the observations. Particular 
credit is due to G. F. Longworth and F. Hawker of the technical 
staff for much of the observing and for maintenance of the telescope 
and spectrograph and to Miss Ruth Northcott and Dr. J. B. Oke 
for their vigilance over the progress of the observing and the 
maintenance of plate quality. 

Measurements. Measurement and reduction were carried out by 
methods reported in our earlier Publications (vol. 1, nos. 3, 13, and 
16). On good quality plates the number of lines measured was 
about 20. The spectrograms of the standard velocity stars were 
measured in the same manner as those of programme stars. 

Most of the regular members of the staff and a number of summer 
assistants shared the task of measuring the plates. Miss Northcott 
supervised the work of the assistants. 

Stars of Variable Velocity. A question which merits discussion in 
any radial velocity study is the incidence of velocity variation. 
In the past it has been customary to assign variability in a rather 
arbitrary manner from a look at the individual velocities with 
allowance for the precision of measurement. We wished to employ 



1041 Late-type Stars 109 

a more objective means of deciding to what degree the measures 
indicated variability. The following method was developed along 
lines suggested by Dr. Donald A. MacRae. 

Reference has already been made to a group of spectrograms of 
standard velocity stars taken and measured under the same 
circumstances as the programme stars. We assume that these 
measures of standards form a population subject to the same 
error dispersion as the programme stars, except that they lack 
whatever dispersion may be present among the measures of some 
programme stars by reason of true variation of velocity. The 
problem is to identify what programme stars possess this additional 
"error" dispersion. 

Consider first the standard velocity stars. 

Say we have h plates of r stars on which we have measured a 
grand total of N lines. 

Let us compute the deviation of each line-measure from the mean 
for the plate; call these the "within-plate" deviations. Call the sum 
of the squares of the deviations of all these N lines S w . 

Let us also compute the deviation of each plate mean from the 
weighted star mean; call these the "among-plate" deviations. 
Multiply the square of each "among-plate" deviation by the num- 
ber of lines measured on the plate and call the sum of these products 
S«. 

Now if there were no source of error other than the errors of 
setting on the lines, we would have 

N — h h — r' 

But we can expect an error involving systematic shift of all lines 
on a plate for a variety of reasons. Call this the "plate error" and 
let the estimate of it be co. 

It can be shown that 



N-h ) 



N 

We evaluated this for "standard" plates for both 66A./mm. and 
33 A. /mm. dispersions and found 
w = 5.0 km. /sec. for the 66 A. /mm. 
co = 2.6 km. /sec. for the 33 A. /mm. 



110 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Now consider a programme star for which we have h' plates with a 
total of N' lines. 

We compute S' w and S' a for this star. 
Then the quantity, F, given by 

1 S' w h'-l N'co 2 

F = N'-h'' S' a + S'a ' 

can be shown to be Snedecor's ratio of variances for degrees of 
freedom h' — l and N' — h'. Using Snedecor's table of F's, — see, 
for example, Weatherburn (19-49) — we can now say whether or 
not the scatter shown by the programme star's velocity measures 
from plate to plate is significant If the F value computed 
exceeds Snedecor's "1% point", then there is a probability smaller 
than one per cent, that the amount of scatter has arisen by chance 
and it is strongly suggested that the radial velocity of the star is 
variable. If the F value exceeds Snedecor's "5% point", but not 
the "1% point", then the probability that the amount of scatter 
has arisen by chance is between one and five per cent, and it is 
less strongly suggested that the star's velocity is variable. If the F 
value is less than Snedecor's "5% point", we can hardly consider 
that the observations suggest variable velocity. 

For all of the stars we have made this computation and it is on the 
basis of this that we have assigned positive variability (strongly 
suggested) or questionable variability (less strongly suggested). 
We have also used the measures for the standard velocity stars to 
establish the weights to apply to the different measures in obtaining 
the mean velocity for a star. We used weight 4 for good plates of 
the higher dispersion, 1 for good plates of the lower dispersion and 
\ for plates on which fewer than 10 lines could be measured. 

A more complete study of the available statistical data may be 
made at a later time. 

Spectral Classification 

A decision was made during the course of the investigation to 
reclassify the spectra of all the 1041 stars using the MK system 
(Johnson and Morgan, 1953). To this end a series of spectrograms 
of MK standard stars was obtained, using both dispersions and the 
same emulsion as for the programme stars. For each dispersion, a 
careful study of the series revealed the criteria which would be 



1041 Late-type Stars 111 

most useful in the various ranges of spectral and luminosity classes, 
and a routine was developed for "converging" on the correct class 
of a spectrogram, using both the general appearance of the spec- 
trum and the estimated intensity ratios of the lines and making 
continual reference to the spectrograms of the standards. Evidence 
has been adduced that the classification made with our spectro- 
grams does not depart systematically from that made with the 
smaller dispersions and wider spectra on which the MK system 
was developed. 

The classifications reported here are mostly those made by Miss 
Barbara Creeper (Mrs. V. Gaizauskas) using the 66 A./mm. 
spectrograms. For a few dozen stars for which there were no plates 
of this dispersion, classifications made by Dr. Ian Halliday from 
33 A./mm. spectrograms were listed. 

Difficulty was encountered with the M-type stars. With our 
spectrograms we found it difficult to assign a sub-classification to 
those stars which were recognized as giants of spectral class later 
than M2; all such are listed merely as M III. 

Photometry 

A casual comparison between the photographic magnitudes of 
the Yale Catalogue and visual magnitudes listed there and elsewhere 
sufficed to show that the photographic magnitudes are unsatis- 
factory, the errors sometimes amounting to a magnitude. Therefore 
it appeared most desirable to undertake a photometric programme 
for our stars. This was done by Dr. Donald A. MacRae of this 
Observatory in collaboration with Dr. Jurgen Stock of the Warner 
and Swasey and the Hamburg Observatories. They will publish 
soon a more complete account of this work than the following 
brief summary. 

Through the kindness of Dr. O. Heckmann, Director of the 
Hamburg Observatory, 80 fields distributed around the sky at 
declination +27|° were photographed with the "original" Schmidt 
telescope at Hamburg. These fields so overlapped that all our 
programme stars appeared on two films at least. The films, which 
cover an area 7.5° in diameter, were Perutz Phototechnical B 
emulsion exposed behind Schott filters BG3 and GG13, each 1 mm. 
thick. For the measurement of the films, the Eichner Astrophoto- 
meter of the Warner and Swasey Observatory was made available 



112 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

through the kindness of the Director, Dr. J. J. Nassau. Many of 
the films were also measured on the iris photometer of the Hamburg 
Observatory. Dr. Stock supervised this part of the work. 

To make possible the conversion of the astrophotometer readings 
to magnitudes, 24 sequences, involving 165 of the programme 
stars between 7.0 mag. and 10.0 mag., were selected. These stars 
were observed photoelectrically by Mr. G. Bakos, under Dr. 
MacRae's supervision, using the photometer attached to the 19-inch 
telescope of this Observatory. Each star was observed twice at 
least and the magnitudes, reduced to the B-V system of Johnson 
and Morgan, will be published separately. 

Magnitudes, m e , on the colour system of the Schmidt films were 
derived from the photoelectric measures by means of the equation, 

nt e = 5+0.33 (B-V), 

and the 24 sequences were used to calibrate the astrophotometer 
measures. The quantities listed in Table I are the resulting photo- 
graphic magnitudes. It is believed that residual field errors are 
negligible. The average mean error of a final magnitude is ±0.045. 

Tabulation of Results 

The main body of the results is given in Table I. Following is a 
description of this table. 

Column 1 gives the A.G. designations of the stars. 

Column 2 gives the H.D. designations where applicable. A note has been added 
whenever any ambiguity could arise as to either designation or as to 
which component of a double star is meant. 

Columns 3 and 4 give the 1950 positions which have been rounded off from the 
positions given in the Yale Transactions, vol. 24. 

Column 5 gives the photographic magnitudes derived by MacRae and Stock 
as described in the foregoing section. The magnitudes are from the 
photographic photometry in all cases except for those values marked 
with an asterisk which refers to stars which, for one reason or another, 
were measured only photoelectrically. 

Column 6 gives the spectral classes assigned from our spectrograms as described 
in an earlier section. A colon refers to a classification which is doubtful, 
either because the plates are poor (when no note is given), or for some 
specific reason referred to in a note. Stars classified as M III are those 
which have been recognized as giants later than M2 but to which 
sub-classes could not be assigned with confidence. 

{Continued on page 137.) 



TABLE I 



A.G. 



H. D. 



R.A. 
(1950) 



Dec. 
(1950) 



14436 


225292 


00 


02. 4 


+ 27 23 


14441 


111 




03. 4 


28 00 


4 


167 




04.0 


28 17 


12 


249 




04. 8 


26 10 


29 


598 




07. 9 


28 23 


35 


664 


00 


08.4 


+ 29 16 


37 






08.8 


30 10 


63 






10. 8 


26 46 


121 


1406 




15. 7 


30 07 


131 


1501 




16. 8 


26 11 


145 


1605 


00 


17. 9 


+ 30 42 


146 


1633 




18. 1 


26 14 


188 


1996 




21.8 


26 07 


199 


2084 




22. 7 


29 49 


207 


2190 




23. 4 


28 40 


225 


2315 


00 


24.6 


+ 25 18 


230 


2343 




24.8 


30 37 


258 


2552 




26. 7 


28 33 


273 


2713 




28. 2 


27 50 


274 


2732 




28. 2 


29 15 


288 


2839 


00 


29. 3 


+ 28 15 


289 


2854 




29. 4 


27 23 


343 


3252 




33.2 


28 50 


352 


3333 




33. 9 


29 34 


366 






35. 2 


25 33 


375 


3590 


00 


36.3 


+ 26 03 


382 


3650 




36. 8 


26 28 


387 


3766 




38.0 


29 44 


412 


4006 




40. 1 


29 50 


434 


4268 




42. 6 


27 41 


444 


4312 


00 


43. 1 


+ 25 54 


450 


4372 




43. 7 


30 40 


452 


4388 




43. 8 


30 41 


467 


'4550 




45. 1 


26 01 


468 


4549 




45. 1 


26 49 


477 


4686 


00 


46. 5 


+ 28 27 


486 


4744 




47. 2 


30 11 


493 


4798 




47. 6 


28 06 


498 


4831 




48. 


25 19 


510 


4963 




49. 2 


27 30 


521 


5007 


00 


49. 7 


+ 25 31 


527 


5092 • 




50. 4 


30 05 


533 


5137 




50. 9 


29 13 


537 


5164 




51. 1 


28 17 


555 


5411 




53.6 


28 53 



Ptg. 

Mag. 

7. 24 

8. 36 

7. 50 

8. 45 
9.00 



8. 54 

10.42 

8. 34 

8.55 

8. 35 

9. 17 
9. 40 
9. 37 
9. 37 

8. 96 

9. 39 
9. 28 
9. 29 
9. 40 

9. 24 
9.47 
9. 53 
9. 27 
9. 79 

8. 67 

9. 55 
9. 45 
8.63 
9. 65 

9. 43 
8. 41* 
8. 80* 

8. 16 

9. 41 



Class 



gs m 
K5 in 
G9 in 

Kl IV - 

m ni 

F5 V 
K0 V 

K2 in 

K3 III 
G8 III 

Kl III 
K5 in 
Kl III 
G8 II 
MO III 

K3 in 
Kl III 
K3 III 
F2 IV 
Kl m 

ki m 

GO V 
Kl III 
KO III 
G8 in 

K3 in 

GO V 

F5 V 

K2 II- III 

K2 III 

K5 II 
Kl III 
K3 III 
KO III 
K2 III 



Velocity P. E. 
(km. /sec) 



PL Ref. 



8. 20 G8 III 

8. 71 KO III 

8. 47 Kl III 

8. 17 G8 m 

9. 06 Kl ni 



var. 6 

+ 12. 9 0. 7 5 

+ 4.4 0.3 4 

+ 15. 5 1. 6 5 

-7.4 1.5 4 

+ 9.0 1.8 6 

- 3.1 1.0 4 

- 15. 6 1. 9 6 

- 37. 1 1.0 4 

- 10. 9 1. 2 5 



+ 10. 1 
+ 23. 5 

var? 
+ 6.9 
- 50. 7 



15. 1 



- 14. 



0. 9 



1. 2 
0. 8 



1. 7 
0. 7 



1. 5 



- 35. 7 
var. 

+ 33.4 1. 3 

- 4.2 2.9 



1. 3 



- 26. 4 1.2 

- 0.5 1.3 

- 33. 4 0. 4 
+ 9.5 1.2 



1.6 



0. 8 

- 17. 8 2. 3 

- 24. 5 1. 5 

- 20. 7 0. 8 
var? 



- 18. 5 1. 2 5 
+ 13. 6 0. 7 4 

- 24. 8 0. 2 4 

- 4.0 0.6 5 

- 30. 9 0. 9 4 

- 2.0 1.0 4 
-162.8 1.2 4 

- 9.3 1.0 5 

- 10. 7 0. 3 5 
+ 25:5 1.6 5 



9. 14 


Kl III 


+ 14. 3 


1. 4 


5 


9.05 


K3 III 


+ 23. 2 


0. 7 


4 


7. 49 


KO III 


- 10. 6 


1. 2 


4 


8. 48 


Kl ni 


- 14.0 


1. 1 


4 


9. 87 


Kl III 


- 2. 8 


1.0 


4 



II 



5 
4 
4 
6 II 



III 



113 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


B 


[.A. 




De 


c. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PI. R< 






(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec) 






559 


5449 


00 


54. 





+ 28 


32 


8. 73 


K0 III 


+ 


4. 8 


1. 2 


4 


560 


5462 




54. 





26 


04 


9. 73 


M III 


- 


6. 5 


1. 9 


4 


571 


5585 




55. 


2 


29 


15 


8.64 


K3 III 


+ 


23. 9 


1. 3 


5 


574 


5584 




55. 


3 


30 


03 


9. 18 


GO IV <* 


+ 


7. 2 


1. 2 


4 


582 


5650 




55. 


8 


26 


31 


9. 27 


K5 III 


- 


24. 4 


1. 3 


4 


586 


5705 




56. 


3 


+ 27 


23 


8.67 


K3 III 


_ 


7. 6 


0. 7 


4 


600 


5917 




58. 


3 


28 


44 


9. 35 


G8 ni 


+ 


21. 8 


1. 3 


4 


614 


6132 


01 


00. 


2 


29 


43 


9. 15 


K2 III 


- 


26. 5 


2. 2 


5 


627 


6274 




01. 


3 


26 


17 


9. 58 


F7 V 


- 


28. 1 


0. 9 


4 


628 


6286 




01. 


4 


26 


19 


9. 35 


G2 V 


var. 




7 II 


647 


6525 


01 


03. 


9 


+ 29 


26 


9.42 


ki in 


_ 


2. 4 


1. 9 


7 


702 


7299 




10. 


8 


29 


28 


7. 91 


G8 III- IV 


- 


10. 3 


0. 5 


4 


704 


7300 




10. 


8 


26 


11 


9. 54 


K2 III 


+ 


15. 9 


1.0 


6 


706 


7308 




11. 





25 


59 


9.81 


K5 III 


var. 




8 II 


710 






11. 


2 


26 


01 


11. 14 


K2 III 


+ 


14. 6 


2. 1 


6 


714 


7352 


01 


11. 


4 


+ 25 


34 


8.66 


GO V 


_ 


18.0 


1. 8 


5 


721 


7426 




12. 


1 


26 


11 


8.79 


KO III 


+ 


2. 6 


1. 3 


4 


778 


8300 




19. 


9 


26 


18 


9. 13 


Kl UI 


- 


22. 1 


0. 8 


4 


812 


8747 




24. 





26 


59 


8.07 


KO III 


- 


5.6 


0. 6 


4 


814 






24. 


1 


27 


15 


10. 48 


K3 III 


+ 


30. 4 


1. 6 


7 


817 


8791 


01 


24. 


3 


+ 25 


11 


9. 36 


K3 II 




15. 9 


1. 7 


4 


849 


9224 




28. 


5 


29 


09 


7. 98 


GO V 


i 


13. 6 


0. 7 


6 


851 


9269 




29. 





30 


22 


9. 31 


KO III 


+ 


42. 1 


1.4 


4 


867 


9446 




30. 


5 


29 


01 


9. 14 


G5 V 


+ 


21. 2 


0. 5 


4 


878 


9638 




32. 


2 


28 


51 


9. 34 


K2 II 


- 


19. 1 


1.9 


4 


887 


9714 


01 


32. 


8 


+ 28 


01 


8. 16 


Kl III 


+ 


7. 7 


0. 8 


8 


903 


9984 




35. 


1 


25 


39 


9. 83 


G8 m 


+ 


39. 4 


1. 2 


5 


916 


10095 




36. 


4 


27 


30 


8. 53 


K3 III 


- 


36.0 


1.0 


5 


929 


10296 




38. 


4 


28 


14 


9.45 


Kl III 


- 


4. 2 


2. 5 


6 


962 


10766 




43. 





26 


09 


9. 25 


F8 IV 


+ 


6.2 


2. 1 


6 


966 




01 


43. 


7 


+ 29 


18 


9.25 


F5 V 


+ 


1.4 


2. 6 


7 


968 


10829 




43. 


8 


30 


33 


8. 80 


F7 rv 


+ 


5.2 


2. 1 


5 


973 


10866 




44. 


3 


25 


55 


9.09 


K3 III 


+ 


22. 9 


0. 8 


4 


977 






44. 


9 


28 


14 


9. 57 


Kl UI 


+ 


31.6 


0. 7 


4 


983 


10981 




45. 


6 


30 


32 


9. 19 


G8 III 


+ 


11.3 


1. 5 


5 


991 




01 


46. 


7 


+ 28 


27 


9.66 


KO III 


_ 


65. 2 


1. 1 


4 m 


993 


11120 




47. 


1 


25 


30 


9. 33 


G8 V 


- 


3. 5 


1. 4 


6 


999 


11130 




47. 


3 


29 


13 


8. 79 


Kl V 


- 


36. 4 


1. 2 


5 


1023 


11453 




50. 


3 


28 


34 


8. 57 


K5 III 


+ 


5.0 


1.0 


4 


1026 


11464 




50. 


4 


25 


48 


9.02 


KO m 


+ 


17. 8 


1. 6 


6 


1037 


11650 


01 


52. 


1 


+ 27 


36 


8. 81 


Kl II- III 


_ 


3. 8 


1. 7 


5 


1042 


11680 




52. 


3 


27 


01 


9. 16 


Kl III 


- 


32. 8 


2.0 


4 


1046 


11721 




52. 


8 


25 


52 


9.21 


G8 m 


+ 


30. 9 


1. 3 


4 


1054 


11781 




53. 


4 


27 


14 


8. 91 


GO V 


- 


2.4 


0. 3 


4 


1077 






55. 


6 


25 


33 


9. 10 


G2 V 


- 


1. 1 


0. 4 


4 



114 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. H.D. 



1082 12029 

1084 12052 

1094 12232 

1097 12260 

1102 12402 

1103 12426 
1113 12535 
1122 12638 
1128 12728 
1139 12897 

1143 

1145 13017 

1158 

1178 13565 

1181 13610 

1186 13691 

1192b 13747 

1200 13836 

1209 13943 

1222 14146 

1248 14456 

1251 14479 

1252 14490 
1264 

1265 

1269 14608 

1271 14624 

1292 14875 

1293 14876 
1295 14874 

1297 14918 

1301 14949 

1304 14969 

1324 15256 

1330 15326 

1371 16099 

1376 16139 

1429 17119 

1436 17190 

1447 17283 

1454 17382 

1455 17396 

1473 17674 

1474 17673 
1497 17963 



R.A. 


De 


c. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Ve 


locity 


P. E. 


PI. Re 


(1950) 


(19, 


50) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec) 






01 55. 8 


+ 29 


08 


8.96 


K2 III 


+ 


40.0 


0.3 


5 


56.0 


28 


37 


9. 25 


G8 III 


+ 


28.0 


1. 2 


4 


57. 8 


29 


41 


8. 96 


F2 V 


+■ 


8.2 


1. 9 


4 


58. 1 


29 


18 


9. 27 


K2 III 


- 


3.6 


2. 3 


5 


59. 3 


28 


10 


7.60 


Kl III 


+• 


17. 4 


0.3 


5 


01 59. 5 


+ 29 


31 


9. 72 


K0 HI 


+ 


10. 7 


1. 8 


5 


02 00. 7 


27 


15 


8. 56 


K2 III 


+ 


36. 5 


1.0 


5 


01. 5 


25 


41 


8.26 


G8 III 


- 


17. 9 


1.0 


4 


02. 6 


28 


52 


9. 12 


Kl HI 


- 


8. 4 


1.9 


4 


04. 1 


26 


05 


8. 36 


Kl III 


1- 


0.2 


1. 4 


5 


02 04. 8 


+ 29 


24 


9. 58 


K0 III 


+• 


25. 4 


2. 8 


5 


05. 1 


29 


20 


9. 81 


K5 III 


+ 


4. 5 


0. 8 


5 


07. 5 


29 


35 


■ 9. 30 


F8 V 


+ 


28. 1 


3.0 


5 


10. 2 


30 


20 


9. 00 


KO II 


+ 


18. 6 


1.0 


4 


10. 5 


25 


09 


9. 34 


F8 IV 


- 


48. 3 


0. 5 


4 


02 11. 2 


+ 26 


24 


8. 81 


Kl III 


- 


7. 8 


0. 8 


4 


11. 7 


28 


28 


7. 72 


Kl IV • 


var? 




5 II 


12. 6 


27 


08 


9.06 


G8 V 


+ 


3.9 


0. 5 


4 


13. 5 


29 


34 


9. 51 


GP 7TI 


+ 


18.4 


1.0 


4 


15.0 


28 


47 


9. 07 


MO ill 


+ 


33. 4 


0. 9 


4 


02 17. 9 


28 


18 


9. 14 


G8 III 


+ 


2.8 


1.6 


5 


18. 1 


30 


27 


9. 58 


Kl II- III 


+ 


24. 8 


1. 8 


6 


18. 2 


29 


42 


9. 38 


F8 V 


+• 


28. 2 


2. 8 


5 


19. 2 


27 


23 


9.22 


KO III 


- 


64. 4 


0. 6 


4 in 


19. 2 


30 


04 


9. 24 


F2 II : 


- 


1.9 


2. 6 


6 


02 19. 5 


+ 30 


06 


9. 20 


K2 III 


f 


0. 9 


1. 4 


4 


19. 4 


26 


03 


9. 40 


G5 V 


f 


50. 2 


2. 5 


6 


21. 8 


29 


01 


8. 94 


K3 III 


- 


9. 1 


1.3 


4 


21. 8 


27 


26 


9. 48 


K3 III 


f 


9.0 


0. 8 


5 


21. 9 


30 


25 


9. 4 


GO V 


+ 


6.0 


1.2 


4 


02 22. 2 


+ 25 


16 


8. 90 


G5 ni 


- 


9.5 


1. 7 


5 


22. 4 


27 


28 


9. 44 


K2 n 


var. 




6 II 


22. 6 


29 


39 


8.96 


K3 III 


- 


27. 8 


0. 3 


4 


25. 3 


29 


39 


8. 32 


G5 III 


- 


13.7 


0. 9 


6 


25. 8 


29 


28 


8. 34 


F8 V 


- 


16. 7 


1. 8 


5 


02 33. 1 


+ 29 


39 


9. 64 


K3 III 


- 


58. 5 


1. 9 


4 


33. 4 


27 


15 


9. 28 


G8 II 


+ 


26. 3 


1. 8 


5 


42. 6 


30 


07 


8. 97 


F5 V 


- 


14. 1 


1.4 


5 


43. 3 


25 


27 


8. 76 


Kl IV S 


+ 


14. 9 


0. 8 


4 


44. 3 


26 


32 


9. 23 


Kl III 


- 


3 7.. 3 


1. 1 


4 


02 45.2 


+ 26 


52 


8. 57 


Kl V 


+ 


9.4 


1.4 


7 


45. 3 


30 


08 


9. 22 


GO V 


+ 


12. 6 


2. 1 


6 


48. 1 


30 


05 


8. 29* 


GO V 


+ 


5.2 


2. 3 


6 


48. 1 


30 


18 


9. 23* 


Kl III 


- 


19. 8 


1. 8 


5 


51.0 


29 


54 


9. 71 


F6 V 


+ 


25.0 


2.0 


5 



115 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


R.A. 


De 


c. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P.E. 


PI. 






(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec.) 






1516 


18189 


02 


53. 1 


+ 25 


53 


9. 41 


G8 III 


- 


21. 1 


1. 3 


4 


1517 


18202 




53. 3 


28 


58 


7. 55 


G8 III 


+ 


29.6 


.0. 7 


4 


1521 


18328 




54. 6 


29 


31 


9. 38 


F8 V 


- 


3.0 


2. 3 


5 


1528 


18403 




55. 3 


27 


08 


9.49 


GO IV 


- 


62. 1 


1.4 


6 


1530 


18450 




55.9 


26 


34 


9. 31 


K2 V 


T 


35. 7 


2. 2 


6 


1537 


18554 


02 


56. 9 


+ 30 


25 


9. 46 


Kl III 


+ 


6.0 


1.0 


4 


1541 


18602 




57. 4 


30 


22 


9. 75 


G8 III 


- 


13. 4 


1. 8 


4 


1559 


18929 


03 


00. 5 


27 


23 


8. 74 


G8 III 


- 


18. 6 


0. 7 


5 


1564 


19079 




02. 1 


30 


00 


9. 21 


F7 IV 


+ 


21. 2 


2.0 


5 


1572 


19165 




02.8 


27 


30 


9. 06 


F6 V 


+ 


85. 4 


1. 7 


5 


1584 


19485 


03 


05. 7 


+ 25 


24 


8. 97 


G5 V 


, 


/ar. 




17 


1599 


19823 




09. 2 


29 


38 


9. 75 


GO V 


- 


31. 6 


0. 9 


4 


1652 


20671 




17. 6 


28 


39 


9.41 


F8 rv 


- 


19. 7 


1. 1 


4 


1653 


20680 




17. 6 


26 


45 


9. 59 


K2 III 


- 


12.0 


2. 1 


5 


1699 


21451 




25. 4 


26 


06 


9. 34 


K3 III 


- 


19.0 


0. 7 


4 


1727 


21820 


03 


29. 1 


+ 29 


22 


9.43 


KO III 


+ 


32.2 


0. 4 


6 


1747 


22269 




33.0 


27 


26 


9.02 


Kl III 


+ 


15. 7 


0. 5 


4 


1758 


22403 




34. 2 


25 


50 


8. 17 


G2 V 


var. 




6 


1791 


22849 




38.2 


29 


21 


9. 58 


Kl IV 


+ 


8. 1 


2. 1 


4 


1813 


23141 




40. 8 


26 


13 


8. 96 


Kl III 


- 


24. 9 


1. 1 


4 


1818 


23169 


03 


40. 9 


+ 25 


34 


9. 39 


G2 V 


+ 


17. 4 


0. 3 


4 


1824 


23257 




41. 7 


27 


46 


7. 60 


G5 V 


+ 


49. 


1. 3 


5 


1894 


24301 




49. 9 


26 


32 


8. 77 


GO IV 


+ 


26.0 


1. 2 


5 


1902 


24365 




50. 6 


28 


00 


9.00 


G8 V 


+ 


21. 3 


1.4 


4 


1906 


24399 




50. 8 


26 


45 


8. 89 


G8 II 


4- 


4.6 


1. 3 


4 


1911 


24505 


03 


51.9 


+ 28 


03 


9.01 


G5 III 


_ 


9. 4 


0. 8 


4 


1930 


24768 




54. 2 


25 


08 


8. 78 


G8 III 


+ 


6. 8 


0. 9 


4 


1958 


25296 




59. 2 


27 


59 


8. 50 


G8 III 


- 


20. 8 


1. 7 


4 


1967 


25461 


04 


00. 7 


29 


04 


9. 27 


Kl V 


- 


9. 3 


1. 5 


5 


1993 


25834 




03. 7 


30 


08 


9. 56* 


Kl II 


+ 


22. 8 


1. 3 


5 


1999 


26081 


04 


05. 6 


+ 25 


45 


9. 16 


G8 II 


_ 


11. 1 


0.9 


4 


2000 


26090 




05. 8 


29 


04 


9. 16 


GO IV 


+• 


36. 2 


0. 4 


4 


2001 


26126 




06. 


28 


31 


8. 93 


F8 V 


+ 


2.6 


1. 1 


4 


2009 


26372 




08. 2 


26 


22 


9. 50 


F8 V 


- 


10. 9 


2. 8 


6 


2023 


26710 




11. 5 


26 


08 


8.00 


G2 V 


- 


9. 3 


1.6 


5 


2025 


26766 


04 


12. 


+ 29 


47 


8.62 


Kl IV ** 


+ 


9.0 


0. 7 


4 


2065 


27741 




20. 6 


28 


04 


9. 19 


GO V 


- 


8. 4 


1.0 


6 


2124 


29246 




34. 3 


25 


38 


9. 26 


K2 III 


+ 


39. 1 


1. 1 


5 


2157 


30111 




42. 7 


28 


34 


8. 31 


G8 III 


f 


23. 


1. 7 


6 


2180 


30467 




46. 


26 


56 


8. 76 


F8 IV 


- 


21. 2 


1.9 


5 


2204 


30945 


04 


49. 9 


+ 26 


42 


9.44 


K3 III 


+ 


27. 2 


1. 7 


5 


2248 


31782 




56. 5 


25 


52 


8.20 


KO IV 


- 


67. 8 


1. 5 


5 


2249 


31781 




56. 6 


26 


11 


9. 14 


F8 V 


+ 


22. 2 


1. 2 


4 


2255 


31867 




57. 2 


25 


04 


8. 86* 


G2 V 


- 


25. 4 


1. 


4 


2265 


32093 




•58. 7 


26 


35 


9. 15 


G2 V 


- 


1.0 


1. 6 


4 



Ref. 



Ill 



5 III 



II 



III 



116 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


R.A. 


Dec. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Ve 


locity 


P. E. 


PL Re 






( 


L950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 






(km. /sec} 






2271 


32387 


05 


00. 8 


f24 54 


8.26 


G8 V 


+ 


57.9 


1.0 


4 


2277a 


32477 




01. 4 


30 19 


9.61 


MO III 


+ 


36.2 


2. 2 


6 


2298 


32835-6 




04.0 


26 56 


8. 76 


F5 V, A 


*■ 


27.0 


3. 8 


4 N 


2302 


32963 




04. 8 


26 16 


8. 36 


G2 


V 


- 


62.0 


0.4 


4 m 


2338 


33463 




08.5 


29 51 


8. 74 


M2III 


+ 


14.0 


2. 7 


5 


2344 


33585 


05 


09. 3 


+•26 24 


7. 84 


G5 


ni 


, 


ar? 




5 n 


2603 






38. 8 


29 15 


9. 06 


F8 


V 


- 


4.0 


1. 2 


6 


2606 






38. 8 


26 14 


10. 63* 


MO III 


+ 


21.8 


2.0 


4 


2615 


37800 




39. 3 


29 50 


9. 51 


F8 


IV 


+ 


3.0 


0. 7 


5 


2627b 


37956 




40. 2 


29 11 


7. 96 


Kl 


III 


+ 


28. 8 


1.0 


5 


2657 


38142 


05 


41. 6 


+ 24 54 


9.08 


G8 


III 


+ 


23. 1 


1. 6 


4 


2672 


38261 




42. 5 


25 06 


8. 98* 


K2 


III 


- 


5. 1 


1. 4 


4 


2696b 


38524 




44. 5 


25 33 


7. 94 


Kl 


III 


- 


17. 2 


0.6 


5 


2714 


38750 




46.0 


25 38 


9. 14 


K2 


n 


- 


6. 6 


1. 9 


6 


2763 


39416 




50. 4 


25 04 


8. 54 


G2 


ii 


+ 


0. 2 


2. 5 


6 


2784 


39713 


05 


52. 3 


+ 29 10 


8. 86 


G5 


in 


r 


71. 9 


1. 7 


5 


2805 


39949 




54. 


27 19 


8. 58 


GO 


ii 


+ 


13. 7 


1. 6 


5 


2834b 


40280 




55. 8 


25 46 


7. 83 


KO 


in 


+• 


2.0 


1. 5 


5 


2845 


40460 




57. 


27 16 


7. 88 


KO 


in 


+ 


98. 5 


1. 4 


5 in 


2940 


41430 


06 


03. 1 


29 06 


9.03 


K3 


in 


+ 


21. 1 


1. 9 


4 


2946 


41456 


06 


03. 3 


+ 26 32 


8.82 


G8 


in 


_ 


21.0 


1. 6 


4 


2967 


41708 




04. 8 


27 26 


8. 81 


GO 


V 


+ 


34. 8 


1. 8 


6 


2994 


41994 




06. 3 


27 12 


9. 14 


G5 


ii 


+ 


8.0 


0. 8 


5 


3028 


42397 




08. 5 


25 01 


8.68 


GO IV 


+ 


39. 8 


0. 2 


4 


3036 


42454 




08. 9 


29 30 


8. 74 


G2 


lb 


+ 


11. 4 


0. 4 


4 


3061 


42981 


06 


11. 7 


+ 25 16 


9. 84 


K2 


II 


_ 


6. 4 


1. 5 


4 


3093 


43383 




13. 8 


25 31 


8. 98 


F8 


V 


*■ 


12. 7 


1.6 


4 


3107 


43581 




15. 


26 27 


9. 26 


KO 


n 


+ 


47. 9 


2. 2 


4 


3113 


43693 




15. 6 


28 05 


9. 39 


K2 


ni 


+ 


9.6 


1. 


4 


3146 


44030 




17. 5 


25 38 


9. 45 


K5 


ni 


" 


L03. 8 


1. 1 


4 III 


3167 


44316 


06 


19. 3 


+ 28 56 


9. 20 


Kl 


m 


_ 


14. 


1. 9 


4 


3176 


44391 




19. 6 


28 01 


9. 34 


KO 


lb 


- 


9.4 


0. 8 


4 


3194 


44615 




20. 7 


29 00 


9. 32 


F6 


V 


var? 




6 n 


3204 


44780 




21. 6 


25 05 


7. 76 


K2 


in 


var. 




5 II 


3240 


45207 




24. 3 


29 40 


8.48 


F8 


n 


- 


35.0 


1. 9 


5 


3247 


45336 


06 


24. 9 


+ 29 16 


9. 58 


K5 


ni 


_ 


1.0 


2. 7 


5 


3255 


45427 




25. 4 


27 40 


9. 23 


Kl 


in 


- 


51. 3 


2. 1 


5 


3288 


45800 




27. 6 


25 55 


9. 52 


G8 


n 


+ 


15. 5 


0. 7 


4 


3289 


45824 




27. 7 


26 41 


9.08 


KO 


in 


- 


10. 1 


1. 2 


6 


3307 


46159 




29. 9 


29 27 


9. 25 


G8 


in 


+■ 


34.8 


2. 4 


4 


3309 


46160 


06 


29. 9 


+ 27 52 


9.46 


K5 


in 


+ 


7.9 


1. 8 


4 


3320 


46277 




30. 5 


28 01 


9. 07 


KO 


ii 


- 


2. 5 


0. 4 


4 


3326 


46336 




30. 8 


27 05 


9. 19 


KO 


ni 


+ 


36.6 


1.4 


4 


3340 


46532 




31. 9 


24 58 


9.46 


K2 


in 


+ 


3.2 


1.5 


4 


3367 


46944 




34. 2 


28 01 


9. 38 


F7 


V 


+ 


65.2 


2.2 


5 



- 117 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H. D. 


F 


LA. 


Dec. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PI. Re 






(1.950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec) 






3424 


47730 


06 


38. 1 


+ 29 


46 


9. 53 


Kl III 


+ 


5. 7 


1.2 


4 


3433 


47836 




38.6 


27 


08 


8. 78 


G8 III 


+ 


10.0 


2. 2 


4 


3440 


47960 




39. 1 


25 


31 


9. 50 


MO III 


+ 


10. 1 


1. 7 


4 


3441 






39. 3 


29 


29 


9. 76 


G8 III 


- 


48. 3 


1. 9 


4 


3442 


48008 




39.2 


25 


25 


9.32 


F6 V 


+ 


1.6 


2.8 


4 


3471 


48591 


06 


42. 3 


1-29 


25 


8. 76 


F8 V 


var. 




6 II 


3474 


48640 




42. 3 


24 


44 


9. 54 


Kl lb 


+ 


24. 5 


1.6 


5 


3475 


48638 




42. 4 


27 


44 


8. 40 


K3 III 


- 


35. 5 


1. 3 


4 


3504 


49141 




45. 1 


26 


46 


10. 30 


ko ni 


- 


1. 1 


2.0 


5 


3513 


49365 




46.2 


28 


36 


9.00 


GO IV 


- 


29. 3 


2. 6 


4 


3518 


49500 


06 


46. 6 


+ 25 


33 


8. 85 


KO III 


+ 


61.4 


2. 1 


6 N 


3615 


51101 




53. 9 


24 


43 


8.06 


KO ni 


+ 


23.4 


1. 8 


5 


3646 


51690 




56. 3 


25 


18 


9.50 


F8 V 


+ 


6.4 


1. 4 


5 


3647 


51689 




56. 3 


25 


18 


8.53 


F8 V 


+ 


23. 6 


2. 7 


4 


3654 


51834 




56. 9 


29 


51 


9.02 


K4 III 


- 


13. 7 


3. 3 


4 


3657 


51886 


06 


57. 1 


+ 26 


57 


8. 68 


G8 III 


_ 


6. 6 


1. 5 


5 


3668 


52071 




57. 9 


27 


14 


8.57 


K2 IV X 


+ 


94. 7 


2. 4 


4 III 


3669 


52101 




58.0 


29 


48 


8.98 


KO III 


+ 


40.0 


1.2 


5 


3670 


52147 




58.0 


29 


17 


8. 74 


G5 III 


+ 


10. 1 


1. 4 


5 


3682 






58. 3 


26 


18 


9. 05 


G5 in 


+ 


18. 1 


2.6 


5 


3708 


52765 


07 


00. 5 


+ 25 


10 


8.83 


G8 III 


+ 


16. 9 


1. 2 


5 


3737 


53472 




03. 1 


24 


56 


8. 88 


K5 ni 


+ 


9. 3 


2. 7 


5 


3775 


54370 




06. 6 


26 


36 


9. 15 


K2 III 


+ 


23. 8 


1. 5 


4 


3792 


54825 




08. 4 


26 


29 


8.24 


KO n 


+ 


41. 5 


0. 6 


4 


3808 


55080 




09. 4 


26 


39 


8.65 


G8 II 


+ 


14.. 1 


1.6 


4 


3828 




07 


10. 8 


+ 28 


39 


9. 34 


F8 V 


+ 


7. 5 


2. 1 


4 


3834 


55578 




11. 5 


28 


32 


9. 58 


G8 V 


+ 


17. 7 


3. 1 


5 


3865b 


56176 




14. 


26 


47 


7. 70 


G7 IV ^ 


- 


5. 1 


0. 7 


4 


3866 


56224 




14. 2 


26 


27 


8. 86 


K3 III 


+ : 


L09.6 


2. 3 


4 IU 


3873 


56418 




14. 8 


26 


25 


8. 98 


Kl III 


+ 


1. 1 


2. 7 


4 


3874 


56417 


07 


14. 9 


+ 27 


14 


8. 95 


G8 III 


_ 


8. 8 


1. 5 


4 


3880 


56513 




15. 4 


27 


21 


8. 90 


G2 V 


- 


27. 4 


1. 2 


4 


3890 


56629 




15. 9 


29 


17 


8. 79 


G8 ni 


+ 


16. 1 


1.9 


4 


3897 


56761 




16. 4 


26 


55 


8. 25 


G8 III 


+ 


0. 8 


2. 5 


4 


3918 


57267 




18. 5 


26 


15 


8.65 


G2 V 


var. 




7 N, 


3928 


57470 


07 


19.6 


+ 29 


55 


9. 28 


Kl III 


_ 


26.4 


1.4 


4 


3974 


58683 




24. 7 


27 


24 


8.62 


G8 III 


+ 


55. 7 


0. 5 


4 


3980b 


58898 




25.6 


27 


39 


8.06 


K2 III 


var? 




4 II 


4019 


59684 




29. 1 


27 


14 


8.66 


Kl III 


+ 


59.4 


2. 3 


4 


4044 






31.4 


28 


51 


9.29 


GO IV 


+ 


0. 6 


0. 5 


4 


4046 


60235 


07 


31. 6 


+ 28 


37 


9. 22 


K3 ni 


+ 


34. 3 


3. 1 


5 


4051 


60298 




31. 8 


25 


04 


8. 18 


GO V 


-] 


L34. 5 


2. 6 


4 III 


4119 


61645 




38. 2 


26 


00 


9. 54 


K2 III 


- 


28. 5 


3.0 


4 


4143 


62285 




41. 1 


25 


54 


7. 43 


K5 III 


+ 


1. 6 


0. 9 


4 


4152 


62567 




•42.5 


26 


07 


9. 34 


K5 III 


- 


6.0 


0. 6 


4 



118 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H. D. 


R.A. 


Dec. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PL R 






(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 






(km. /sec) 






4161 


62857 


07 


43. 9 


+ 26 


09 


9.28 


G5 


rv 


+ 17. 1 


1. 3 


4 


4173 


63016 




44. 9 


28 


48 


8. 68 


G8 III 


- 8. 2 


2. 4 


5 


4178 


63138 




45. 4 


28 


53 


8. 18 


K0 


III 


t 20. 4 


1. 6 


4 


4194 


63410 




46. 7 


26 


23 


8.06 


G8 III 


+ 81. 4 


1.4 


4 n 


4198 


63433 




46. 8 


27 


29 


7. 71 


G5 rv^ 


- 15. 7 


0. 7 


4 


4202 


63495 


07 


47. 2 


+ 28 


52 


9. 17 


Kl 


ni 


- 6. 4 


3. 1 


4 


4209 


63712 




48. 3 


29 


18 


8. 17 


G8 III 


var? 




5 II 


4214 


63816 




48. 8 


24 


57 


8. 97 


Kl 


in 


+ 8. 2 


1. 7 


4 


4261 


64833 




53. 8 


26 


14 


8. 81 


Kl 


in 


- 35. 3 


1. 7 


4 


4303 


65934 




59. 1 


26 


47 


8.87 


G8 


in 


+ 34. 4 


0. 5 


4 


4377 


67402 


08 


05. 8 


27 


38 


8. 17 


K0 


in 


+ 12. 4 


1. 3 


4 


4384b 


67542 




06. 5 


29 


14 


7. 72 


G5 


ii 


var? 




6 II 


4386 


67544 




06. 4 


24 


58 


8. 59 


G8 


in 


+ 3. 7 


0. 9 


4 


4389 


67613 




06. 7 


25 


42 


9. 35 


K5 


in 


+ 34. 2 


1. 8 


4 


4390 


67628 




06. 9 


29 


16 


9.48 


K5 


in 


+ 0.9 


0. 8 


4 


4392 


67709 


08 


07. 2 


+ 27 


14 


9. 51 


Kl 


in 


+ 45. 3 


2. 7 


4 


4430 


68724 




11. 6 


26 


53 


9. 21 


KO 


in 


- 32. 1 


1. 3 


4 


4451 


69312 




14. 3 


27 


12 


9. 10 


Kl 


in 


var? 




4 II 


4453 


69349 




14. 5 


27 


33 


9.04 


Kl 


in 


+ 2. 9 


1. 5 


4 


4454 


69364 




14. 6 


25 


00 


8. 83 


KO 


in 


- 19. 6 


1. 1 


5 


4481 


69866 


08 


17. 


+ 27 


02 


9. 20 


Kl 


in 


- 5. 3 


2. 6 


4 


4488 


70030 




17. 7 


25 


30 


9. 17 


K3 


in 


+ 38. 4 


2. 3 


4 


4494 


70178 




18. 5 


28 


59 


9. 22 


G5 IV ' 


+ 43. 4 


3. 7 


4 


4499 


70402 




19. 8 


27 


41 


9.08 


G8 III 


- 39. 6 


1.6 


4 


4511 


70688 




21. 2 


28 


55 


9. 44 


F6 


V 


+ 41. 8 


1. 6 


4 


4525 


71008 


08 


23.0 


+ 28 


48 


9. 00 


Kl 


in 


- 1. 8 


3. 5 


5 


4526 


71028 




23. 1 


28 


34 


9. 32 


KO 


in 


var? 




5 II 


4529 


71093 




23. 4 


28 


04 


7. 40 


K5 


in 


+ 24. 8 


0. 6 


4 


4531 


71132 




23. 6 


28 


14 


9. 32 


G8 IV - 


+ 19. 8 


2. 6 


4 


4554 


71730 




26. 7 


24 


31 


8. 35* 


KO 


in 


+ 32. 8 


1. 7 


4 


4588 


72559 


08 


31. 6 


+ 28 


37 


9. 08 


F6 


V 


- 19. 4 


0. 9 


5 


4598 


72907 




33. 3 


28 


53 


9. 16 


G8 II 


- 3. 8 


2. 2 


4 


4612 


73160 




34. 8 


26 


25 


9. 33 


K2 


III 


+ 39. 9 


0. 4 


4 


4632 


73509 




36. 8 


28 


41 


9. 31 


F8 


V 


var? 




4 II 


4670 


74260 




40. 9 


27 


24 


9. 50 


K3 


III 


+ 12. 7 


1.8 


4 


4671 


74348 


08 


41. 4 


+ 28 


38 


9. 43 


GO 


rv 


+ 2. 3 


2. 1 


4 N 


4682 


74624 




43. 


28 


34 


9. 02 


F5 


hi 


+ 27. 8 


2. 4 


4 


4684 


74669 




43. 2 


27 


47 


8. 43 


Kl 


IV 


+ 27. 6 


0. 8 


4 


4690b 


74811 




44. 1 


28 


21 


7. 40 


G2 


IV 


- 1. 8 


0. 9 


4 


4693 


74925 




44. 9 


28 


10 


9. 30 


GO 


IV X 


- 13. 6 


3. 1 


4. 


4702 


75216 


08 


46. 7 


+ 29 


38 


8. 71 


K2 


III 


var? 




4 II 


4714 






49. 


25 


55 


9. 13 


GO 


IV 


+ 14. 3 


2.6 


4 


4715 


75646 




49.0 


25 


54 


9.06 


K2 


III 


- 7. 1 


2. 5 


4 


4717 


75663 




49. 3 


29 


03 


9. 44 


K3 


III 


+ 20. 2 


2. 7 


4 


4727 


75935 




50. 9 


27 


06 


9. 35 


G8 V 


- 18. 7 


0. 7 


4 



119 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


R.A. 


De 


c. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PI. 


Re 






(: 


L950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec) 








4730 


76010 


08 


51. 4 


+ 27 


07 


9. 06 


MO III 


-> 


29.6 


1. 2 


4 




4743 


76332 




53.4 


28 


52 


9. 34 


G2 V 


+ 


18. 6 


0. 3 


4 




4754 


76657 




55. 4 


26 


41 


9.08 


KO III 


t 


23. 7 


1. 8 


4 




4758 


76752 




55. 9 


25 


36 


7.94 


G2 V 


- 


10. 1 


0. 8 


4 




4760 


76766 




56. 


26 


07 


8. 25 


F8 V 


+ 


15. 3 


0. 3 


4 




4764 


76864 




56. 8 


29 


13 


9.46 


K3 III 


_ 


0. 3 


1. 9 


5 




4768 


76866 




56. 8 


24 


49 


9. 32 


F5 V 


+ 


12.2 


2. 6 


5 




4771 


76976 




57. 3 


28 


52 


9. 70 


MO HI 


+ 


20. 9 


2. 7 


4 




4796 


77313 




59.6 


26 


03 


8. 44 


Kl III 


+ 


16. 7 


2. 1 


4 




4799 


77444 


09 


00. 3 


27 


25 


9. 70 


K4 III 


- 


30. 9 


1.0 


4 




4809 


77586 


09 


01. 4 


+ 29 


28 


9. 64 


M III 


+ 


88. 2 


2. 7 


4 


in 


4813 


77694 




01. 9 


24 


48 


9.33 


K2 III 


+ 


42. 3 


2. 5 


4 




4814 


77729 




02. 1 


26 


22 


9.42 


K2 W ^ 


+ 


104. 5 


3. 3 


4 


III 


4823 


77948 




03. 3 


26 


20 


9. 52 


KO III 


- 


10. 7 


2. 1 


4 




4829 


78194 




04. 7 


28 


12 


9.29 


Kl II 


+ 


57. 2 


3.2 


5 




4834 


78277 


09 


05. 1 


+ 27 


46 


8. 87 


G2 IV 


, 


irar? 




4 


II 


4835 






05.4 


27 


44 


8. 76 


GO V 


+ 


32.6 


2.0 


4 




4836 






05. 5 


27 


45 


8.84 


GO V 


4 


28. 2 


0. 3 


4 




4856 


78887 




08.4 


25 


38 


9. 29 


KO n 




0.0 


1.4 


4 




4859 


78967 




09. 


29 


05 


9. 30 


Kl m 


-j. 


22.0 


1. 2 


4 




4869 


79214 


09 


10. 7 


+ 24 


30 


9. 31 


KO III 


_ 


6. 3 


2.0 


4 




4875 


79318 




11.2 


25 


30 


9. 56* 


KO III 


- 


8.6 


3.0 


5 


N 


4878 


79373 




11. 6 


25 


13 


8. 46 


K3 m 


+ 


31. 6 


2. 2 


4 




4906 


80217 




16. 3 


26 


28 


8. 35 


K4 III 


+ 


9. 9 


1.6 


4 




4914 


80327 




16. 9 


24 


38 


8. 45 


F8 V 


- 


32.-1 


3. 1 


4 




4930 


80819 


09 


19. 8 


+ 25 


58 


9.20 


KO III 


+ 


74. 1 


2. 2 


4 


in 


4936 


81058 




21. 2 


26 


08 


8. 38 


K2 m 


- 


14.6 


3. 1 


4 




4958 


81505 




23. 8 


26 


34 


9.28 


G8 HI 


+ 


20. 9 


0. 5 


4 




4968 


81855 




26.0 


26 


26 


9. 84 


K3 m 


+ 


1. 1 


2.0 


4 




4994 


82331 




29. 2 


27 


03 


9. 21 


ki ni 


- 


5.9 


2. 2 


4 




5030 


83098 


09 


33. 9 


+ 27 


59 


8. 53 


K2 III 


_ 


6. 


0. 9 


4 




5038 


83224 




34. 7 


24 


37 


9.63 


F6 V 


var. • 




5 


ii 


5041 


83341 




35. 5 


25 


36 


9. 86 


G8 ni 


+ 


54. 8 


1. 3 


5 




5042 


83340 




35. 6 


28 


14 


8.65 


GO IV 


+ 


23. 4 


2.9 


4 




5054 


83617 




37. 5 


25 


15 


9. 56 


go rv 


+ 


13. 1 


2. 9 


5 




5055 


83632 


09 


37. 7 


+ 26 


14 


9. 91 


KO III 


+ 


89. 8 


1. 6 


4 


in 


5059 


83807 




38. 7 


28 


11 


9. 16 


F8 V 


var. 




4 


ii 


5061 


83820 




38. 8 


29 


06 


9.82 


ki m 


+ 


20. 4 


1. 8 


4 




5065 


83935 




39. 5 


25 


49 


8. 71 


ki ni 


+ 


15. 9 


1. 7 


4 




5083 


84440 




43.0 


27 


17 


9. 13 


Kl III 


+ 


12. 2 


1. 3 


5 




5087 


84577 


09 


44. 


t27 


23 


9. 58 


KO III : 


_ 


10. 6 


1. 1 


4 




5090 






45. 1 


27 


21 




F6 V 


- 


0. 5 


1. 7 


5 




5122 


85428 




49. 4 


25 


21 


9.40 


K2 III 


+ 


71. 5 


2. 4 


4 


m 


5126 


85440 




49. 6 


28 


01 


8. 94 


G8 HI 




0. 


1.0 


4 




5132 


85615 




'50. 8 


25 


54 


8.61 


K2 m 


- 


12. 1 


0. 5 


4 





120 



T\BLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H. D. 


B 


.A. 


Dec. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Ve 


locity 


P. E. 


PI. 


Hef 






(1 


950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec} 








5145 


85946 


09 


53.0 


+27 05 


9. 13 


K0 ni 


var? 




4 


n 


5147 


85976 




53. 2 


26 14 


8.98 


G8 HI 


- 


10.0 


1.8 


4 




5156 


86131 




54. 4 


28 48 


8. 96 


K2 in 


- 


18. 8 


1.0 


5 




5159 


86168 




54. 5 


25 02 


9.70 


ki m 


+ 


10. 3 


1.9 


4 




5173 


86460 




56. 4 


27 46 


8.54 


GO IV 


+ 


5. 7 


1. 5 


4 




5179 


86590 


09 


57. 2 


+ 24 48 


8.95 


KO V 


var. 




4 


n 


5180 


86680 




57. 8 


28 25 


8. 78 


GO V 


+ 


8.4 


2. 5 


5 




5182 


86778 




58. 4 


29 02 


8. 70 


K2 III 


- 


0. 3 


1. 1 


4 




5183 


86801 




58. 7 


28 48 


9.48 


GO V 


- 


4. 6 


0. 5 


4 




5216 


87680 


10 


04. 4 


29 29 


8. 82 


G2 V 


- 


25. 5 


2. 4 


5 




5223 


87804 


10 


05. 3 


+ 27 03 


9. 46 


G8 m 


+ 


1. 6 


2.8 


4 




5229 


88008 




06. 5 


' 24 48 


9. 43 


G5 V 


var? 




5 


ii 


5248 


88416 




09. 5 


27 21 


9.85 


ko ivy 


- 


0.6 


2. 2 


4 




5251 


88476 




09. 9 


28 29 


8. 14 


G8 III 


+ 


4. 7 


1. 7 


4 




5254 


88532 




10. 3 


28 32 


9. 78 


KO IV s 


1 


/ar. 




5 


ii 


5255 


88533 


10 


10. 3 


+ 27 40 


9. 30 


G5 V 


- 


39. 3 


2. 8 


4 




5280 


89055 




14. 1 


26 07 


8. 34 


GO V 


- 


14.4 


0. 8 


4 




5298 


89361 




16. 4 


24 37 


9.00 


K2 III 


+ 


19. 4 


2.0 


4 




5300 


89415 




16. 9 


29 37 


9. 81 


F5V , 


+ 


14. 4 


1.4 


4 




5308 


89557 




17. 8 


29 12 


8. 79 


G8 m 


+ 


28. 3 


0.6 


4 




5311 


89629 


10 


18. 2 


+ 27 59 


9.21 


G8 IV -' 


+ 


18. 1 


3. 1 


5 




5312 


89631 




18. 4 


26 57 


9.06 


F5 V 


+ 


7. 7 


1. 


4 




5313 


89630 




18. 4 


27 08 


9. 35 


F8 V 


- 


12. 2 


1. 7 


4 




5336 


90009 




21. 


25 49 


8.33 


K2 III 


- 


1.0 


1. 7 


4 




5341 


90183 




22. 3 


24 52 


8. 97 


GO V 


- 


5. 3 


3.4 


4 




5346 


90346 


10 


23. 5 


+ 24 58 


8.64 


Kl III 


- 


20. 


2. 5 


4 




5355 


90442 




24. 2 


26 54 


9. 28 


Kl V 




rar. 




5 


n 


5356 


90443 




24.2 


25 12 


9.04 


Kl m 




irar. 




5 


ii 


5361 


90567 




25. 1 


27 28 


9.28 


F8 V 


+ 


32. 8 


3. 1 


4 




5369 


90682 




26. 


27 11 


9.64 


K3 m 


+ 


6. 3 


1. 7 


4 




5377 


90841 


10 


27. 


+ 28 49 


9.64 


K2 m 


+ 


27. 3 


1. 1 


4 




5379 


90861 




27. 1 


28 50 


8. 36 


K2 III 


+ 


39. 8 


0. 4 


5 




5382 


90932 




27. 6 


27 36 


9. 70 


Kl III 


- 


40. 6 


1.6 


4 




5390 


91148 




29.0 


24 20 


8. 81* 


G8 V 


- 


24. 4 


1.0 


4 




5393 


91164 




29. ? 


24 59 


9. 07 


KO III 


■h 


17. 1 


3. 1 


4 




5397 


91348 


10 


30. 5 


+ 28 02 


9. 53 


G8 ni 


T 


10. 6 


2. 2 


4 




5398 


91366 




30. 5 


25 23 


9,02 


Kl III 


" 


0. 5 


3.0 


4 




5407 


91545 




32.0 


28 13 


8.32 


K2 III 


" 


21. 6 


1. 3 


5 




5417 


91685 




32. 9 


29 22 


9. 28 


F7 V 


" 


30. 7 


4. 1 


5 




5419 


91842 




34. 


28 02 


9. 76 


Kl III 


+ 


39-. 


2.9 


5 




5420 


91855 


10 


34.0 


+ 26 26 


9. 76 


KO ni 


- 


6.6 


2. 9 


4 




5421 


91950 




34. 6 


25 20 


9. 28 


G2 V 


+ 


42.0 


1. 1 


5 




5432 


92108 




35. 7 


26 11 


9. 35 


KO HI 


+ 


32. 9 


1.0 


4 




5451 


92456 




38. 1 


25 58 


9. 24 


Kl III 


+ 


23. 


2. 7 


4 




5475 


92824 




40. 7 


26 02 


9. 34 


F8 V 


- 


10. 2 


1. 8 


4 





121 - 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 



H.D. 



5489 


93215 


5490 


93242 


5503 


93391 


5545 


94336 


5565 


94833 


5567 


94834 


5571 


94966 


5582 


95188 


5591 


95363 


5593 


95364 


5603 


95725 


5611 


95978 


5628 


96234 


5635 


96393 


5671 


97476 


5676 


97658 


5684 


97777 


5698 


98155 


5713 


98562 


5765 


99594 



5780 99947 

5781 99957 
5787 100041 
5790 100179 
5815 100947 

5818 100993 

5829 101289 

5838 101396 

5847 101856 

5851 101906 

5863 102142 

5864 102161 
5879 102404 
5882 102494 
5887 102646 

5922 103614 

5946 104076 

5956 104392 

5962 104590 

5964 104589 

5974 104784 

5981 105020 

6015 105771 

6020 105898 

6022 105964 



R.A. Dec. 

(1950) (1950) 

10 43. 4 +26 01 

43. 6 25 53 

44. 6 27 10 
50. 8 26 28 
54. 5 25 32 



Ptg. Class 
Mag. 

9. 98 G5 V 

9. 42 K0 III 

9. 30 K5 III 

9. 12 M III 

9. 39 F8 V 



Velocity P. E. PL Ref. 
(km./sec^ 

- 10. 5 1.0 4 
+ 7.0 0.7 4 
+ 3. 3 2. 1 4 
+ 6.9 2.8 4 

- 21. 1 2. 3 4 



10 


54. 6 


+ 24 


25 


8. 6 


Kl IV 


+ 


4. 7 


1. 8 


4 




55. 5 


24 


39 


8. 64 


Kl III 


- 


6. 5 


1. 4 


4 




57. 1 


25 


33 


9. 44 


G8 V 


+ 


6. 8 


2. 7 


5 




58. 2 


27 


24 


9.64 


F7 V 


var. 




5 




58. 3 


24 


20 


9. 37 


G2 V 


+ 


12. 3 


2. 5 


4 


11 


00. 5 


+ 29 


12 


8. 70 


Kl II 


_ 


12. 8 


1. 1 


4 




01. 9 


29 


27 


9. 57 


K2 III 


- 


45. 4 


2. 7 


5 




03. 4 


24 


30 


9. 68 


K0 III 


+ 


11.6 


1. 9 


5 




04. 3 


26 


00 


9. 58 


K0 HI 


+ 


15. 1 


1. 3 


4 




10. 6 


27 


27 


9. 58 


K4 m 


+ 


9. 4 


1. 6 


4 


11 


11. 9 


+ 25 


59 


8. 96 


Kl V 


+ 


3.4 


1.6 


4 




12. 7 


26 


43 


9. 71 


G8 III 


*. 


1. 1 


1. 8 


4 




15. 1 


25 


19 


9. 17 


KO III 


- 


6. 1 


2. 1 


4 




18.0 


23 


53 


9. 59* 


G2 V 


+ 


12.0 


3. 2 


5 




25.0 


26 


44 


9. 73 


K2 in 


- 


0. 2 


1.0 


5 


11 


27. 4 


+ 25 


10 


9. 16 


KO III 


+ 


39. 1 


1. 6 


5 




27. 5 


25 


35 


9. 58 


K3 III 


4- 


9. 8 


1. 6 


4 




28. 3 


28 


44 


9.02 


M III 


+ 


87. 


1. 3 


4 




29. 2 


24 


35 


9.02 


K4 III 


+ 


26.4 


1. 3 


5 




34. 6 


28 


03 


9. 11 


Kl m 


" 


14. 8 


2.6 


4 


11 


34. 8 


+ 25 


42 


8. 77 


F8 V 


+ 


11.2 


2. 8 


5 




36. 9 


25 


35 


8. 49 


GO V 


- 


8. 1 


1.4 


5 




37.6 


26 


26 


9. 30 


Kl V 


- 


6. 7 


1.4 


4 




40. 9 


27 


51 


9. 27 


KO III 


+ 


4. 6 


1. 8 


5 




41. 2 


24 


17 


8. 24 


G2 V 


+ 


5. 3 


0. 7 


4 


11 


42. 8 


+ 27 


30 


8. 23 


G5 V 


+ 


9. 5 


1.0 


4 




42. 9 


25 


23 


9,07 


GO V 


+ 


22. 2 


3. 2 


5 




44. 7 


24 


42 


9. 37 


K2 III 


- 


5. 3 


1. 3 


4 




45. 3 


27 


37 


8. 26 


G8 IV 


- 


21. 1 


0. 7 


4 




46. 6 


28 


24 


8. 55 


KO III 


+ 


12. 4 


1.0 


5 


11 


53. 4 


+ 25 


46 


8. 87 


F6 V 


var? 




6 




56. 7 


24 


54 


8. 88 


GO V 


+ 


1. 9 


2. 2 


5 




58. 7 


24 


30 


9. 74 


K2 III 


- 


13. 1 


2. 3 


5 


12 


00. 1 


24 


44 


8. 95 


K2 III 


- 


3. 2 


2.8 


5 




00. 2 


25 


36 


9. 36 


Kl III 


+ 


28.0 


1. 5 


4 


12 


01. 5 


+ 25 


13 


8. 62 


F8 V 


+ 


3. 1 


2. 6 


7 




03.0 


28 


47 


9.66 


K3 ni 


- 


33. 1 


3. 2 


7 




07. 9 


29 


21 


8. 59 


KO HI 


- 


3. 5 


1. 1 


4 




08. 7 


25 


02 


8. 19 


G2 V 


- 


37. 7 


2. 1 


5 




09. 1 


26 


01 


9. 22 


GO V 


+ 


14. 2 


2. 5 


5 



in 



122 



A.G. 



H. D. 



6031 106184 

6035 106398 

6052 106857 

6054 106947 

6060 107132 

6078 107468 

6085 107611 

6091 107725 

6125 108466 

6134 108675 

6140 108805 

6146 108976 

6149 109012 

6163 109282 

6170 109463 

6172 109482 

6175 109552 

6177 109627 

6182 109823 

6222 110788 

6227 110883 

6246 111285 

6249 

6259 111541 

6274 111842 

6280 112001 

6294 112257 

6295 112299 
6313 112753 
6321 113094 

6325 113242 

6343 113771 

6359 114037 

6364 114093 

6368 114172 

6385 114636 

6407 115103 

6411 115256 

6416 115339 

6421 115613 

6430 115762 

6435 115929 

6438 116029 

6443 116232 

6454 116329 





TABIE 


I - cont 


inued 










R.A. 


De 


c. 


Ptg- 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PL 


(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag 




(km. /sec) 






12 10. 5 


+ 28 


55 


9. 75 


K5 III 


4. 


6. 5 


1.2 


4 


11.8 


26 


47 


8.41 


G8 m 


+ 


58.6 


2. 4 


5 


14. 8 


29 


00 


9. 54 


F5 V 


- 


6. 1 


1. 4 


4 


15. 3 


25 


20 


9. 31 


F7 V 


* 


5.0 


1.0 


4 


16. 5 


25 


07 


9.41 


F7 V 


+ 


2. 1 


2. 1 


4 


12 18.6 


+ 26 


00 


9. 52 


Kl m 


+ 


34. 3 


2. 


4 


19. 4 


27 


35 


9.04 


F6 V 


+ 


3.2 


1. 5 


4 


20. 1 


26 


54 


9. 77 


K2 III 


- 


1. 7 


2. 4 


4 


25. 1 


28 


23 


8. 56 


K2 III 


- 


27. 1 


2. 3 


4 


26. 5 


29 


10 


9. 17 


F6 rv-v 


var? 




5 


12 27. 5 


+ 26 


24 


9. 24 


G8 III 


_ 


23. 


1. 9 


4 


28. 6 


28 


00 


9. 07 


F6 V 


- 


1.2 


1.0 


4 


29. 1 


27 


20 


9. 03 


K2 III 


- 


18. 1 


1. 8 


4 


31.0 


24 


43 


9. 16 


M III 


+ 


0. 5 


3. 2 


6 


32. 3 


24 


30 


9. 35 


K5 III 


- 


26. 1 


1. 7 


4 


12 32. 3 


+ 29 


22 


9. 31 


G8 n 


+ 


0. 7 


3.0 


5 


33.0 


29 


07 


9.07 


F8 IV 


4 


20. 9 


3. 1 


5 


33. 5 


25 


42 


9. 10 


K2 III 


+ 


1.0 


2. 9 


5 


35.2 


28 


54 


9. 71 


GO IV 


+ 


8. 2 


1. 6 


4 


41. 9 


28 


15 


9. 35 


G8 III 


" 


30. 6 


2. 9 


4 


12 42. 6 


+ 27 


40 


8. 98 


K2 III 


+ 


7. 


1. 9 


4 


45. 5 


24 


22 


8. 93 


G8 III 


- 


31. 2 


1. 1 


4 


45. 8 


25 


25 


11.07 


K2 III 


- 


18. 2 


3. 1 


5 


47. 4 


26 


42 


8. 32 


Kl III 


- 


8.6 


1. 7 


4 


49. 5 


25 


57 


9.68 


K5 III 


" 


32. 5 


2. 4 


4 


12 50. 6 


+ 27 


04 


8. 53 


GO IV 


_ 


12.0 


2. 7 


5 


52. 7 


28 


02 


8. 72 


G2 V 


- 


38. 5 


1.0 


4 


53.0 


26 


01 


9. 19 


F8 V 


+ 


3.6 


0. 4 


4 


56. 3 


27 


45 


8. 81 


GO V 


1 


rar? 




5 


58. 6 


24 


35 


9. 31* 


Kl III 


" 


10. 3 


2. 7 


5 


12 59. 7 


+ 29 


16 


9. 68 


F8 V 


- 


5. 7 


1. 5 


4 


13 03. 3 


26 


51 


8. 77 


KO III 


- 


8. 6 


2. 2 


4 


05. 


26 


47 


9.06 


Kl III 


- 


6. 4 


0. 7 


5 


05. 6 


25 


06 


7. 99 


G8 III 


- 


5. 9 


0. 9 


4 


06. 2 


29 


39 


9. 29 


GO V 


" 


36. 8 


2. 2 


4 


13 09. 1 


+ 26 


39 


9. 77 


Kl III 


- 


24. 9 


2. 2 


6 


12. 2 


29 


40 


9. 23 


F6 V 


- 


9. 1 


2.9 


6 


13.2 


29 


00 


9. 06 


K3 III 


+ 


19. 2 


1. 9 


5 


14. 


28 


00 


9. 13 


G8 V 


+ 


24. 6 


2.6 


5 


15. 6 


27 


43 


9. 24 


F8 V 


+ 


3.. 8 


3.2 


5 


13 16. 5 


+ 24 


52 


9. 39 


G2 V 


- 


12. 


1. 8 


4 


17. 5 


28 


22 


8. 76 


F6 V 


- 


12.6 


0. 7 


4 


18. 3 


24 


55 


9.05 


Kl III 


- 


2. 1 


1. 9 


4 


19. 6 


26 


16 


8. 76 


G8 III 


- 


22. 8 


1. 8 


5 


20. 3 


26 


06 


9. 52 


F7 V 


- 


27. 3 


2.2 


4 



Ref. 



- 123 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


I 

(: 


LA. 

1950) 


Dec. 

(1950) 


Ptg. 
Mag. 


Class 


V( 

(kl 


slocity 
m./sec) 


P. E. 


PI. 


Ref. 


6477 


117028 


13 


24. 8 


+ 29 


08 


9.46 


G8 III 


+ 


26. 7 


1. 2 


4 




6478 


117062 




25. 1 


24 


34 


9.02 


F2 V 




var? 




5 


II 


6501 


117555 




28.4 


24 


49 


9.02 


G5 n 




var. 




7 


N, II 


6529 






32.8 


25 


04 


9.47 


G8 V 


- 


2. 3 


0. 5 


4 




6546 


118658 




35.6 


27 


04 


9. 79 


K0 III 


- 


5.4 


2. 1 


4 




6552 


118823 


13 


36. 5 


+ 24 


30 


9.25 


K2 III 


_ 


11.6 


2. 1 


5 




6556 


118905 




37. 1 


26 


56 


8.46 


Kl III 


■*• 


0. 5 


2. 5 


6 




6559 


118971 




37. 7 


26 


11 


8. 91 


G8 ni 


+ 


33. 1 


1.4 


5 




6582 


119665 




41. 8 


25 


32 


9. 39 


F6 V 


- 


0. 8 


2. 2 


4 




6584 


119748 




42.2 


29 


14 


9. 76 


Kl ni 


- 


29. 9 


1.0 


4 




6590 


119944 


13 


43. 6 


+ 27 


29 


9. 65 


K2 m 


+ 


13. 8 


2. 2 


4 




6605 


120421 




46. 5 


28 


08 


8. 52 


Kl III 


- 


4.2 


1. 1 


4 




6618 


120802 




48. 9 


27 


23 


9. 71 


Kl III 




var. 




6 


II 


6619 


120803 




48. 9 


24 


57 


9.05 


Kl III 


- 


47. 4 


2. 5 


6 




6623 


120895 




49. 5 


24 


56 


9. 91 


K3 III 


- 


18. 3 


0. 8 


4 




6633 


121131 


13 


50. 8 


+ 28 


04 


9.44 


Kl V 


+ 


40. 3 


1.4 


4 




6634 


121149 




50.8 


27 


54 


9.29 


GO V 


- 


22.0 


2. 


4 




6638 


121184 




51. 1 


24 


24 


9.89 


K3 III 


- 


18. 6 


1. 7 


5 




6639 


121183 




51.0 


27 


20 


9. 57 


K0 IV 


- 


20. 7 


2. 1 


5 




6646 


121319 




51. 9 


28 


34 


9. 15 


KO ni 


- 


40. 


1. 6 


4 




6663 


121844 


13 


55. 2 


+ 25 


15 


9. 37 


Kl III 


_ 


62. 1 


2. 7 


4 




6669 


122052 




56. 6 


24 


56 


8.67 


go ni 


- 


26. 1 


2. 4 


6 




6693 


122693 


14 


00. 5 


24 


48 


8. 74 


F8 V 


+ 


1.0 


0.4 


4 




6694 


122767 




01.0 


24 


50 


9. 73 


K3 ni 


■ 


var. 




5 


II 


6699 


122796 




01. 2 


27 


45 


8.49 


ki ni 


- 


32. 5 


1. 8 


5 




6705 




14 


02. 5 


+ 26 


05 


9. 79 


KO V 


_ 


12. 7 


1.6 


5 




6726 


123612 




06.0 


24 


33 


8.43 


K5 ni 


- 


25. 4 


2. 1 


4 




6732 


123822 




07. 1 


25 


41 


9. 77 


G8 III 


- 


0. 3 


2. 2 


4 




6734 


123877 




07. 4 


26 


05 


9. 93 


K5 ni 


+ 


21. 


2. 9 


5 




6738 


124019 




08. 2 


27 


52 


9. 33 


G2 V 


- 


20. 2 


0. 4 


4 




6788 


125320 


14 


15. 9 


+ 27 


02 


9. 12 


G5 IV 


+ 


21. 1 


3.0 


4 




6802 


125728 




18. 5 


26 


18 


7. 99 


G8 n 


+ 


26. 1 . 


1. 9 


4 




6808 


126009 




20. 


29 


36 


8. 65 


M III 


- 


14. 4 


1. 7 


8 




6820 


126307 




21. 8 


27 


38 


8. 45 


K4 ni 


+ 


31.6 


1. 1 


4 




6821 


126327 




21. 9 


25 


56 


var. 


m ni 


- 


7. 7 


3.0 


5 


N 


6832 


126598 


14 


23. 7 


+ 26 


29 


9.22 


K4 ni 


var. 




7 


II 


6838 


126778 




24. 7 


28 


49 


9. 39 


G8 IV 


-; 


L30. 1 


1. 5 


4 


III 


6847 


126970 




25. 8 


29 


29 


8. 91 


G5 IV 


- 


48. 1 


1. 5 


4 




6848 


126991 




26.0 


24 


44 


8. 81 


G2 V 


- 


82. 9 


1.8 


4 


m 


6852 


127093 




26. 5 


26 


05 


8. 75 


M HI 


+ 


3. 9 


1. 8 


4 




6861 


127386 


14 


28. 2 


+ 25 


19 


8. 99 


pec. 


var. 




5 


N, II 


6888 






32. 2 


24 


37 


9. 33 


G8 ni 


- 


12. 9 


2. 5 


4 




6889 


128095 




32. 1 


28 


42 


9. 49 


ki rv 


+ 


26. 3 


1. 2 


4 




6894 


128185 




32. 6 


28 


37 


8.67 


F8 V 


- 


6. 5 


2. 5 


4 




6937 


129357 




39.2 


29 


17 


8. 72 


G2 V 


- 


33. 9 


2. 2 


4 





124- 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. H.D. 



6940 129412 

6960 130215 

6971 1J30500 

6983 130766 

7008 131509 

7022 131972 

7032 132256 

7035 132304 

7039 132524 

7042 132737 

7061 133460 

7062 133459 
7079 133922 

7089 134246 

7090 134282 

7106 134680 

7116 135145 

7152 136231 

7155 136274 

7181 136901 

7183 137003 

7201 137688 

7220 138156 

7256 139007 

7276 139550 

7280 139608 

7281 139749 
7298 140385 
7326 140913 
7333 141176 

7353 141690 

7367 142053 

7377 142209 

7378 142243 
7385 142418 



R.A. Dec. 

(1950) (1950) 

14 39. 5 + 24 45 

43. 9 27 43 

45. 6 25 41 

47. 25 21 

51. 1 28 43 

14 53. 8 +24 35 
55. 2 25 31 

55. 5 24 52 

56. 6 25 15 

57. 7 27 21 

01.6 26 14 

15 01. 7 +-27 17 

04. 2 26 38 

05. 9 28 43 
06. 1 26 54 

15 08. 2 4-27 37 

10. 7 28 07 

16. 6 25 57 

16. 9 25 52 

20. 3 25 48 

15 20. 7 f28 14 

24. 4 28 18 

27. 3 27 16 

32. 7 25 10 

35. 8 25 48 

15 36. 1 +24 41 

36. 9 25 54 
40. 2 29 47 

43. 1 28 37 

44. 7 25 14 

15 47. 4 +25 37 

49. 4 25 27 

50. 3 28 45 

50. 5 29 04 

51. 5 29 37 



Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PI. 


Mag. 




(km. /sec) 






8. 27 


F7 V 


-* 


2. 5 


2.0 


4 


9. 07 


K2 V 


- 


16. 2 


0. 8 


4 


9. 72* 


G8 H-III 


+ 


3. 9 


3. 1 


5 


8. 43 


K3 II 


- 


11. 5 


1. 1 


8 


9. 22 


K0 V 


- 


43. 7 


2. 1 


4 


8. 10 


K2 III 


+ 


4.0 


1.8 


4 


8. 16 


G2 IV 


- 


3.9 


2. 2 


4 


8. 82 


K3 III 


- 


38. 3 


3. 2 


4 


8. 73 


K0 III 


- 


18. 4 


1. 9 


4 


9.03 


KO III 


- 


20. 7 


0. 6 


4 


7. 95 


F8 V 


■»• 


3. 7 


0. 7 


4 


8. 93 


K4 III 


-s 


8.2 


2. 1 


4 


9. 78 


K4 III 




rar? 




6 


8. 47 


G8 III 


+ 


10. 4 


1. 4 


4 


9. 25 


G8 n 


- 


5. 2 


1. 2 


4 


9. 68 


G8 III 


, 


rar. 




6 


9. 19 


GO V 


- 


54. 4 


1. 1 


5 


9. 31 


GO V 


■+• 


14. 8 


1. 6 


5 


8. 94 


G8 V 


- 


28. 6 


1. 1 


10 


8. 91 


Kl III 


1 


/ar. 




9 


8.67 


G8 m 


_ 


9. 8 


1. 8 


5 


9. 27 


K3 in 


+ 


28. 6 


2. 1 


4 


9. 55 


G5 ni 


- 


36. 1 


2. 2 


4 


8. 75 


F8 V 


- 


22. 2 


2. 6 


4 


9. 41 


G8 III 


+ 


11. 1 


0. 8 


4 


8. 2 


M III 


_ 


23. 2 


1.0 


4 


8. 87 


GO V 


+ 


8. 1 


1.6 


4 


9. 37 


G2 V 


- 


44. 8 


1.4 


4 


8. 81 


GO V 


- 


14. 5 


0. 2 


4 


9. 07 


G2 IV 


- 


17. 5 


2. 


5 


9. 27 


GO IV 


1 


/ar. 




5 


8. 87 


Kl II- III 


- 


10. 6 


1.0 


5 


9. 40 


K3 III 


- 


15. 8 


2.0 


4 


9. 25 


K3 III 


- 


17. 5 


2. 3 


5 



Ref. 



II 



9. 1 



2. 6 



7398 142898 

7399 142929 
7415 143271 

7418 143272 

7419 143313 



15 54. +27 12 

54. 3 25 19 

56. 4 21 00 

56. 5 26 41 

56.6 25 43 



9. 24 Kl IV 
9. 01 F8 V 
9. 43 G8 HI 

9. 35 KO II-III 
9. 59 K2 V 



- 31. 5 1. 2 4 

- 34. 1 2. 5 
+ 1. 3 1.8 4 
+ 3.6 1.6 4 

var. • 6 



II 



7420 

7441 143688 

7444 143705 

7468 144287 

7505 145374 



15 56. 5 +27 53 
58. 9 24 36 
58. 9 29 05 

16 02. 25 23 
07. 5 27 06 



8. 95 KO V 

9. 31 F6 V 
8. 73 GO V 
8. 24 G8 V 
8. 28 Kl HI 



- 67. 4 1. 2 4 
+ 27.2 3. 4 5 

var. 5 II 

- 44. 5 0.7 8 
+ 6.4 1.5 4 



125 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 



H.D. 



7507 145404 

7511 145458 

7513 145457 

7537 145890 

7603 147487 



R.A. Dec. 

(1950) (1950) 

16 07. 7 +26 08 

08. 25 37 

08.0 26 52 

10. 3 26 34 

19. 2 27 29 



Ptg. 
Mag. 



Class 



9. 20 GO V 

8.67 G8 n-III 

8. 14 K0 III 

9. 15 Kl m 
9. 15 GO V 



Velocity p. E. PI. 
(km. /sec) 

- 19.6 0. 8 4 

- 4.5 1.2 4 

- 3.3 1.1 7 
var? 4 

-58.2 1.0 4 



Ref. 



7608 147527 

7612 147665 

7629 147980 

7685 149067 

7690 149132 



16 19. 4 +29 07 

20. 2 24 52 

21. 9 28 30 

29. 4 25 57 

29. 7 29 43 



9. 41 F5 IV 
9. 50 F8 V 

8. 80 Kl II-III 

9. 26 G8 II 
9. 25 K2 II 



- 33. 5 1. 4 5 

- 7.0 1.6 5 

- 28. 8 2. 1 4 

- 4. 1 1. 8 4 

- 18. 2 1.2 4 



7692 149142 

7698 149241 

7704 149403 

7709 149474 

7721 149803 

7734 150087 

7735 150086 
7737 150102 
7742 150205 
7756 150431 

7761 150567 

7769 150665 

7774 

7776 150799 

7779 150889 

7799 151256 

7806 151369 

7826 151625 

7833 151780 

7847 152032 

7857 152264 

7860 152306 

7884 152748 

7908 153224 

7940 153698 

7956 154049 

7969 154183 

7973 

7989 154510 

8001 154635 

8009 154760 

8026 154942 

8032 155041 

8046 155344 

8063 155675 



16 29. 8 +26 08 

30. 4 27 49 

31. 5 24 59 

32. 25 35 

33. 9 29 51 

16 35. 7 +27 28 

35. 6 28 56 

35. 8 2 7 09 

36. 3 29 46 

37. 9 25 38 

16 38. 7 +29 01 

39. 5 26 11 

40. 1 25 31 
40. 2 25 31 
40. 9 25 57 

16 43. 2 +24 40 

44.0 26 08 

45. 4 28 29 

46. 5 26 41 

48. 26 18 

16 49. 2 +29 39 

49. 5 28 12 
52. 1 27 40 
54. 9 29 40 
57. 9 27 23 

17 00. +25 06 
00. 9 25 43 

01. 1 24 55 

02. 8 28 10 

03. 7 25 34 

17 04. 3 +26 35 

05. 5 28 11 

06. 29 13 

07. 9 26 31 

•10. 1 25 18 



8.97 


G8 III 


+ 


41. 3 


1. 7 


5 


9. 49 


K5 III 


- 


0. 6 


1. 6 


5 


9. 33 


GO V 


- 


12. 3 


3.4 


5 


9.65 


K3 III 


- 


8. 1 


1. 2 


5 


8. 90 


F7 V 


+ 


1.2 


0. 7 


4 


9. 24 


G8 III 


- 


2. 1 


1. 8 


5 


9. 74 


G8 III 


+ 


1. 1 


1.0 


4 


9.08 


M2HI 


t 


12. 7 


2. 7 


5 


8. 32 


G5 V 


+ 


29. 9 


1. 5 


4 


9. 47 


G8 III 


- 


14. 


0. 8 


4 


9. 13 


K3 m 


_ 


50. 4 


1. 3 


4 


9. 14 


K0 III 


- 


3. 9 


1. 8 


4 


9. 52 


F7 IV-V 


- 


15. 5 


2.4 


7 


9. 79 


F8 IV 


- 


28. 7 


2. 9 


5 


9.07 


K2 III 


- 


54. 4 


1. 6 


4 


9. 57 


Kl III 


+ 


10. 5 


1. 1 


4 


9. 35 


G2 IV 


- 


3.6 


2. 2 


4 


8. 82 


GO IV 


- 


38. 4 


2.4 


4 


9. 25 


Kl III 


- 


19. 9 


1. 2 


4 


8. 57 


G8 II-III 


- 


19. 5 


1. 9 


4 


8. 41 


GO V 


_ 


25. 2 


1. 9 


4 


8. 23 


G8 III 


+ 


6.0 


1. 1 


4 


9. 15 


G8 II 


- 


13. 7 


2. 4 


4 


8. 80 


F8 V 


- 


17. 4 


1.4 


4 


9. 21 


M III 


- 


20. 1 


1. 3 


5 


9. 41 


K3 III 


_ 


86.0 


1. 7 


4 


9. 33 


GO V 


- 


21. 7 


2. 4 


5 


9. 51 


Kl III 


- 


49. 5 


2. 1 


6 


8. 59 


Kl III 


+ 


2.5 


1.0 


10 


9. 24 


KO n 


- 


49.0 


1.0 


4 


9. 31 


G2 V 


_ 


14. 3 


1. 5 


4 


8. 77 


Kl III 


- 


20.4 


2. 1 


4 


9. 13 


K2 III 


- 


29. 2 


2. 2 


5 


8. 50 


K2 III 


+ 


4.0 


0. 9 


4 


9. 24 


F8 V 


- 


23. 8 


1. 7 


4 



III 



126 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 



H.D. 



R.A. 
(1950) 



Dec. 
(1950) 



Ptg. 

Mag. 



Class 



Velocity P. E. 
(km. /sec) 



PL Ref. 



8066 

8072 155839 

8073 155878 
8077 155989 
8079 156002 

8084 

8085 156093 

8098 156362 

8104 156454 

8114 156563 

8117 156652 

8127 156774 

8128 156775 
8135 156966 
8152 157294 

8189 158038 

8207 158332 

8223 158521 

8244 158823 

8283 159479 

8291 159608 

8309 159948 

8311 159968 

8338 160508 

8350 160678 

8372 160952 

8380 161112 

8387 161197 

8390 161196 

8392 161268 

8492 162901 

8506 163077 

8523 163331 

8559 163949 

8563 163970 

8564 163969 
8569 164042 
8571 164079 
8617 164923 
8651 165473 

8654 165589 

8656 

8669 165989 

8677 166070 

8683 166093 



17 10. 2 +29 35 

11. 2 25 03 

11.2 27 59 
11. 9 26 14 

12. 1 26 53 

17 12. 2 +29 38 

12. 5 26 07 

14.0 27 11 

14.6 26 38 

15. 3 25 05 

17 15. 6 +28 58 

16. 4 26 59 

16. 5 25 51 
17. 4 27 20 

19. 3 26 01 

17 23. 8 +27 21 

25. 6 26 50 

26. 8 26 46 
28. 3 29 33 
31. 9 26 42 

17 32. 4 +29 48 

34. 4 25 39 

34. 4 27 36 

37. 2 26 47 

38. 1 29 16 

17 39. 7 +29 37 

40. 6 26 34 
41. 1 24 49 
41. 1 29 40 
41. 5 27 03 

17 50. 4 +25 00 

51. 3 25 00 
52. 5 27 37 
55. 6 28 00 
5. 88 27 51 

17 55. 8 +28 15 
56. 2 27 24 

56. 4 28 00 

18 00. 4 25 00 

03. 29 05 

18 03. 5 +28 41 

04. 25 41 

05. 5 26 24 
05. 8 27 23 
05. 9 29 49 



9. 48 


G8 II- III 


- 


29.5 


1. 1 


4 


9. 18 


K5 III 


+ 


0.8 


0. 8 


5 


9. 17 


G8 II 


+ 


3.0 


1. 1 


4 


9. 43 


G5 III 




/ar. 




5 


9. 10 


F5 IV 


- 


9. 7 


3.6 


5 


8. 99 


GO V 


+ 


17. 9 


0. 8 


4 


8. 42 


K3 III 


- 


20. 3 


2. 2 


5 


8. 27 


K2 III 


- 


51. 1 


0. 8 


4 


9. 41 


G2 V 


- 


0. 3 


3. 1 


4 


9. 56 


G8 V 


- 


11. 7 


2.6 


4 


8. 81 


m ni 


_ 


36. 4 


2. 


5 


9.04 


K2 ni 


- 


48. 3 


3. 1 


5 


8. 19 


ki ni 


- 


4. 8 


1.4 


4 


8. 89 


M2 III 


+ 


72. 7 


2.0 


4 


9.04 


G8 m 


- 


48. 6 


3. 1 


5 


8. 76 


K2 II 


+ 


15. 6 


0. 9 


4 


8. 80 


Kl IV 


- 


18. 8 


2. 2 


4 


8. 82 


F6 V 


- 


1. 1 


1. 2 


4 


9. 25 


K3 III 


- 


42. 9 


1. 4 


4 


9. 56 


K2 ni 


- 


21. 3 


1.6 


4 


9. 89 


M2III 


_ 


60. 2 


3. 2 


6 


8. 97 


K2 III 


+ 


6. 3 


0. 6 


4 


8. 44 


M III 


- 


35.0 


1. 4 


4 


8. 91 


F8 V 


+ 


25. 1 


1. 8 


4 


9.03 


K0 III 


+ 


35. 5 


1. 8 


4 


9. 04 


G8 III 


+ 


30. 6 


0. 3 


4 


8. 82 


K0 III 


- 


5. 6 


1. 7 


5 


8. 91 


G2 IV 


+ 


26. 5 


1. 7 


4 


8. 96 


m ni 


+ 


2.4 


2.0 


4 


8. 91 


Kl II 


- 


23.4 


2. 4 


4 


8.95 


K2 ni 


_ 


9. 4 


2. 4 


5 


8. 82 


G8 V 


+ 


12. 3 


1. 3 


4 


9. 16 


Kl III 


+ 


8. 5 


2. 3 


4 


9. 39 


F6 V 


+ 


16. 5 


1. 5 


4 


9. 60 


GO V 


- 


28. 3 


2. 8 


4 


9. 52 


G8 ni 


+ 


8.0 


2. 2 


4 


9. 10 


K2 III 


- 


25. 9 


1. 8 


5 


9.21 


F2 V 


+ 


23. 4 


1.8 


4 


9.80 


K2 m 


- 


23. 5 


2. 6 


4 


8. 29 


K0 II 


+ 


18. -7 


1.4 


4 


8. 31 


Kl III 


+ 


11. 5 


1. 1 


4 


9. 09 


F6 V 


- 


21. 4 


2. 7 


5 


8. 22 


G8 III 


- 


1. 9 


1.0 


4 


9.33 


Kl rv 


- 


27. 6 


1.4 


4 


8. 89 


K3 n 


- 


25. 


1.6 


4 



m 



127 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H. D. 


R.A. 


Dec. 


Ptg. 






(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 


8685 


166181 


18 06. 3 


+ 29 41 


8. 37 


8706 


166683 


08. 6 


29 04 


9.06 


8707 


166730 


08. 8 


27 58 


9.41 


8709 


166781 


09. 1 


26 39 


8. 22 


8712 


166822 


09. 3 


25 19 


9. 09 



Class 



G5 V 

G8 ni 

Kl III 
G5 HI 
GO IV 



Velocity P. E. 
(km./seo) 



var. 

- 17. 5 

- 29.0 

- 34. 9 

- 1. 3 



.3.0 
1.0 
2.0 
1. 7 



PI. Ref. 



8713 166842 

8715 166867 

8716 166895 

8717 166914 
8732 167132 



18 09. 5 +25 33 

09. 5 29 54 

09. 5 30 07 

09. 7 25 22 

10. 9 25 38 



8. 14 Kl HI 

8. 59 K0 rV 

9. 21 F6 V 
9. 51 F8 IV-V 
9. 46 Kl HI 



- 59. 3 1. 8 4 
+ 17. 3 1.2 4 

- 20. 7 2.2 4 

- 9.9 3.2 5 
+ 11.6 1.0 4 



8742 167275 

8753 167472 

8773 167782 

8783 168038 

8818 168622 



II 



11. 4 +20 14 

12. 2 28 12 

13. 7 25 47 

14. 8 27 05 
17. 6 27 28 



8. 79 Kl in 

8. 19 Kl n 

9. 70 G8 II 
9. 07 F7 IV 
9. 70 K2 III 



- 3. 7 0.8 4 

- 1. 8 1.1 4 

- 18.3 1.8 4 
+ 9. 8 2.4 4 
-30.3 1.7 4 



8824 

8836 168956 

8849 169245 

8870 169573 

8887 169797 



8889 



169819 



8958 170619 

8975 170737 

8976 170738 

8990 170951 

9008 171164 

9013 171232 

9036 171550 

9050 171830 

9077 172132 

9080 172169 

9091 172311 

9109 

9180 173367 

9186 173435 

9223 173909 
9236 

9244 174104 

9245 174126 

9263 174414 

9288 174695 

9295 174764 

9319 175036 

9330 175204 



18 18. 1 +26 29 

19. 3 26 41 

20. 7 26 12 

22. 2 26 18 

23. 3 26 03 

18 23. 5 +25 58 

23. 8 29 23 

27. 3 29 31 

27. 9 26 37 

27. 9 25 44 

18 29. 1 +25 08 

30. 28 51 

30. 6 25 27 

32. 4 29 42 

33. 8 27 10 

18 35. 3 +29 01 

35. 5 29 32 
36. 4 28 15 

37. 6 26 09 
41. 7 28 04 

18 42. 2 +26 11 

44. 8 27 26 

45. 3 28 22 
45. 8 28 40 
45. 8 28 35 

18 47. 2 +27 40 

48. 7 28 28 

49. 1 29 40 

50. 4 26 28 

51. 3 25 19 



10. 87 


K3 in 


+ 


8. 7 


2.4 


4 


9. 12 


F6 V 


- 


25. 3 


2. 1 


4 


9. 47 


F8 V 


- 


13.4 


2. 1 


4 


9. 63 


K2 in 


+ 


28. 5 


1.2 


5 


8.92 


G8 m 


- 


19. 9 


0. 7 


4 


9.95 


K2 III 


+ 


7. 4 


2. 2 


8 


9. 33 


K2 n 


- 


3. 4 


1.2 


4 


8. 45 


ko ni 


- 


26. 7 


1.0 


5 


9. 11 


G5 V 


- 


136. 7 


2. 2 


4 III 


9. 21 


G8 III 


- 


27.8 


2. 1 


4 


10.05 


M m 


_ 


2. 7 


2. 8 


5 


9.61 


K2 m 


- 


24. 4 


1. 8 


4 


8.66 


G8 III 


- 


30.6 


0. 9 


4 


8. 00 


K0 III 


- 


12.4 


1. 7 


5 


9. 41 


G8 m 


- 


75. 8 


3. 1 


4 


9. 51 


K2 III 


+ 


12. 2 


2. 7 


5 


8. 39 


K4 III 


- 


24. 7 


0.8 


4 


9. 82 


G8 III 


- 


35. 4 


1. 6 


4 


9. 78 


F8 V 


- 


37. 6 


2. 7 


4 


9. 59 


KO m 


+ 


3. 5 


3.0 


5 


9. 61 


ko m 


_ 


3. 3 


2. 8 


5 


8. 95 


G8 III 


+ 


23.6 


2. 1 


4 


9. 77 


GO V 


- 


68. 3 


1. 9 


4 


9. 25 


GO lb 


- 


14. 3 


3.0 


4 


9. 30 


K2 n 


- 


9.2 


2. 8 


5 


8. 46 


Kl III 


+ 


14. 8 


1.6 


4 


8. 57 


ki in 


+ 


2. 1 


1. 9 


4 


9. 77 


Kl III 


- 


4.4 


1. 7 


4 


8. 94 


GO V 


- 


51. 5 


2. 1 


4 


8. 93 


G5 m 


- 


46. 5 


3. 2 


4 



128 











TABLE I - continued 










A.G. 


H.D. 


B 


.A. 


De 


c. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PL Re 






(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sea) 






9358 


175578 


18 


52. 9 


+ 29 


58 


8. 77 


G5 III 


- 


32. 4 


1.2 


4 


9364 






53. 3 


26 


56 


9. 31 


G8 III 


- 


4. 1 


2. 2 


5 


9383 


J75940 




54. 6 


28 


08 


8. 40 


K2 III 


- 


31. 3 


2. 2 


4 


9417 


176230 




56. 1 


28 


06 


8. 87 


Kl II 


- 


45. 2 


2. 2 


4 


9449 






57. 4 


29 


32 


9.01 


F8 V 


+ 


10. 4 


1. 1 


4 


9459 




18 


57. 9 


+ 26 


17 


9. 61 


G8 III 


+ 


17. 7 


0. 7 


4 


9472 


176695 




58. 3 


28 


36 


9. 17 


G8 III 


^ 


/ar. 




5 II 


9486 






59.4 


26 


19 


9. 35 


Kl III 


- 


2. 1 


1. 1 


4 


9516 


177251 


19 


00. 7 


29 


13 


9. 04 


G8 ni 


+ 


16. 9 


2. 1 


5 


9575 


178029 




03. 9 


29 


15 


9. 19 


G8 III 


+ 


11. 4 


1.6 


4 


9585 




19 


04. 5 


+ 28 


38 


9. 91 


F8 V 


+ 


2. 2 


1. 2 


4 


9594 






05. 


29 


07 


9.47 


G2 V 


- 


7. 8 


1.4 


4 


9607 


178450 




05. 6 


30 


10 


8. 83 


G8 V 




/ar. 




5 II 


9629 


178798 




06. 9 


30 


13 


8. 53 


K3 III 


- 


12. 1 


0. 9 


6 


9659 






08. 6 


28 


16 


9. 29 


F6 V 


- 


52. 4 


1. 4 


4 


9675 




19 


09. 4 


+ 26 


19 


8. 83 


G5 III 


, 


/ar? 




5 II 


9763 


180502 




13. 7 


29 


02 


8. 77 


GO IV 


- 


4. 3 


1. 1 


4 


9797 


181047 




15. 8 


25 


16 


8. 99 


G8 V 


- 


84. 6 


1. 5 


4 III 


9865 


182056 




19. 7 


30 


16 


9. 25 


K2 II 


+ 


7. 8 


1. 5 


4 


9877 


182218 




20. 5 


27 


04 


9. 29 


Kl III 


- 


7. 3 


2. 5 


5 


9882 


182256 


19 


20. 7 


+ 25 


14 


8. 94 


F5 IV 


- 


57. 4 


2. 4 


5 


9929 


182617 




22. 3 


28 


29 


9. 09 


Kl III 


+ 


9. 3 


1. 5 


4 


9949 






23.3 


25 


37 


9. 63 


Kl II-III 


+ 


27. 5 


1. 8 


4 


9950 






23. 4 


26 


14 


9. 71 


K2 II 


- 


59. 7 


1.0 


5 


10014 


183399 




26. 3 


29 


21 


8. 09 


Kl III 


- 


13. 5 


1.0 


5 


10039 


183753 


19 


27. 9 


+ 28 


37 


9. 59 


K3 II 


+ 


26. 7 


1. 4 


6 


10072 


184150 




30.0 


30 


05 


9. 49 


K3 III 


- 


30.0 


0. 4 


4 


10077 






30.4 


25 


19 


9. 45 


pec. 


- 


4. 2 


0. 3 


4 N 


10103 


184538 




32.0 


25 


42 


8. 97 


K2 III 


- 


25. 1 


0. 6 


4 


10108 


184590 




32.2 


25 


15 


9. 27 


Ml III 


+ 


28. 3 


1.0 


6 


10122 


184719 


19 


32. 7 


+ 29 


03 


9. 31 


K5 III 


- 


24. 4 


1.6 


5 


10133 






33. 


28 


59 


9. 55 


F7 V 


- 


37. 


0. 4 


4 


10151 






33.6 


30 


17 


9. 73 


G8 II 


- 


11. 3 


2. 6 


5 


10154 






34. 


26 


23 


9. 52 


Kl III 


- 


52. 9 


2. 5 


4 


10175 


185151 




34. 7 


27 


46 


9. 59 


Kl III : 


+ 


4. 4 


3. 6 


4 N 


10181 


185270 


19 


35. 2 


+ 26 


02 


8. 94 


F8 V 


- 


25. 5 


1. 3 


4 


10182 


185241 




35. 1 


28 


04 


9. 54 


K0 III 


- 


36. 5 


1.0 


4 


10184 


185269 




35. 2 


28 


23 


7. 35 


GO IV 




0. 


1. 


4 


10188 


185289 




35. 3 


26 


15 


8. 41 


G8 III 


- 


13. 1 


1. 1 


5 


10268 


185982 




38. 7 


27 


37 


9.29 


G8 III 


+ 


8: i 


3. 1 


4 


10292 


186223 


19 


40. 1 


+ 27 


04 


9. 47 


K2 III 


- 


30. 8 


0. 7 


4 


10299 


186260 




40. 3 


26 


57 


9. 24 


KO III 


- 


0. 5 


1. 9 


4 


10315 






41. 


27 


49 


9. 22 


F8 V 


- 


19. 1 


1. 2 


4 


10333 


186517 




41. 9 


27 


19 


9. 11 


Kl III 


- 


37. 6 


1. 3 


4 


10377 


186860 




43. 7 


30 


08 


9. 81 


M III 


+ 


7. 5 


2. 2 


4 



129 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


R.A. 


De 


c. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PI. Ref. 









.950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sea) 






10414 


187162 


19 


45. 4 


+ 28 


22 


9. 47 


G« III 


- 


12. 5 


2. 1 


5 


10426 


187280 




46. 2 


28 


12 


9. 51 


K2 in 


- 


10.6 


2. 3 


4 


10444 


187462 




47. 1 


27 


37 


7. 71 


GO V 


+ 


3. 5 • 


0. 5 


6 


10445 


187460 




47. 1 


29 


45 


9. 25 


GC III 


- 


6. 1 


2. 7 


6 


10454 


187548 




47. 4 


28 


29 


8.73 


GO V 


+ 


14. 2 . 


1. 1 


5 


10456 


187565 


19 


47. 5 


+ 29 


15 


8. 74 


F8 V 




var. 




5 n 


10465 


187614 




47. 9 


26 


57 


7.63 


G8 III 




var. 




5 II 


10499 


187921 




49.5 


27 


20 


var. 






var? 




4 N, II 


10509 


188015 




50.0 


27 


58 


9.09 


G5 IV 


+ 


2.6 


0. 7 


4 


10528 


188121 




50. 5 


28 


25 


9. 21 


GO IV 


- 


13. 9 


0.6 


4 


10546 


188259 


19 


51. 2 


+ 26 


22 


8.99 


Kl HI 


_ 


26. 9 


1. 4 


4 


10548 


188258 




51. 2 


27 


58 


8. 32 


K2 III 


- 


35. 3 


1. 1 


4 


10582 


188566 




52. 8 


25 


12 


8.91 


K2 ni 


- 


9. 5 


2. 2 


5 


10601 






53. 3 


29 


51 


9. 36 


K3 III 


■ 


var. 




5 II 


10644 






55.2 


29 


48 


9.20 


GO V 


- 


9.6 


2. 7 


4 


10646 


189087 


19 


55. 2 


+ 29 


41 


8. 73 


Kl V 


_ 


27. 1 


2. 3 


5 


10650 


189108 




55. 4 


28 


34 


7.83 


G8 HI 


+ 


10.2 


1.0 


5 


10668 


189317 




56. 3 


28 


28 


8. 34 


F6 V 


- 


35.4 


1. 7 


4 


10704 


189671 




58.2 


26 


03 


7.88 


G8 H 


- 


20. 9 


0. 3 


4 


10713 


189753 




58. 5 


27 


00 


9. 79 


K4 II 


- 


8.0 


1.0 


4 


10724 


189796 


19 


58. 8 


+ 29 


41 


8. 46 


GO V 


_ 


4. 7 


1. 9 


4 


10731 


189884 




59.2 


27 


03 


8. 90 


K2 III 


- 


10. 2 


0. 7 


4 


10742 


189943 




59. 5 


30 


05 


8. 70 


G5 HI 


+ 


17. 6 


1.6 


4 


10753 






59. 9 


29 


45 


9.45 


F5 lb 


- 


3. 3 


1. 4 


4 


10771 


190228 


20 


00. 9 


28 


10 


8. 36 


G5 IV 


- 


48. 7 


0. 4 


4 


10799 


190470 


20 


02. 1 


+ 25 


39 


9.04 


K3 V 


_ 


6. 6 


2. 1 


4 


10813 






02. 7 


26 


20 


9. 23 


GO V 


- 


43.8 


2. 5 


4 


10814 


190605 




02. 8 


25 


55 


8. 50 


G2 V 


+ 


22.0 


2. 3 


4 


10818 


190630 




02. 8 


30 


22 


9. 39 


K2 m 


+ 


16. 5 


1. 1 


4 


10831 


190749 




03. 5 


29 


44 


9. 59 


Kl III 


+■ 


0. 6 


2. 


4 


10833 


190787 


20 


03. 7 


+ 27 


59 


9. 78 


m ni 


+ 


17. 9 


1.4 


4 


10837 






03. 8 


29 


37 


9. 72 


F6 V 


' 


rar? 




5 II 


10838 






03. 9 


29 


37 


9.20 


K3 III 


- 


10.0 


1. 8 


4 


10843 


190885 




04. 1 


27 


59 


9. 84 


K3 ni 


- 


36. 2 


2. 


4 


10844 






04. 1 


28 


46 


9. 54 


GO V 


- 


16. 3 


1.4 


4 


10850 


191010 


20 


04. 7 


+ 25 


32 


9. 42 


G5 lb 


+ 


21. 9 


1. 1 


4 


10899 


191445 




06. 9 


28 


32 


9. 93 


K3 III 


■h 


39.0 


1. 7 


4 


10924 


191590 




07. 7 


29 


35 


9. 28 


K2 III 




0.0 


2. 2 


5 


10925 


191615 




07. 8 


25 


23 


9.09 


KO III 


- 


94. 


0. 7 


4 III 


10961 


191875 




09.0 


29 


33 


9. 84 


K3 III 


- 


25.0 


2.0 


4 


10962 


191898 


20 


09. 2 


+ 25 


59 


9. 56 


GO V 


4. 


11.4 


2. 3 


4 


10971 


191945 




09. 4 


29 


01 


9. 36 


MO III 


- 


17. 4 


1. 4 


4 


11011 


192287 




11. 2 


25 


05 


9. 49 


M III 


- 


7. 3 


2. 6 


5 


11012 


192286 




11.0 


30 


20 


9. 37 


G8 III 


- 


75. 9 


0. 8 


4 


11015 


192405 




11.6 


27 


23 


8. 73 


F7 V 


- 


24. 3 


1. 7 


4 



130 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


R.A. 


Dec. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PI. 






( 


L950) 


(19 


50) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec.) 






11036 




20 


12. 7 


+ 26 


38 


9. 46 


G5 III 


_ 


23. 1 


1.9 


4 


11053 


192732 




13. 3 


29 


52 


9. 18 


K0 ni 


- 


11. 1 


2. 8 


4 


11072 


192892 




14. 3 


26 


20 


8. 55 


G9 III 


- 


17. 1 


1. 2 


4 


11086 


193011 




14. 9 


29 


57 


9. 70 


Kl III 


- 


29. 9 


1. 1 


4 


11110 


193221 




16. 1 


25 


21 


9. 13 


K2 III 


- 


11.4 


1.6 


4 


11122 


193347 


20 


16. 7 


+ 26 


50 


8.80 


M2 III 


_ 


36. 7 


1.2 


4 


11140 


193488 




17. 5 


27 


16 


8. 85 


F6 IV 


■- 


10. 3 


3. 4 


5 


11216 


194071 




20. 5 


28 


05 


9.06 


G8 III 


- 


12. 8 


0.3 


4 


11233 






21. 2 


28 


38 


9. 67 


Kl III 


+ 


53. 2 


1.0 


4 


11254 


194403 




22. 5 


25 


45 


9. 71 


K3 III 


- 


2. 8 


2. 8 


4 


11271 


194510 


20 


23. 1 


+ 25 


33 


8. 90 


F7 IV 


•f 


0.6 


2. 2 


5 


11273 


194525 




23.0 


30 


24 


9. 04 


GO III 


- 


38. 6 


2.0 


4 


11332 






25. 5 


27 


53 


10. 19 


G8 HI 


- 


14. 7 


1. 9 


4 


11368 


195216 




26. 9 


27 


41 


9. 95 


K5 III 


- 


46. 


2. 4 


4 


11384 


195273 




27. 4 


26 


46 


8. 85 


Kl m 


- 


31. 6 


2. 1 


4 


11420 




20 


28. 7 


+ 27 


47 


9. 66 


K2 III 


_ 


17. 4 


2. 1 


4 


11424 


195509 




28. 8 


26 


31 


8. 58 


ko ni 


+ 


2. 7 


1. 9 


4 


11440 


195667 




29. 7 


26 


53 


9. 45 


K3 ni 


+ 


17. 9 


1. 1 


4 


11447 


195712 




29. 9 


26 


54 


9.45 


ko ni 


+ 


7. 8 


1. 7 


4 


11453 


195790 




30. 3 


27 


21 


9.28 


G8 III 


+ 


8. 9 


1.0 


4 


11456 


195834 


20 


30. 6 


+ 28 


53 


9. 99 


K3 II 


_ 


3. 5 


1. 2 


4 


11470 


195967 




31. 3 


29 


21 


9.41 


K2 ni 


+ 


26. 7 


2. 7 


4 


11471 






31. 5 


25 


40 


9. 32 


G8 ni 


+ 


10. 4 


2. 6 


4 


11480 


196034 




31. 8 


25 


27 


9. 82 


K3 III 


- 


31. 7 


1. 1 


4 


11519 






34. 3 


26 


13 


10.06 


Kl III 


- 


55. 9 


0. 5 


4 


11525 


196448 


20 


34. 4 


+ 29 


02 


9.50 


GO V 


+ 


4. 6 


1. 1 


4 


11546 






35. 5 


30 


00 


9. 31 


GO V 


+■ 


21. 5 


1. 9 


4 


11571 






36. 8 


26 


31 


9. 74 


G8 V 


■¥■ 


3. 9 


0. 8 


4 


11573 


196866 




37. 2 


25 


54 


8. 70 


K2 III 


- 


76. 5 


1.0 


4 


11579 






37.4 


26 


27 


10. 21 


K2 III 


~ 


3.6 


0. 7 


4 


11581 


196928 


20 


37. 4 


+ 27 


55 


9. 64 


K4 III 


_ 


17. 9 


2. 6 


5 


11584 


196940 




37. 5 


26 


08 


9. 56 


G8 ni 


- 


6. 


2.4 


4 


11598 


197020 




38. 1 


25 


52 


9. 57 


GO V 


- 


6. 1 


1. 6 


4 


11623 


197207 




39. 2 


30 


01 


8. 99 


G5 V 


- 


52. 5 


0. 5 


4 


11625 


197227 




39. 3 


29 


09 


8. 73 


F7 IV 


* 


16. 3 


1. 5 


4 


11630 


197264 


20 


39. 6 


+ 26 


56 


9. 85 


KO III 


_ 


0. 9 


1.8 


4 


11631 


197263 




39. 6 


28 


05 


8. 99 


GO V 


- 


2. 4 


1. 7 


4 


11648 


197395 




40. 4 


30 


05 


9. 53 


K2 ni 


- 


7. 6 


1. 3 


4 


11661 


197515 




41. 3 


25 


25 


9. 43 


K5 III 


- 


46. 8 


0.6 


4 


11662 


197514 




41. 2 


27 


04 


9. 60 


M III 


" 


19. 2 


1. 7 


4 


11663 


197550 


20 


41. 3 


-r30 


02 


9. 81 


KO III 


+ 


9. 8 


1.4 


4 


11668 


197605 




41. 8 


27 


16 


9.25 


F5 n 


- 


13. 7 


0.9 


4 


11755 


1&8198 




45. 7 


29 


27 


9. 27 


G8 in 


+ 


16.0 


2. 1 


4 


11765 


198238 




46. 1 


26 


13 


9. 90* 


K5 ni 


+ 


23.2 


1. 3 


4 


11767 


198254 




46. 1 


28 


21 


9. 62 


ki ni 


- 


15.0 


3.0 


4 



Ref. 



N 



III 



131 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. H. D. 



11779 198313 

11808 198483 

11809 198482 
11814 198526 
11817 198550 

11823 

11855 198821 

11919 199375 

11923 199440 

11941 199598 



R.A. Dae. 

(1950) (1950) 

20 46. 5 +28 37 

47. 6 25 35 

47. 5 30 28 

47. 9 28 48 

48. 1 29 12 

20 48. 4 +28 31 

50. 28 40 

53. 9 27 23 

54. 2 27 19 

55. 5 26 13 



Ptg. 
Mag. 



Class 



9. 31 Kl rv 

8. 55 GO V 

9. 54 K2 III 
9. 91 Kl in 
9. 81 K5 V 

9. 67 K0 III 

9. 47 K2 III 

8.03 K2 III 

9. 67 Kl IE 

7. 66 GO V 



\ elocity 


P.E. 


PI 


(km. /sec) 






- 63.4 


1. 9 


4 


- 14. 6 


1. 7 


4 


+ 15. 8 


2. 2 


4 


- 0.9 


1. 1 


4 


- 13. 3 


1.0 


4 


- 7. 2 


1. 8 


4 


- 23.0 


1. 4 


4 


- 12. 8 


1. 6 


6 


- 45. 1 


0. 9 


4 


- 27. 1 


1. 3 


4 



Ref. 



11958 199717 

11965 199763 

11970 

11990 

12015 



20 56. +29 05 

56. 2 30 12 

56. 3 30 26 

57. 8 29 05 
59. 6 27 03 



9. 57 K0 m 

7. 67 G9 HI 

9. 93 GO IV 

9. 75 F8 V 

9. 77 GO IV-V 



- 23. 8 2. 4 
var? 5 

- 26. 6 0.8 4 

- 2.2 2.3 4 
-9.0 2.1 5 



II 



12031 200391 

12032 200425 
12035 200451 
12042 200491 
12050 200546 

12059 200578 

12069 200679 

12130 201094 
12135 
12158 

12166 201346 

12185 201490 

12199 201626 

12205 201669 

12228 201860 

12281 202365 

12296 202521 

12298 202573 

12352 203030 

12372 203171 

12381 203288 

12385 

12398 

12402 203471 

12426 

12442 203733 

12483 204079 

12514 204388 

12538 204539 

12539 204540 



21 


00. 


3 


+ 27 


37 


9. 11 


GO III 




00. 


4 


25 


58 


8.42 


F8 V 




00. 


5 


26 


19 


9.49 


K5 III 




00. 


8 


28 


47 


8. 96 


G8 HI 




01. 


2 


27 


08 


9.58 


M2ni 


21 


01. 


4 


+ 28 


54 


8.05 


G8 III 




01. 


9 


26 


09 


9.76 


ki in 




04. 


5 


26 


21 


9. 94 


K2 n 




04. 


7 


30 


15 


9. 92 


ko ni 




05. 


6 


30 


10 


9.38 


GO V 


21 


06. 





+ 28 


25 


9.46 


ki rv 




07. 





30 


10 


8. 57 


F7 V 




07. 


8 


26 


25 


9. 53 


pec. 




08. 


1 


27 


06 


8. 94 


G8 m 




09. 


4 


26 


08 


9.48 


GO V 


21 


12. 


4 


+ 27 


57 


9. 01 


ko ra 




13. 


4 


27 


48 


9. 13 


K2 m 




13. 


7 


25 


14 


8. 16 


G5 V : 




16. 


8 


26 


01 


7. 30 


G8 V 




17. 


6 


27 


18 


9.02 


GO V 


21 


18. 


4 


+ 26 


02 


9. 38 


K5 ni 




18. 


5 


29 


55 


9. 62 


Kl HI 




19. 





30 


04 


9. 77 


K2 III 




19. 


4 


28 


21 


9. 38 


G5 V 




20. 


5 


30 


28 


9. 53 


ko m 


21 


21. 


1 


+ 29 


36 


9.08 


Kl III 




23. 


3 


27 


00 


9. 43 


Kl V 




25. 


3 


27 


39 


9. 58 


K5 III 




26. 


5 


26 


12 


9. 21 


K3 III 




26. 


5 


25 


42 


8. 44 


K2 III 



var. 54 U 

- 24. 9 1.1 4 

- 29. 7 1. 9 4 

- 5.2 0.4 4 
-18.0 1. 3 4 

-25.0 0. 5 4 

- 16. 3 1. 5 4 
+ 3.8 1.1 4 

- 21. 3 1. 9 4 

- 12. 7 1. 8 4 

-71.0 2.0 5 

+ 1.0 0.8 4 

-150.8 0.7 15 N, IU 

+ 5. 9 0.3 4 

-36.2 1. 2 4 

- 10. 8 2. 9 4 
+ 15. 5 .0. 7 4 

- 28. 4 0. 9 4 

- 12. 9 1. 9 4 

- 17. 9 1. 4 4 

+ 16. 7 2. 4 

- 47. 1 0. 6 4 

- 7.4 2.9 5 
+ 18. 9 2. 2 4 

- 1. 8 0. 8 5 

- 46. 7 1.4 4 

- 30. 9 1. 5 4 

- 24. 7 0. 6 4 

- 44. 8 0.7 4 

- 23. 7 0. 5 5 



- 132 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H. D. 


R.A. 


De 


c. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


P. E. 


PI. R 






(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec) 






12553 


204642 


21 


27. 1 


+ 28 


22 


8. 14 


K2 HI 


+ 


19. 9 


0. 4 


4 


12554 


204658 




27. 2 


28 


39 


9. 42 


GO V 




var? 




5 n 


12566 


204711 




27. 6 


25 


36 


9. 68 


K2 III 


- 


15. 8 


1. 6 


4 


12592 


204923 




28.9 


25 


50 


9. 89 


K3 III 


- 


23.0 


2.0 


4 


12596 


204934 




29.0 


28 


09 


9. 64 


Kl III 


+ 


2. 5 


0. 3 


4 


12598 


204921 


21 


29. 


+ 30 


03 


9. 18 


K2 III 


_ 


25. 7 


2.0 


4 


12643 


205287 




31.4 


27 


23 


9. 98 


K5 III 


- 


41. 7 


0. 8 


4 


12644 


205316 




31.6 


25 


40 


9. 61 


K0 HI 


- 


17. 2 


1.5 


4 


12677 






33. 1 


27 


48 


9. 52 


GO V 


- 


21. 1 


1.0 


4 


12691 


205626 




33. 7 


26 


09 


9.95* 


F8 V 


- 


2. 7 


1. 1 


4 


12692 


205627 


21 


33. 7 


+ 26 


09 


9. 98* 


F8 V 


_ 


8. 7 


1. 6 


4 


12704 


205700 




34. 2 


29 


19 


8. 78 


F5 V 


- 


7. 5 


1. 9 


5 


12707 






34. 5 


29 


27 


9. 36 


G8 III 


+ 


0. 3 


2. 6 


5 


12709 


205760 




34. 7 


25 


23 


9.84 


Kl III 


- 


10. 6 


1. 7 


4 


12781 


206332 




38. 5 


28 


32 


8. 24 


GO V 


- 


42. 8 


0. 8 


4 


12786 


206374 


21 


38.8 


+ 26 


31 


8. 51 


G8 V 


_ 


41. 1 


1. 2 


4 


12787 


206373 




38. 8 


29 


07 


9.08 


GO V 


- 


91. 8 


1. 7 


4 II 


12789 


206385 




38. 8 


30 


04 


9. 12 


K5 ni 


+ 


13. 2 


1.6 


4 


12834 






41. 9 


26 


17 


9. 36 


G2 V 


- 


45. 2 


1. 2 


4 


12842 


206889 




42. 2 


29 


02 


8. 56 


Kl ni 


- 


8. 1 


0. 8 


4 


12846 


206899 


21 


42. 2 


+ 30 


05 


10. 00 


K5 III 


+ 


5. 1 


2. 1 


4 


12854 


206978 




42. 9 


30 


11 


9. 65 


GO IV 


- 


12. 5 


1. 9 


4 


12856 


206979 




43. 


29 


00 


9. 41 


K2 HI 


- 


73. 4 


1.4 


4 


12885 


207243 




44. 7 


29 


52 


9. 62 


KO III 


+ 


11. 9 


1. 9 


4 


12902 


207379 




45. 6 


29 


30 


9. 12 


Kl III 


- 


4.2 


2. 


5 


12915 


207470 


21 


46. 3 


+ 28 


29 


9. 58 


G8 III 


_ 


0. 9 


1. 9 


4 


12947 


207740 




48. 4 


28 


32 


8. 96 


G5 V 


+ 


8. 5 


1.3 


4 


12985 


208277 




52. 3 


30 


00 


9. 52 


G5 ni 


var. 




5 II 


12998 


208379 




53. 2 


25 


42 


9. 41 


GO V 


var? 




5 II 


13000 


208415 




53.2 


30 


35 


9. 04 


KO III 


- 


0.2 


1. 5 


4 


13008 


208457 


21 


53. 6 


+ 26 


10 


9.29 


GO IV 


_ 


3.6 


2. 2 


4 


13020 






54. 1 


26 


13 


9. 64 


G5 V 


- 


33. 1 


1. 8 


4 


13032 


208641 




54. 9 


27 


45 


9. 61 


GO III 


t 


1. 4 


2. 1 


4 


13037 


208658 




55.0 


28 


35 


9. 47 


Kl ni 


+ 


15. 1 


1. 1 


5 


13039 






55. 2 


28 


42 


9. 76 


G5 V : 


- 


16. 8 


0. 9 


4 


13040 


208700 


21 


55. 2 


+ 29 


04 


8. 84 


K3 III 


_ 


13. 1 


0. 5 


4 


13047 


208750 




55. 6 


26 


59 


9. 58 


GO IV 


- 


63. 6 


4.0 


5 


13070 






57. 


28 


24 


9. 76 


GO V 


- 


35. 5 


1. 8 


4 


13072 


208951 




57. 


30 


18 


9.24 


K2 ni 


- 


20. 7 


0. 3 


4 


13076 


208987 




57. 2 


29 


39 


9. 94 


K5 III 


var? 




5 n 


13135 


209457 ' 


22 


00. 7 


+ 29 


27 


10. 21 


K5 ni 


_ 


7. 3 


2. 2 


5 


13140 


209500 




01. 1 


29 


30 


9. 92 


K5 ni 


+ 


15. 9 


0. 9 


4 


13144 


209543 




01. 3 


26 


42 


9. 49 


KO III 


- 


5. 9 


0.9 


4 


13147 


209598 




01. 7 


28 


06 


var. 


M III 


- 


19. 4 


0. 8 


4 N 


13157 


209680 




02. 3 


29 


43 


10. 26 


K5 III 


- 


5.6 


1.8 


6 



133 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


R 


.A. 


De< 




Ptg. 


Class 


\e 


locity 


P. E. 


PL 






(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(km. /sec.) 






13167 




22 


02. 9 


-25 


25 


9. 71 


F8 V 


- 


4. 8 


2. 8 


6 


13169 


209745 




02. 9 


29 


37 


9. 38 


F8 V 


- 


21. 8 


0. 8 


4 


13179 


209858 




03. 6 


27 


44 


8. 59 


F8 V 


+ 


0.6 


1. 5 


6 


13188 


209994 




04. 5 


28 


04 


9. 94 


K0 III 


+> 


10. 5 


1.0 


4 


13192 


210026 




04. 7 


26 


23 


8. 79 


Kl III 


+ 


14.0 


0. 8 


4 


13194 




22 


04. 8 


t26 


48 


10.08 


K5 III 


- 


21. 5 


1.6 


8 


13246 






08. 6 


25 


34 


9. 93 


K3 III 


- 


2.0 


2.4 


4 


13250 


210608 




08. 7 


29 


24 


9. 87 


K0 III 


+ 


8. 5 


1. 6 


4 


13262 


210685 




09. 3 


27 


01 


9. 52 


Kl III 


+ 


18. 3 


1. 3 


4 


13271 


210789 




10. 1 


25 


14 


9. 52 


K2 III 


- 


43. 8 


0. 6 


4 


13283 


210925 


22 


10. 9 


+ 25 


42 


8. 05 


ko ni 


- 


62.4 


1. 3 


6 


13325 


211407 




14.0 


26 


01 


9.49 


K0 m 


+ 


5.4 


0. 5 


4 


13331 


211460 




14. 4 


28 


55 


9.02 


G8 III 


var. 




5 


13340 


211555 




15. 1 


26 


08 


8. 62 


K0 III 


- 


23.4 


0. 3 


4 


13344 


211606 




15. 5 


26 


41 


8.90 


K5 n 


- 


8.3 


1.0 


4 


13366 


211884 


22 


17. 6 


+ 25 


28 


9. 46 


K5 m 


- 


23. 8 


2.6 


5 


13391 


212280 




20. 3 


30 


06 


8. 59 


GO IV 


i 


/ar. 




4 


13393 


212289 




20.4 


30 


30 


9. 49* 


Kl II 


+ 


5.0 


1.4 


4 


13422 


212567 




22.5 


28 


26 


9.68 


ko m 


- 


19. 3 


1. 7 


6 


13439 


212750 




23. 8 


28 


16 


8. 57 


Kl III 


+ 


1.4 


0. 3 


4 


13466b 


213025 


22 


25. 8 


+ 26 


46 


7. 92 


G8 III 


- 


39. 7 


1. 7 


5 


13477 


213177 




26. 7 


29 


32 


9. 17 


KO II 


- 


2. 3 


0.6 


4 


13479 


213178 




26.8 


28 


46 


8. 75 


Kl m 


- 


7. 5 


0. 8 


4 


13518 






30.0 


25 


20 


9.50 


G8 II 


1 


rar. 




5 


13532 


213803 




31. 3 


29 


20 


9. 34 


KO III 


+ 


13. 2 


1.6 


4 


13540 


213857 


22 


31. 7 


+ 29 


29 


9. 58 


KO in 


_ 


39.0 


1. 1 


5 


13547 


213947 




32. 3 


26 


20 


8. 93 


K4 III 


+ 


20. 


0. 4 


4 


13552 


213992 




32. 5 


29 


42 


8. 67 


K3 m 


+ 


7. 7 


1.6 


4 


13555 


214023 




32. 7 


30 


33 


9.20 


K3 III 


- 


38.0 


1.4 


4 


13568 






33. 4 


29 


51 


9. 44 


G8 ni 


" 


rar? 




7 


13570 


214202 


22 


33. 9 


+ 29 


29 


9.63 


G8 III 


- 


1.8 


2. 8 


4 


13575 


214265 




34. 3 


27 


31 


8. 49 


KO III 


- 


17.7 


0. 3 


4 


13583 


214332 




34.6 


29 


29 


9. 32 


G8 III 


- 


12. 3 


2.6 


5 


13592 


214434 




35.6 


26 


10 


9. 17 


K2 II 


- 


1.4 


2. 1 


5 


13596 


214458 




35. 6 


29 


40 


8. 72 


K2 III 


- 


41. 6 


0. 7 


4 


13639 




22 


39. 1 


+ 29 


47 


9. 92 


K3 III 


- 


37. 7 


1. 8 


4 


13664 


215274 




41. 3 


29 


50 


8. 91 


G5 V 


- 


11.6 


0. 8 


4 


13675 


215360 




41. 9 


29 


21 


9. 58 


M III 


- 


64. 6 


1. 4 


4 


13705 


215732 




44. 6 


29 


39 


9. 27 


K3 III 


+ 


0. 5 


1.0 


4 


13715 


215944 




46. 1 


27 


51 


9. 00 


F8 V 


<• 


3.4 


0. 8 


4 


13716 


215956 


22 


46. 2 


28 


28 


9. 10 


GO V 


- 


17. 4 


1. 6 


5 


13748 


216331 




49.4 


29 


47 


8. 75 


G5 II 


- 


9. 8 


1. 1 


4 


13758 


216465 




50. 4 


29 


11 


8. 81 


F5 V 




0.0 


1. 3 


5 


13760 


216502 




50. 8 


26 


43 


8. 86 


K2 III 


- 


9. 8 


1.0 


4 


13769 


216586 




51.4 


28 


22 


8.84 


Kl m 


- 


50.4 


1.4 


4 



Ref. 



N, II 



134 



TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


R.A. 


Dec. 


Ptg. 


Class 


Velocity 


T?.~E. 


PL 


Ref 






(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 




(k 


■n./sec) 








13772 


216632 


22 


51.8 


+ 27 


45 


8. 29 


F8 V 


- 


17. 7 


1. 4 


4 




13777 


216685 




52. 2 


29 


06 


9. 30 


F8 V 


- 


9.2 


1.0 


4 




13780 


216723 




52. 5 


27 


45 


8. 36 


G8 m 


- 


15.-2 


0. 5 


6 




13813 


217230 




56. 5 


27 


14 


9. 14 


G8 in 


* 


17.8 


~0 7l 


4 




13821 






57. 1 


29 


49 


10. 21 


G5 V 




var? 




4 


II 


13839 


217576 


22 


59.0 


+ 28 


26 


9.24 


K0 III 




var. 




6 


II 


13850 




23 


00. 3 


28 


56 


9. 60 


G2 V 


* 


3. 1 


3. 2 


5 




13862 






01. 8 


28 


34 


9. 42 


G2 V 




var? 




5 


II 


13863 






01.9 


27 


33 


9. 82 


GO IV 


- 


37. 6 


1. 5 


4 




13870 


218113 




02. 7 


27 


56 


9. 64 


K5 III 


- 


20. 8 


2. 5 


6 




13876 


218153 


23 


03. 1 


+ 25 


44 


9.07 


G8 n 


_ 


80. 5 


1. 1 


5 


III 


13877 


218170 




03. 1 


28 


43 


9. 18 


M2 III 


- 


56. 4 


1. 4 


4 




13879 


218199 




03. 3 


30 


27 


9. 43 


Kl II 


- 


6. 


0.4 


4 




13894 


218356 




04. 7 


25 


12 


6. 53 


Kl II- III 


- 


25. 3 


1. 1 


4 


N 


13901 


218454 




05. 4 


30 


10 


9. 03 


K4 II 


- 


19. 2 


0. 6 


4 




13910 




23 


05. 9 


+ 30 


11 


9. 30 


G8 III 


_ 


6. 9 


0. 9 


4 




13919 


218610 




06. 7 


26 


39 


9. 34 


K2 III 


- 


3. 3 


1. 5 


7 




13923 


218660 




07. 1 


29 


24 


8. 10 


K2 III 


+ 


11.2 


0. 9 


5 




13940 


218880 




08. 8 


29 


46 


8. 30 


KO III 


+ 


41. 9 


1.0 


4 




13990b 


219418 




12. 9 


25 


24 


9. 52 


G5 III 


+ 


39. 6 


0. 7 


5 




13996 


219538 


23 


13. 8 


+30 


24 


9.04 


K2 V 


+ 


10.0 


1. 6 


4 




14006 


219654 




14. 9 


29 


36 


9. 32 


Ml HI 


+ 


3. 3 


1.6 


6 




14015 


219736 




15. 5 


30 


11 


8.41 


K2 III 


- 


3. 8 


1.3 


7 




14021 


219800 




16.0 


27 


20 


8.29 


KO III 




var. 




5 


II 


14059 


220286 




19. 9 


29 


10 


9. 28 


GO IV 


- 


16. 1 


1.0 


5 




14060 


220288 


23 


20.0 


+25 


39 


8. 38 


K3 III 


., 


25. 8 


1. 8 


4 




14084 


220684 




23. 1 


25 


55 


9. 26 


G8 HI 


* 


0. 1 


2.3 


7 




14120 


221133 




26. 9 


25 


32 


9. 26 


K2 III 


- 


22. 9 


1.4 


4 




14121 


221170 




27. 


30 


09 


9. 04 


GO V 


- 


119. 8 


3.0 


4 


ni 


14136b 


221364 




29.0 


28 


23 


7. 02 


KO III 


- 


4. 


1. 2 


4 




14142 


221469 


23 


29. 8 


f26 


17 


8. 98 


F8 IV- V 


_ 


14. 8 


0. 6 


5 




14144 


221478 




30. 


26 


15 


9. 18 


G8 n-iii 


t 


22.0 


2. 


4 




14180 


222033 




34. 6 


30 


24 


8.02* 


GO V 


- 


12. 6 


0. 8 


4 




14185 






34. 8 


25 


30 


9. 97 


G8 III 


- 


11. 8 


2. 1 


5 




14190 






36. 3 


25 


40 


9. 76 


Kl III 


- 


4. 6 


0. 9 


4 




14195b 


222317 


23 


37. 


+ 27 


58 


7. 95 


G5 V 


var. 




6 


ii 


14201b 


222390 




37. 5 


27 


14 


8.00 


Kl ni 


- 


11. 4 


1.0 


4 




14203 


222391 




37. 5 


26 


31 


8. 34 


go ni 


- 


2. 1 


0. 5 


4 




14232 






41. 3 


30 


27 


9. 70* 


GO V 


+ 


6. 4 


2. 1 


4 




14255 


223019 




43. 2 


26 


04 


9. 40 


K3 ni 


- 


11. 2 


1.0 


4 




14261 


223094 


23 


43. 9 


-28 


26 


8. 97 


K5 III 


+ 


20. '8 


0. 5 


4 




14267 


223138 




44. 3 


28 


09 


8. 55 


M III 


- 


1. 7 


0. 9 


4 




14276 


223211 




45.0 


25 


18 


7. 3 


K3 ni 


- 


18. 3 


0. 6 


4 




14279 


223231 




45. 1 


26 


54 


9.69 


K2 II 


- 


6. 3 


1.6 


4 




14292 


223332 




46. 1 


28 


06 


9.06 
- 135- 


K5 II 


+ 


11.8 


0. 8 


4 





TABLE I - continued 



A.G. 


H.D. 


R.A. 
(1950) 


Dec. 
(1950) 


Pig. 
Mag. 


Class 


/elocity 
(km. /sec) 


P. E. 


PI. 


14301 


223424 


23 46. 8 


+ 26 45 


9.01 


ko ni 


-► 4. 8 


2. 7 


6 


14333 


223869 


50. 6 


25 43 


8. 67 


ki m 


+ 16. 7 


.1. 7 


4 


14346 


224085 


52. 5 


28 21 


8. 71 


K2 HI 


var. 




7 


14376 


224458 


55. 5 


29 42 


9. 52 


G8 III 


- 55.2 


1.0 


6 


14406 


224882 


58.9 


30 27 


8. 44 


GO IV 


- 14. 5 


1. 1 


5 



N, II 



14407 224895 



23 59.0 +28 09 



8. 16 



K2 HI 



11.4 



1. 7 



NOTES TO TABLE I 

A.G. 2298 The spectrum is composite; the hydrogen lines of the A-type spectrum 

are very broad as are also some of the metallic lines. The velocity re- 
fers to the F-type spectrum. 

A.G. 3518 CN X4215 is weak as in the spectra of high-velocity stars. 

A.G. 3918 The spectrum has been reported as composite (Ap. J. , vol. 112, p. 48, 

1950). It is apparent on our plates. 

A.G. 4671 Refers to south preceding component of H. D. 74348. 

A. G. 4875 The star has a very close fainter companion. 

A.G. 6501 The lines are very diffuse. 

A.G. 6821 RX Boo. Hydrogen emission lines. 

A.G. 6861 The lines are diffuse. The strength of the hydrogen lines suggests type 

F0 and the strength of A4077 suggests brighter than class V. Other 
features are contradictory and vary from one plate to another. 

A.G. 10077 The hydrogen lines and the lines near X4250 indicate F0 type or earlier. 
The iron lines, .\4227 and the G band indicate F6. 

A.G. 10175 Ca n emission appears on one plate. The plates are poor and there is 
uncertainty about the luminosity. 

A.G. 10499 SV Vul, a known Cepheid. The classification from our plates ranges 
from F8 lb to G5 lb. 

A.G. 11110 Two plates give K2 ni; a third gives G8 HI. 

A.G. 11140 One plate gives luminosity II. 

A. G. 11332 The south preceding component of a pair. 

A.G. 11623 The south following component of a pair. 

A.G. 11765 ADS 14315. The data refer to the brighter component. 

A.G. 12199 A CH star. (See Jour. Roy. Astr. Soc. Can., vol. 47, p. 65, 1953). 

A.G. 13147 TW Peg. 

A.G. 13391 One plate shows double lines. 

A.G. 13894 56 Peg. Ca n emission and strong hydrogen lines have been recognized. 

(SeeL.O.B., vol. 6, p. 149, 1911). 
A.G. 14346 A known spectrographic binary with Ca II emission and weak hydrogen 

lines. (See Jour. Roy. Astr. Soc. Can., vol. 46, p. 103, 1952). 



136 



1041 Late-type Stars 137 

Column 7 gives the mean radial velocities. When the designation "var." appears, 
it means that the data strongly suggest variable velocity; "var?" 
means that variable velocity is less strongly suggested. Assignment 
of these classifications has been made on the basis of a statistical 
treatment of the data as described earlier. For both "var." and 
"var?" stars, no mean velocities are given, but the individual velocities 
are listed in Table II. 

Column 8 gives the probable errors of the mean velocities derived from the 
individual plate velocities in the usual manner. 

Notwithstanding the remarks made with reference to column 7, one 
can expect that a number of the stars with probable errors in excess 
of 2 km. /sec. are variable in velocity; but it is not possible to say 
which ones with any degree of confidence. 

Column 9 gives the numbers of plates used for the velocity determination. 

Column 10 refers to inclusion in a series of notes following the table (N) or to 
inclusion in Table II (II) or in Table III (III). 

Stars with Variable Velocity (Table II) 
In Table II are listed the individual velocities, along with the 
Julian Days of the observations, of those stars which, on the basis 
of the statistical criteria mentioned earlier, have been listed in 
Table I as having certain or almost certain velocity variations 
(var.) or as having less strongly suggested variations (var?). There 
are 43 of the former and 31 of the latter. In two instances where 
many observations are at hand and an orbit will be published soon, 
the individual velocities are not listed. 

High-Velocity Stars (Table III) 
On the basis of radial-velocity data alone, it is possible to classify 
a number of the stars as high-velocity stars. Table III lists all the 
programme stars, 31 in number, for which the radial velocities, 
after correction for solar motion (Apex 18h, +30°; velocity 20 
km. /sec), exceed 65 km. /sec. Sixteen of these stars (marked R) 
have been listed by Miss Roman in her recent Catalogue of High 
Velocity Stars (1955). 

Earlier Publication of Some of the Radial Velocities 
Radial velocities of 223 of the stars included in this report were 
reported in 1950, when the data were less complete, to R. E. Wilson 
and were included by him in his General Catalogue of Stellar Radial 
Velocities (1953). The velocities given in Table I differ in a number 
of cases by one or two km. /sec. from the velocities reported in 



138 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Wilson's Catalogue, either because of the effect of subsequent 
observations or by virtue of different weighting. Aside from these 
small differences, the corrections to Wilson's Catalogue are as 
follows. 

The following stars, reported as spectroscopic binaries in Wilson's 
Catalogue are now, as a result of more careful analysis, believed to 
have constant velocity: A.G. 366, 382, 444, 647, 714, 983, 2157, 
2714, 2845, 3240, 4051, 6808, 6983, 7155, 7468, 7989, 9629, 13283, 
13870, 13918, 14015, 14060, 14084. 

A.G. 628 reported in Wilson's Catalogue as having constant 
velocity is now believed to be probably variable in velocity. 

The velocity assigned to star number 14428 in Wilson's Catalogue 
(B.D. 29° 4828) really belongs to A.G. 13821 (B.D. 29° 4830). 

Acknowledgments 

As well as to those whose names appear in this report, the writer 
wishes to offer sincere thanks to the members of the Observatory 
staff for the many hours of observing, measuring and computing 
which have been put into this work over the past ten years. Thanks 
are also due to Dr. W. W. Morgan of the Yerkes Observatory 
and to Dr. Nancy Roman of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory 
for advice in the matter of spectral classification. 

References 

Johnson, H. L. and Morgan, W. VV. 1953, Ap. J., vol. 117, p. 318. 
Roman, Nancy G. 1955, Ap. J. Supp., vol. 2., p. 198. 
Schlesinger F. and Barney I. 1933, Trans. Astr. Obs. Yale, vol. 9. 
Weatherburn, C. E. 1949, "A First Course in Mathematical Statistics", 2nd Ed., 

Cambridge University Press. 
Wilson, R. E. 1953, Carnegie Inst, of Washington Pub. 601. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario, 
June 5, 1956. 



1041 Late-type Stars 



139 



TABLE II 
Stars with Variable Radial Velocity 



Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


A.G. 


(243 ....) 


(km. /sec.) 


A.G. 


(243 ....') 


(km. /sec.) 


14436 


2066.801 


+ 1.9 


1301 


2568.531 


- 2.4 




2422 . 814 


+ 13.6 




2895.612 


+ 6.4 




3186.752 


+21.9 




3159.893 


+ 18.3 




3197.722 


+ 14.8 




3325 . 562 


+ 7.5 




3515.875 


+ 18.6 




3581 . 790 


+ 14.5 




3542.761 


+ 14.9 




3710.538 


-42.9 


188 


2780.829 


-23.8 


1584 


17 plates. Double lines 




2850.639 


- 6.8 




An orbit will be comouted 




3151.834 


-27.1 










3189.704 


- 0.4 


1758 


2112.805 


-44.2 




3554.744 


-19.4 




2453.891 


-87.7 




3576.674 


-23.0 




2467 . 858 
2591.510 


-52.6 
- 4.6 


230 


2772.854 


-27.1 




3554.897 


+61.1 




2823 . 720 
3169.772 


-22.2 
- 0.3 




3587.785 


+58.5 




3228.622 


- 0.9 


2344 


2120.862 


- 7.2 




3568.686 


-25.9 




2129.853 


-20.5 




3608.597 


-21.9 




2883.751 


- 5.8 




4041 . 527 


- 6.0 




3008.546 
3575.900 


- 9.9 
+ 1.6 


434 


2784.844 


-11.1 










2823.741 
2826.745 
3181.790 
3571.697 
4651.803 


-13.7 
-22.4 
-17.2 
+ 5.3 
-19.8 


3194 


2839.944 
3229.837 
3316.652 
3352 . 528 
3710.611 


+ 6.6 
+ 11.2 
-20.1 
+ 6.8 
+30.6 


628 


2529 . 567 
2804.822 


- 3.5 

- 7.8 




4667.710 


+ 4.3 




3162.850 


- 4.6 


3204 


2140.842 


+ 5.5 




3175.778 


-20.2 




2203 . 694 


+ 1.2 




3584.717 


-29.6 




2461.935 


+24.4 




3940.772 


-42.3 




2143.847 


+ 1.8 




4651.856 


-30.4 




3315.716 


+ 11.4 


706 


2491.673 


-14.2 


3471 


3603.868 


+ 102.0 




2806.819 


-45.8 




3935.937 


+84.2 




2823.760 


-57.6 




3937.881 


+48.7 




2828.742 


-54.6 




3955.866 


+54.5 




2841.710 


-53.2 




4668.745 


+41.7 




3570.729 


-24.4 




4676.776 


+63.9 




3960 . 682 


-14.6 










4652.715 


-15.5 


3918 


2144.895 
2639.546 


- 0.8 
+46.6 


1192b 


2079.853 


+ 7.6 




4311.955 


+ 0.1 




2203 . 525 


+ 19.7 




4347.711 


+ 0.5 




2429 . 836 


+ 16.0 




4391.844 


- 0.4 




3197.846 


+ 17.4 




4394.802 


+23.7 




3556.831 


+30.6 




4501.587 


+22.8 



140 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


Star 


Julian Dav 


Velocity 


A.G. 


(243 ....') 


(km. /sec.) 


A.G. 


(243 . . . .) 


(km./sec.) 


3980b 


2169.822 


+32.8 


5145 


2615.718 


- 0.1 




2283 . 562 


+ 19.2 




3687.765 


- 9.0 




3644.776 


+ 19.7 




4785.835 


-28.5 




4062.600 


+36.3 




4818.601 


-12.7 


4209 


2203 . 781 


-24.8 


5179 


2391.836 


+83.9 




4080.606 


-27.6 




3035.556 


+ 101.9 




4132.555 


- 1.4 




4719.958 


-17.0 




4133.556 


-26.7 




4813.699 


- 6.9 




4833.615 


-14.2 














5229 


2639.670 


+ 6.2 


4384b 


2139.822 


+ 1.9 




3015.630 


-23.0 




2165.870 


+ 18.3 




4792.783 


- 0.4 




2202.760 


+ 17.5 




4828.606 


- 9.2 




2257.641 


+ 14.9 




4833.702 


- 3.9 




3320.730 


+28.9 










4736.664 


+26.9 


5254 


2989.676 


-34.3 


4451 


2644.556 
3664.750 
4668.879 
4746.658 


-38.8 
-38.3 
-25.8 
-54.0 




3344.767 
3398.625 
4134.625 
4434.578 


-17.3 
-10.1 
-31.0 
-50.7 


4526 


2624.614 


+34.1 


5355 


3693.788 


+23.7 




2982 . 622 


+45.2 




3743.645 


- 7.1 




3681.751 


+64.8 




4813.841 


-16.4 




4750.633 


+22.6 




4819 . 769 


-16.8 




4791.527 


- 4.1 




4841 . 634 


-20.6 


4632 


2888.900 


-30.2 


5356 


2672.561 


-24.4 




2968.681 


-23.5 




2675 . 580 


-16.5 




4765.676 


-49.3 




3771.572 


+ 5.0 




4791.733 


-26.8 




4132.708 
4844.576 


-20.6 

-27.8 


4702 


2587.765 


- 3.2 










3281.833 
4699.965 
4777.608 


+ 2.6 
- 2.6 
+25.3 


5591 


2275.688 
3322.847 
4755 . 849 


-12.6 
+ 16.9 
-13.0 


4834 


2899.917 
4099.630 


+27.2 
+ 6.3 




4828.757 
4833.739 


+33.2 
-33.6 




4771.837 
4793 . 644 


+ 1.0 

+ 11.8 


5922 


3010.700 
3692.882 


-32.1 

-29.2 


5038 


2888.921 


+ 18.6 




3775 . 638 


-16.7 




2977 . 727 


- 3.2 




4165.710 


+ 0.4 




4705.920 


+35.7 




4557.624 


-21.5 




4800.647 


-16.2 




4796.803 


-42.7 




4841.556 


+ 13.4 














6134 


3011.716 


-33.0 


5059 


2573.819 


+42.9 




3381 . 729 


-18.0 




2974.726 


-13.3 




4080.817 


-14.9 




3763.597 


+20.0 




4186.604 


- 6.4 




4809 . 794 


-34.4 




4755.926 


-30.8 



1041 Late-type Stars 



141 



Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


A.G. 


(243 ....) 


(km. /sec.) 


A.G. 


(243 ....) 


(km. /sec.) 


6313 


2275.783 


— 5.5 


7106 


2369.650 


-30.3 




3037.681 


-16.6 




2994.869 


+ 2.0 




3779 . 649 


+ 9.3 




3057.703 


-41.2 




4132.674 


+ 9.4 




3080.640 


-22.0 




4188.679 


- 7.6 




3434.694 
4126.804 


-20.0 
-40.0 


6478 


3036.700 


+ 15.9 










3425 . 638 


+30.7 


7181 


2303.793 


- 0.4 




4086.851 


+ 3.0 




2718.644 


-21.6 




4198.668 


- 6.1 




3061.710 


-21.7 




4226.592 


+ 1.1 




3423 . 724 
3490.608 


- 0.7 
-16.2 


6501 


3053.652 


-42.6 




4111.846 


+ 9.2 




3393.762 


- 6.8 




4482.803 


- 9.9 




4126.724 


+ 16.2 




4504.803 


+ 5.7 




4228.592 


+ 16.6 




4525.713 


-11.4 




4235.585 


-14.3 










4501 . 738 


-31.8 


7353 


2737.624 


-43.1 




4507.672 


-53.2 




3031 . 760 
3079.671 


-26.8 
-49.0 


6618 


2982.868 


- 1.9 




3413.785 


- 9.3 




3028.727 


-13.2 




4569.673 


-44.5 




3423.685 


+36.5 










4162.744 
4210.622 
4796.940 


-24.2 
-19.7 
-14.2 


7419 


3015.865 
3057.757 
3086 . 675 


- 9.3 

+50.4 
+ 11.2 


6694 


2639.811 
3033.734 
3370.855 
3718.866 


-19.2 
-52.8 
- 6.9 
+ 10.0 




3757 . 829 
3822.651 
4819.928 


-39.6 
+ 12.4 
-52.8 




4195.712 


-41.5 


7444 


2722.672 
3053 . 747 


+ 8.2 
-13.0 


6832 


2720 . 606 


+ 14.2 




3404.816 


+ 18.5 




3037 . 744 


- 4.3 




3409 . 804 


+ 12.1 




3380.795 


+22.2 




3821.654 


+ 12.1 




3426 . 692 


-16.0 










3470.639 


+ 10.6 


7537 


2712.717 


+23.8 




3490.583 


+ 4.6 




3033.815 


+36.9 




4536.747 


+ 3.4 




3061.746 
3067.726 


+ 12.0 
+21.0 


6861 


2703.682 


-12.7 










3028.776 


+59.2 


8077 


2728.751 


- 2.6 




3731.842 


+ 13.2 




3023.893 


-17.9 




3757.770 


+49.7 




3044.839 


+25.3 




4188.724 


-23.3 




3840.652 
4218.688 


-19.7 
-17.8 


7079 


2949.961 


-18.1 










2977.918 


+ 2.5 


8685 


2760.665 


-56.3 




3034.760 


- 2.4 




3136.587 


-31.2 




3098.612 


+ 5.2 




3507.653 


-32.7 




4565.667 


+ 10.7 




3772 . 875 


+30.8 




4918.883 


- 1.3 




4303.521 


+29.4 



142 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


A.G. 


(243 ....) 


(km. /sec.) 


A.G. 


(243 ....) 


(km. /sec.) 


9472 


2765 . 690 


+ 13.0 


12031 


54 plates. 


Double lines. 




3067.837 


+ 14.1 




An orbit 


is being com- 




4195.774 


-10.2 




puted 






4284.650 


-19.4 










4603.704 


- 3.8 


12554 


2792.718 
3178.665 


- 9.0 
-18.4 


9607 


2347 . 796 


+ 3.2 




4209.824 


-19.0 




3094.843 


+ 12.5 




4618.778 


+ 2.9 




3098.758 


- 2.9 




4756 . 476 


-39.7 




4173.849 


-52.4 










4513.856 


+ 8.9 


12985 


2798.812 
3121.307 


-13.2 
+ 5.6 


9675 


2426 . 646 


-19.2 




3945 . 588 


- 8.2 




2744 . 745 


-18.6 




3962 . 606 


+21.2 




3833 . 753 


-45.2 




4610.781 


+ 4.7 




4199 . 724 


-34.4 










4548.767 


-35.0 


12998 


2793.698 
3585.544 


-35.1 
-11.7 


10456 


2765.740 


-24.6 




3945.615 


-38.2 




3144.662 


-31.0 




3962.564 


-11.3 




3571.509 


- 1.9 




4629.717 


-20.6 




4567.786 


-23.8 










4636.545 


-34.5 


13076 


2798.710 
3202.610 


-46.6 
-37.4 


10465 


2098.549 


-10.5 




3897 . 699 


-20.3 




2262 . 844 


- 5.8 




3941.654 


-23.8 




2480.991 


- 6.0 




4629.671 


-21.7 




3515.670 


-21.1 










4583.741 


- 7.1 


13331 


2066.757 
2067.738 


-37.9 
-37.6 


10499 


2790.660 
3150.639 
4275.615 


- 4.9 
-10.2 

- 6.6 




2068.726 
3509 . 746 
3857 . 865 


-33.3 
-19.8 
-33.8 




4569 . 745 


+ 15.7 


13391 


2390.838 
2748.855 


+30.8 
+ 11.3 


10601 


2772.689 


- 7.1 




3130.816 


+ 4.7 




2835 . 523 


-13.4 






(-39.4 
1+40.3 




3154.582 


+23.2 




3883.795 




4225.755 


-13.9 








4582.788 


+ 11.1 


13518 


2788.749 
2864.538 


+ 5.7 
- 4.6 


10837 


3141.785 


-11.4 




3150.751 


+ 12.3 




4273 . 628 


-39.8 




3532.714 


+30.4 




4583 . 769 


-26.2 




3919.709 


+22.0 




4612.700 


-12.6 










4638.537 


-22.3 


13568 


2779.781 
2785 . 762 


+ 1.8 
- 3.2 


11965 


2028.789 


-55.3 




2841.610 


+ 8.9 




2066.690 


-55.3 




3555.683 


+ 19.9 




2079.660 


-57.4 




3996 . 473 


- 9.8 




3508.731 


-44.8 




4266 . 740 


+ 18.6 




4699 . 494 


-41.6 




4277.694 


+ 9.8 



1041 Late- type Stars 



143 



Star 


Julian Dav 


Velocity 


Star 


Julian Dav 


Velocity 


A.G. 


(243 . . . . ) 


(km. /sec.) 


A.G. 


(243 ....) 


(km. /sec.) 


13821 


4912.828 


-15.6 


14021 


2454.739 


-20.7 




4972.822 


-43.1 




3136.840 


-45.8 




4974.819 


-36.2 




3199.685 


-23.8 




5008.718 


-20.0 




3541.723 
3955 . 626 


-20.3 
-10.7 


13839 


2785 . 765 


+ 0.8 










3530.792 


+24.9 


14195b 


2101.692 


-18.9 




3532.743 


+34.2 




2109.711 


-35.6 




3884.778 


+ 9.7 




3129.840 


+32.6 




3970.615 


+ 19.5 




3190.702 


+31.1 




4269.782 


+ 0.3 




3514.819 
4659 . 578 


+20.2 
- 0.9 


13862 


2765 . 838 


+26.5 










2820.685 


+ 1.2 


14346 


2100.726 


-46.7 




3170.716 


+ 12.0 




2873 . 563 


-34.2 




3222.621 


-12.0 




3149.832 


— 37.5 




3982.549 


+ 3.9 




3199.728 
3507 . 878 
3542.747 
4266.702 


- 5.4 
-36.8 
+ 3.3 
-54.2 



TABLE III 

High- Velocity Stars 





V* 




V* 


A.G. 


km. /sec. 


A.G. 


km. /sec. 


486 R 


-160.7 


5055 R 


+ 85.1 


991 


- 67.1 


5122 


+ 67.2 


1264 


- 68.4 


5787 


+ 89.6 


1528 


- 68.3 


6838 R 


-116.5 


1572 R 


+ 79.1 


6848 


- 69.4 


2248 R 


- 78.5 


7956 


- 66.7 


2302 R 


- 72.5 


8135 


+ 92.4 


2845 R 


+ 87.3 


8975 R 


-116.8 


3146 2? 


-115.1 


9797 


- 65.6 


3668 R 


+ 84.4 


10925 R 


- 76.4 


3866 R 


+ 99.3 


11233 


+ 70.5 


4051 R 


-144.7 


12199 


-135.7 


4194 R 


+ 71.9 


12787 


- 78.0 


4809 


+ 82.4 


13876 


- 72.2 


4814 R 


+ 98.0 


14121 R 


-112.5 


4930 


+ 68.4 







*Radial velocity corrected for solar motion. 

R Listed in Roman's Catalogue of High- Velocity Stars. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 5 



A CATALOGUE OF DWARF GALAXIES 



BY 



SIDNEY VAN DEN BERGH 



1959 
TORONTO, CANADA 



A CATALOGUE OF DWARF GALAXIES 
By Sidney van den Bergh 

Abstract 

A catalogue of dwarf galaxies north of 8 = —23° has been compiled from the 
Palomar Sky Survey prints. The data indicate that the distribution of dwarf 
galaxies over the sky is non-uniform. A strong concentration of dwarf irregular 
galaxies is found in the vicinity of M 94 in Canes Venatici. 

Introduction 

Of the 22 known probable members of the local group of galaxies, 
17 are low luminosity dwarfs. Holmberg (1950) has shown that 
dwarf galaxies also occur in the M81 and M101 groups. More 
recently Reaves (195G) has discussed the numerous dwarf galaxies 
which occur in the Virgo Cluster. 

Dwarf Criteria 

Inspection of the Palomar Sky Survey prints of clusters of 
galaxies shows that a class of faint objects can be isolated by the 
following criteria: 

A , Low surface brightness. 

B, Little or no central concentration of light on the red prints. 
In view of the fact, that these objects are found to be more frequent 
in clusters than in the general field, it is reasonable to assume that 
they are dwarf galaxies. This conclusion is supported by the simi- 
larity which many of these objects have to dwarf galaxies in the 
local group. Almost all objects which satisfy criteria A and B are 
probable dwarf galaxies. However, many galaxies which are known 
or probable dwarfs do not satisfy both criteria. 

Types of Dwarf Galaxies 
The following types of dwarf galaxies may be distinguished: 

Dwarf Irregulars (DIr) 

Almost all dwarf irregular galaxies were found to be similar to 
one of the following prototypes in the local group, NGC 6822, 
IC 1613 and the Wolf-Lundmark system. 

147 



148 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Dwarf Spirals (DSp) 

Two distinct types of dwarf spirals exist. The most easily recog- 
nizable type consists of a short bright bar superimposed on a 
background of low surface brightness. This type is probably a 
dwarf edition of the normal barred spiral, from which it can be 
distinguished by the fact that no spiral arms emanate from the 
tips of the bar. 

The second type of dwarf spiral is similar to the IC 1613 type 
of irregular galaxy. However the resolved images of stars and 
nebulosity are not distributed at random but lie in elongated 
patches resembling segments of a spiral arm. 

No dwarf spirals are known in the local group. 

Dwarf Ellipticals (DEI) 

The surface brightness and central concentration criteria have 
not proved to be successful in distinguishing between giant and 
dwarf ellipticals on the Palomar prints. As a result the catalogue 
contains very few dwarf ellipticals. 

Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies (DSph) 

The Draco System is the prototype of this kind of galaxy. These 
objects, which have a very low surface brightness, are rather easy 
to identify at large distances. Their identification becomes more 
difficult when they are relatively near by and completely resolved 
into stars. In this case their appearance on the Sky Survey prints 
is quite similar to that of a distant cluster of galaxies. 

IC 3475 in the Virgo Cluster is the brightest known member of 
this class. 



The Catalogue 

The catalogue was compiled from the Palomar Sky Survey 
prints. It contains all dwarf galaxies with diameters larger than 
one minute of arc north of 8 = — 23°00', which satisfy criteria A 
and B. It is hoped that the catalogue will prove useful as a finding 
list for future investigations. Only a few of the galaxies in the cata- 
logue are contained in the NGC, the IC and Holmberg's list of 
dwarf galaxies. Twelve of the dwarf galaxies in the catalogue are 
known members or possible members of the local group. 



Dwarf Galaxies 149 

The first three columns of Table I are self-explanatory. The 
fourth column (<p) contains the maximum diameter of the galaxy 
on the blue print in millimetres (1 mm. = 67 sec. of arc). The fifth 
column gives the classification type of the galaxy. The sixth column 

gives the surface brightness (5) on the blue print on a scale ( , 

very low) to (-f + , relatively high). The seventh and eighth columns 
give the degree of resolution on the red (R) and blue (B) prints 
respectively on the following scale: — , unresolved; ±, incipient 
resolution; + , clearly resolved; and + + , resolved stars only. 

The ninth column (C) gives an estimate of the colour of the 
object on a scale (0.0, very blue) to (1.0, very red). For C = 0.6 
the brightness on the red and blue prints is equal. An N in the 
last column refers to a note at the end of the table. 

The Colours of Dwarf Spirals 

The individual colours, estimated on the scale C = 0.0 (very 
blue) to C = 1.0 (very red), are quite uncertain. However the 
mean colours for different types of galaxies are probably significant 
and are tabulated here. In deriving the mean colours dwarf galaxies 
near the galactic equator were excluded. 

Mean Colours of Dwarf Galaxies 



Type C n bs 



DIr 


0.24 


100 


DSp 


0.30 


49 


DSph 


0.50 


12 


DEI 


0.48 


5 



The Distribution of Dwarf Galaxies 

The dwarf galaxies of Table I occur almost exclusively outside 
the 'zone of avoidance' at low galactic latitude. However even at 
high galactic latitude their distribution is distinctly non-random. 
In general the distribution of dwarf galaxies over the sky is similar 
to that of the brightest giant galaxies. However some small clusters 
of dwarf galaxies occur which are not associated with giant galaxies. 
The distribution of dwarf irregular galaxies, with diameters larger 
than two minutes of arc is shown in the figure. The mean distance of 
these dwarfs is probably smaller than that of the dwarf galaxies 



150 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



with a diameter less than two minutes of arc. More than half of 
these objects (excluding members of the local group) are located 
within 20° of M 94 (NGC 4736). This region also contains a large 
number of smaller dwarf irregular galaxies and dwarf spirals. In 
this connection it is of interest to note that the M 94 region is 
particularly rich in late type giant spirals and giant irregular 
galaxies. 

A somewhat less conspicuous concentration of dwarf galaxies, 
occurs in the vicinity of M 81. This group contains a mixed popula- 
tion of DIr, DSp, and DSph galaxies. 

The very pronounced clustering of dwarf galaxies in the Virgo 
cluster (Reaves 1956) does not show up well in our data. The 
reason for this is that almost all the dwarfs in the distant Virgo 
Cluster have diameters smaller than one minute of arc. 




The positions are shown of dwarf irregular galaxies with diameters larger than 
two minutes of arc. (Probable members of the local group are not shown.) The 
circle indicates the position of the M 94 group. 

References 
Holmberg, E. 1950, Lund Medd, ser. II, no. 128. 
Morgan, W. W. 1958, Publ. A.S.P., vol. 70, p. 364. 
Reaves, G. 1956, A. J., vol. 61, p. 69. 

Note added in proof: Most of the spiral and irregular galaxies listed in the 
catalogue are of luminosity classes IV-V and Von the D.D.O. system. However, 
a few objects of luminosity class IV are included. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
January 15, 1959 



TABLE I 
Catalogue of Dwarf Galaxies 



No. 


«(1855) 


6(1855) 


<t> 


1 


h llm 


-19°50' 


1.0 


2 


12 


+ 10 05 


1.0 


3 


25 


+47 40 


6.0 


4 


26 


+30 40 


1.0 


5 


39 


-12 20 


1.5 


6 


43 


-21 50 


1.0 


7 


54 


+06 50 


1.0 


8 


57 


+01 20 


15.0 


9 


1 02 


+48 50 


1.5 


10 


14 


+ 11 40 


1.5 


11 


22 


+25 05 


1.5 


12 


27 


+03 40 


1.5 


13 


32 


+ 15 10 


1.5 


14 


41 


-13 10 


1.5 


15 


42 


-13 30 


1.0 


16 


44 


+ 17 25 


1.5 


17 


55 


+21 15 


1.5 


18 


2 03 


+06 05 


1.0 


19 


16 


+35 20 


1.5 


20 


19 


-10 30 


2.0 


21 


19 


-22 05 


1.5 


22 


24 


+38 00 


1.0 


23 


24 


-11 25 


1.0 


24 


25 


+39 50 


1.5 


25 


25 


+32 50 


2.0 


26 


26 


+29 05 


1.0 


27 


33 


+00 40 


1.0 


28 


40 


+03 15 


3.0 


29 


42 


+01 30 


3.0 


30 


44 


-01 45 


1.5 


31 


3 07 


-03 20 


1.5 


32 


07 


-05 20 


1.0 


33 


4 29 


+74 40 


1.0 


34 


41 


00 00 


1.0 


35 


55 


+16 10 


1.0 


36 


5 01 


-16 30 


1.0 


37 


13 


-21 45 


1.5 


38 


16 


+73 35 


1.0 


39 


36 


+75 15 


2.0 


40 


6 53 


+56 40 


1.0 


41 


58 


+53 40 


1.0 


42 


7 13 


+69 30 


5.0 


43 


18 


+41 05 


1.0 


44. 


20 


+67 10 


1.5 


45 


28 


+03 05 


2.0 


46 


31 


+40 25 


1.0 


47 


34 


+ 17 05 


3.0 


48 


47 


+58 25 


1.5 


49 


8 01 


+46 55 


1.0 


50 


04 


+71 10 


6.5 


51 


08 


+74 55 


1.0 


52 


19 


+42 20 


1.0 


53 


21 


+66 40 


1.0 



Type 



Resolution 
R B 



Notes 



DSp? 


± 


=b 


± 


0.2 




DSp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.2 


N 


DEI 


+ 


— 


— 


0.8 


N 


DSp 


=fc 


— 


± 


0.2 




DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




DIr/DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.0 


N 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.0 




DIr 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


DIr 


=b 


— 


± 


0.4 


N 


DIr/D?Sp 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




DSp 


+ 


— 


+ 


0.2 


N 


D 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 




DSph/DIr 


— 


— 


— 


0.2 


N 


DSp 


± 


± 


+ 


0.0 




DEI 


— 


— 


— 


0.6 




DSp 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 


N 


DSp 


± 


— 


+ 


0.0 




D? 


± 


— 


? 


0.4 




DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.6 




D?Sp 


+ 


rb 


+ 


0.4 


N 


DIr/DSph 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 


N 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 


N 


DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 


N 


DIr/DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.8 


N 


DIr 


± 


± 


+ 


0.2 


N 


DIr 


+ 


— 


— 


0.0 




DIr 


— 


— 


— 


0.0 


N 


DIr? 


— 


— 


— 


0.6 




DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.4 


N 


DSp 


=h 


— 


± 


0.2 


N 


DIr/DSp 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


DIr/DSp 


=fc 


± 


+ 


0.4 




DSp 


± 


— 


=b 


0.4 




D?Ir 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 


N 


DIr 


± 


± 


± 


0.8 


N 


D?Sp 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 




DIr? 


— 


± 


± 


0.6 


N 


DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.2 




DSph 


— 


— 


— 


0.4 




DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.4 


X 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 




D?Ir? 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




DSph 





— 


— 


0.4 


N 


DIr? 


=h 


— 


— 


1.0 


N 


DSph? 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 




DIr? 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 


N 


DSp? 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 




DSp 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 




DIr 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


DSp 


± 


± 


=fc 


0.4 


\ 


DEI 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 




DIr 


± 


rb 


+ 


0.2 





TABLE I 
Catalogue of Dwarf Galaxies (cont.) 















Resolution 






No. 


a(1855) 


5(1855) 





Type 


S 


R 


B 


C 


Notes 


54 


9 h 00 m 


+06°30' 


1.5 


DIr/ DSph 


+ 


— 


— 


0.6 




55 


03 


+36 05 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




56 


03 


-22 25 


1.0 


DSph? 


— 


— 


— 


0.8 




57 


04 


-14 25 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 


N 


58 


05 


+20 00 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


+ 


0.4 




59 


06 


+39 50 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


± 


± 


0.4 




60 


13 


-11 35 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


± 


+ 


0.4 




61 


14 


-12 00 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.6 




62 


15 


-21 50 


2.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 


X 


63 


28 


+71 50 


2.5 


DIr 


— 


± 


± 


0.2 


N 


64 


42 


+32 10 


1.5 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




65 


44 


+02 05 


1.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.2 


N 


66 


46 


+69 45 


1.5 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 


N 


67 


48 


+81 00 


1.5 


DSp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.4 


N 


68 


48 


+29 30 


2.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


— 


0.0 


N 


69 


51 


+31 25 


3.5 


DIr 


± 


+ 


+ 


0.0 


N 


70 


52 


+06 00 


3.0 


DIr 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.2 


X 


71 


55 


+67 15 


1.0 


DSph 





— 


— 


0.6 




72 


10 00 


+30 15 


1.0 


DEI 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 




73 


01 


+30 50 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




74 


01 


+ 13 00 


8.5 


DEI 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.4 


N 


75 


04 


-04 00 


4.0 


DIr 


± 


+ 


+ 


0.0 


N 


76 


04 


-13 05 


1.5 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




77 


13 


+71 40 


2.0 


DSp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.6 




78 


16 


+68 20 


1.0 


DSph 





— 


— 


0.6 




79 


17 


+ 15 30 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


— 


± 


0.4 




80 


19 


+70 45 


2.0 


DSp 


± 


± 


+ 


0.4 




81 


19 


+69 10 


11.5 


D?Ir? 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


82 


20 


+71 20 


1.5 


DIr? 


=b 


± 


± 


0.6 




83 


28 


+32 15 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




84 


34 


+35 15 


4.0 


D?Sp 


± 


± 


+ 


0.4 


N 


85 


34 


-22 40 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 




86 


35 


+61 05 


1.5 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




87 


40 


+66 15 


1.0 


DSph 





— 


— 


0.4 




88 


40 


+ 14 50 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.4 


N 


89 


43 


+20 25 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 


N 


90 


45 


+08 25 


1.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.4 




91 


58 


+20 35 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 




92 


11 05 


+54 20 


1.0 


DIr/DSp 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




93 


06 


+22 55 


5.0 


DSph 





+ + 


± 


0.4 


N 


94 


13 


+03 20 


2.0 


DIr 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.2 




95 


17 


+04 10 


1.5 


D?Sp 


+ + 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


96 


36 


+59 55 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.6 




97 


42 


+24 40 


1.0 


DIr 


=1= 


— 


— 


0.4 




98 


43 


+57 15 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


=b 


+ 


0.4 




99 


44 


+39 25 


3.5 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




100 


45 


+52 55 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 


N 


101 


48 


+32 20 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 




102 


50 


+51 40 


1.0 


DSp 


— 


— 


— 


0.4 


N 


103 


51 


-13 45 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.2 




104 


51 


-13 55 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 




105 


51 


+38 50 


2.5 


DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.2 




106 


51 


-21 40 


2.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


— 


0.6 





TABLE I 
Catalogue of Dwarf Galaxies (com/.) 















Resol 


ution 






No. 


«(1855) 


5(1855) 





Type 


S 


R 


B 


C 


Notes 


107 


Hh 52» 


+38°40' 


1.5 


DSp 


+ 


± 


=fc 


0.4 


N 


108 


57 


-00 44 


1.0 


DIr 


=b 


— 


± 


0.2 




109 


12 00 


+40 35 


1.0 


DIr 





— 


— 


0.2 


N 


110 


04 


+02 50 


1.0 


DSph 


— 


— 


— 


0.4 




111 


04 


+51 05 


1.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


— 


0.4 


X 


112 


04 


+ 18 50 


1.0 


DIr? 


+ + 


— 


± 


0.2 


X 


113 


07 


+37 00 


1.0 


DSph 





— 


— 


0.4 


X 


114 


07 


+ 13 35 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




115 


08 


+ 14 20 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 




116 


09 


-10 40 


1.5 


DIr 


± 


± 


=h 


0.4 


X 


117 


10 


+29 35 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


=h 


0.2 




118 


10 


-10 50 


1.0 


DIr 


— 


± 


± 


0.4 




119 


13 


+47 10 


1.5 


DSp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.4 


X 


120 


14 


+46 40 


1.0 


DIr 


=fc 


± 


+ 


0.0 




121 


15 


+01 15 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


+ 


0.0 




122 


19 


+71 10 


1.5 


DSp/DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.4 




123 


19 


+59 05 


2.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


+ 


0.0 




124 


20 


+ 13 55 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


— 




0.0 




125 


20 


+44 15 


3.0 


DIr 


+ 


± 


± 


0.0 


X 


126 


20 


+38 00 


2.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.0 


X 


127 


21 


+38 00 


1.0 


DIr? 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 


N 


128 


22 


+03 35 


1.5 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




129 


22 


+44 00 


2.0 


DIr 


± 


± 


+ 


0.0 


N 


130 


22 


+ 12 15 


1.0 


DIr 


— 


— 




0.4 


X 


131 


24 


+30 30 


1.0 


DIr 


=fc 


— 


± 


0.2 




132 


25 


+ 13 35 


1.0 


DSph 


± 


— 


— 


0.6 


X 


133 


26 


+32 25 


3.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




134 


26 


-01 50 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




135 


27 


+ 16 00 


1.5 


DSp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.4 


X 


136 


28 


+ 16 00 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 


X 


137 


28 


+07 05 


1.0 


DSph 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 




138 


29 


+07 25 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


+ 


0.4 


X 


139 


30 


+07 55 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


+ 


0.4 




140 


32 


+08 45 


1.0 


DSp 


+ + 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


141 


35 


+39 15 


2.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


=fc 


0.2 


X 


142 


37 


-04 55 


2.0 


DSp 


± 


± 


± 


0.6 




143 


37 


+35 10 


2.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.2 




144 


37 


+01 15 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


± 


± 


0.4 




145 


38 


+ 12 50 


1.0 


DEI 


± 


— 


— 


0.6 


X 


146 


38 


-05 20 


2.5 


DIr/DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 




147 


40 


+37 15 


1.0 


DIr? 


— 


— 


— 


0.2 




148 


41 


-04 30 


1.5 


DSph 


— 


— 


— 


0.6 




149 


42 


-03 15 


1.0 


DIr/DSp 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




150 


42 


+51 55 


1.5 


DIr 


± 


± 


+ 


0.4 


\' 


151 


43 


-10 05 


3.5 


D?Sp 


± 


± 


+ 


0.4 




152 


45 


-05 30 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




153 


46 


-11 20 


1.5 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 




154 


47 


+27 55 


3.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


+ 


0.0 




155 


49 


+ 15 00 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.0 




156 


50 


+03 30 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


± 


± 


0.4 




157 


51 


+ 15 40 


1.0 


DEI? 


d= 


— 


— 


0.4 




158 


51 


+03 35 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


=fc 


± 


0.6 




159 


53 


-14 55 


1.5 


DSph 





- 


- 


0.8 





TABLE I 
Catalogue of Dwarf Galaxies (cow/.) 

















Resolution 






No. 


«(1855) 


5(1855) 


<t> 


Type 


S 


R 


B 


C 


Notes 


160 


12 h 54 m 


-03°55' 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


=b 


± 


0.0 




161 




55 


-16 40 


6.5 


D? 


± 


+ 


+ 


0.4 


N 


162 




58 


-07 25 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.4 


N 


163 




58 


-07 10 


1.0 


DSp 


db 


— 


± 


0.4 


N 


164 




59 


-16 45 


1.0 


DIr? 


— 


— 


± 


0.4 




165 


13 


01 


+68 30 


2.5 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




166 




06 


+37 05 


1.5 


DIr 


+ 


— 


+ 


0.2 


N 


167 




07 


+47 05 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


± 


+ 


0.2 




168 




08 


+46 40 


3.0 


DIr 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.0 




169 




09 


+48 15 


3.0 


DIr 


± 


± 


± 


0.0 




170 




09 


+26 10 


1.0 


DIr? 


+ 


— 


— 


0.2 


N 


171 




11 


-07 40 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


+ 


0.2 




172 




12 


+42 45 


1.5 


DSp 


+ 


— 


± 


0.6 


N 


173 




14 


+ 10 30 


1.5 


D?Sp 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




174 




19 


-21 30 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


± 


± 


0.2 




175 




20 


+58 35 


1.5 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 


N 


176 




24 


+46 05 


1.5 


DSp 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




177 




30 


+46 55 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


+ 


0.4 




178 




30 


+46 40 


1 .0 


DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 




179 




30 


+08 25 


2.0 


D?Ir 


+ 


— 


db 


0.4 




180 




31 


-09 05 


1.0 


D?Sp 


+ 


rfc 


+ 


0.4 




181 




34 


+41 25 


1.5 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.4 




182 




36 


+40 20 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 




183 




45 


+38 45 


2.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


— 


0.2 


N 


184 




48 


+ 18 30 


2.0 


DSp 5 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 


N 


185 




49 


+54 35 


2.5 


DIr 


+ 


— 


+ 


0.0 


N 


186 


11 


00 


+55 10 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


=h 


+ 


0.0 


N 


187 




09 


+23 40 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.0 




188 




09 


+ 17 15 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.4 




189 




17 


+46 05 


1.0 


DIr 


=h 


— 


± 


0.2 




190 




19 


+45 10 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




191 




20 


+56 55 


1.5 


DSp 


± 


± 


± 


0.6 




192 




24 


+45 05 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


=b 


0.2 




193 




30 


+59 10 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.2 




194 




31 


+57 50 


1.0 


DIr 


± 


— 


— 


0.4 




195 




31 


-08 00 


2.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.0 




196 




38 


+08 30 


1.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


— 


0.4 




197 




42 


-09 30 


2.0 


D?Sp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.2 


N 


198 




57 


+53 15 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


± 


± 


0.2 




199 


15 


07 


+67 50 


20.0 


DSph 





+ + 


+ + 


? 


N 


200 




32 


+44 40 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


± 


± 


0.2 




201 




35 


+00 55 


1.0 


DIr? 


+ 


— 


± 


0.4 


N 


202 




45 


+ 16 45 


2.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.0 




203 




55 


+82 15 


1.0 


DSp 


+ 


— 


± 


0.4 




204 


16 


12 


+47 25 


1.5 


DSp 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.2 




205 




16 


+64 15 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 


N 


206 




51 


+53 20 


1.0 


DSp 


— 


± 


± 


0.2 


N 


207 


17 


13 


+ 14 35 


1.0 


DSp 


± 


— 


— 


0.2 




208 




18 


+58 05 


8.0 


DSph 





+ + 


+ + 


? 


N 


209 


1 9 


37 


-15 10 


12.5 


DIr 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


210 


20 


39 


-13 25 


1.5 


DEI/DIr 





— 


± 


0.0 


N 


211 


22 


02 


-19 35 


1.0 


DEI? 


± 


— 


— 


0.8 




212 




09 


-21 55 


1.5 


DSp 


+ + 


+ 


+ 


0.0 





TABLE I 
Catalogue of Dwarf Galaxies (concluded) 















Reso 


ution 






No. a (1855) 


5(1855) 





Type 


S 


R 


B 


C 


Xotcs 


213 22 h 


27 m 


+32°05' 


1.5 


DIr 


± 





± 


0.2 


N 


214 


29 


-03 40 


2.0 


D?Ir 


+ 


± 


+ 


0.0 




215 


32 


-05 30 


1.0 


DIr 


— 


— 


± 


0.0 




216 23 


21 


+ 13 55 


4.0 


DIr/DEl 


± 


± 


± 


0.4 


N 


217 


23 


+40 10 


2.5 


DIr 


± 


— 


± 


0.2 


N 


218 


28 


+ 17 25 


1.0 


DIr/DSp 


+ 


± 


± 


0.4 


X 


219 


30 


-00 30 


1.5 


D?Ir 


+ 


— 


± 


0.4 


N 


220 


42 


+25 25 


1.0 


DIr 


+ 


— 


± 


0.2 




221 


54 


-16 15 


11.0 


DIr 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0.2 


N 


222 


56 


+ 14 30 


1.5 


DIr 


db 


- . 


± 


0.2 





Notes 

2. Has two very faint companions. 

3. NGC 147; member of local group. 

6. Member of NGC 247, NGC 253 group. 

8. IC 1613; member of local group. 

9. Obscured. 

11. Good example of dwarf barred spiral. 

13. Near M 74. 

16. Largest of a small cluster of dwarfs. 

20. In NGC 945 group. 

21. Near NGC 908. 

22. Elongated. 

23. In NGC 945 group. 

24. Obscured. 

25. Near NGC 925. 
27. In a cluster. 

29. In a cluster. 

30. In a cluster. 

31. Near NGC 1253. 

34. Obscured. 

35. Obscured. 

37. Star projected on nucleus. 

40. Has DSp companion. 

42. NGC 2366. 

44. Near NGC 2403. 

45. Obscured. Emission nebula? 
47. Galactic nebula? 

50. Ho II. 

51. Has dwarf companion. 
57. Near NGC 2781. 

62. Near NGC 2835. Very elongated. 

63. Ho I. 

65. Near NGC 3044. 

66. Near M 81 ; M 81 also has another dwarf companion. 

67. NGC 3057. 

68. Companion to Leo A? 

69. Leo A = Leo III; possible member of local group. 

70. Sextans B; possible member of local group. 

74. Regulus system = Leo I ; probable member of local group. 



75. Sextans A; possible member of local group. 

81. IC 2574. 

84. May be low density spiral like NGC 4236. 

88. In a cluster. 

89. Elongated. 

93. Leo B = Leo II; probable member of local group. 

95. NGC 3664. Reproduction of this dwarf (?) barred spiral in Morgan (1958). 
100. Near NGC 3953. 
102. Near NGC 4026. 
107. NGC 4025. 
109. Near NGC 4145. 

111. Near NGC 4157. 

112. Elongated. 

113. Near NGC 4214. 
116. Very elongated. 
119. NGC 4288. 

125. Near NGC 4449. 

126. Blue nucleus. 

127. Blue nucleus. 

129. Near NGC 4449. 

130. IC3418? 
132. IC3475. 

135. NGC 4523. 

136. IC 3522. 
138. IC 3576. 

140. IC 3617. 

141. IC3687. 
145. IC 3720. 

150. NGC 4707. Star projected on nucleus. 

161. Very elongated, multiple nuclei. Has three dwarf companions. 

162. Near NGC 4958. 

163. Near NGC 4958. 

166. Ho VIII; near NGC 5033. 
170. Elongated. 
172. Near M 63. 
175. Near NGC 5204. 

183. Elongated. 

184. Nucleus very blue. 

185. Ho IV. 

186. NGC 5477; companion of M 101. 
197. Colliding giant spirals? 

199. Ursa Minor system; probable member of local group. This system was over- 
looked during the search for dwarf galaxies; it has however been included in 
the catalogue for the sake of completeness. 

201. Very elongated. 

205. Has dwarf companions. 

206. Has distant DIr companion. 

208. Draco svstem; member of local group. 

209. NGC 6822; member of the local group. Obscured. 
211. Has dwarf companion. 

213. Blue nucleus. 

216. Pegasus system; possible member of local group. 

217. Obscured. 

218. Brightest member of a small cluster of dwarf galaxies. 

219. Near NGC 7716. 

221. Wolf-Lundmark system; possible member of local group. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 6 



A RECLASSIFICATION OF THE 

NORTHERN SHAPLEY-AMES 

GALAXIES 



SIDNEY van den BERGH 



I960 
TORONTO, CANADA 



A RECLASSIFICATION OF THE NORTHERN 
SHAPLEY-AMES GALAXIES 

Introduction 

The Shapley-Ames catalogue of galaxies brighter than the thirteenth 
magnitude, which was published almost thirty years ago, is still the 
only complete survey of bright extra-galactic nebulae, which covers 
the entire sky. The nebular types given in the Shapley-Ames (1932) 
catalogue were derived from thirteen different sources and are both 
inhomogeneous and incomplete. The recent publication of the Palomar 
Sky Survey has made it possible to reclassify all the northern Shapley- 
Ames galaxies on a homogeneous system. 935 of the 1,249 galaxies 
contained in the Shapley-Ames catalogue are located in the region 
north of 8 = —27°, which is covered by the Palomar Sky Survey. 

The Catalogue 

The first three columns contain the name of each galaxy and its 
1950 co-ordinates, taken from the Shapley-Ames catalogue. For con- 
venience the entries have been arranged in order of increasing NGC 
or IC number, rather than by right ascension for 1950. 

The fourth column contains the DDO type and luminosity class. 
The classification system for galaxies of types Sb, Sc, Ir, SD and N 
has been described elsewhere (van den Bergh 1960a, 1960b). 

A short description of types E, Sa and SBa is given below: 

E — Unresolved galaxies with elliptical isophotes. Surface brightness decreases 
smoothly with increasing distance from the nucleus. E and SO galaxies cannot be 
distinguished on the Sky Survey prints. Highly flattened objects of type SO have 
therefore been denoted by the symbols E8 and E9. 

Sa — Unresolved galaxies with more or less elliptical isophotes. Surface brightness 
decreases more abruptly at edge of disk than in type E. 

SBa — Smooth unresolved main body and bar. In some cases surrounded by un- 
resolved halo or ring segments. 

The spectral types in column 5 were taken from Humason et al. 
(1956). The Yerkes concentration class Y in column 6 was taken from 
Morgan (1958). The integrated colours Co in column 7 were taken 

159 



160 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

from Holmberg (1958) and corrected for galactic absorption by the 
equation 

C = C - 0.06 cosec \b r \ (1) 

The diameters in column 8 were measured on the blue prints of the 
Palomar Sky Survey. For galaxies of types Sa, Sb, Sc and Ir the 
diameters are maximum diameters. On the whole these diameters 
agree rather well with those given in the Shapley-Ames catalogue. 
From those galaxies with diameters <p > 1.0 minutes of arc one obtains 

Sb I, I— II, II ^sa = 1.00 £d DO (2) 

Sc 1,1-11,11 *>ba = 0.98 £d DO (3) 

Sc II-III, III, III-IV £ 8A = 107 ^ DDO (4) 

S IV, IV-V, V £ 8 A = 1.06 y?ddo (5) 

The smooth radial decrease of the surface brightness in elliptical 
galaxies makes it impossible to determine maximum diameters with 
confidence. The diameters which are given in the catalogue might 
be described as "diameters of maximum contrast" on the Sky Survey 
prints. It should be emphasized that these diameters are quite un- 
certain. For elliptical galaxies the relation between the Shapley-Ames 
and DDO diameters is given by 

E £sa = 1.36 £ddo (6) 

The apparent integrated magnitudes of galaxies were taken from 
the following sources and are listed in order of preference: 

1. Holmberg (1958). 

2. Stebbins and Whitford (1952). 

3. Humason et al. (1956). 

4. Pettit (1954). 

5. Shapley and Ames (1932). 

The Pettit and the Stebbins and Whitford magnitudes were not used 
in those cases in which the maximum diameter of the galaxy greatly 
exceeded the size of the diaphragm used in their photoelectric observa- 
tions. Only magnitudes by Holmberg are given in two decimals. 

Column 10 gives the distance moduli of those galaxies to which 
luminosity classes could be assigned. The magnitude calibration was 



A Reclassification of Northern Galaxies 161 

taken from Table I. The apparent distance moduli were corrected 
for galactic absorption by the equation 

(w-M)o = (m-M) - 0.24 cosec \b'\ (7) 

Those distance moduli in column 11 which are given to one decimal 
were derived from the observed radial velocities of individual field 

TABLE I 
Magnitude Calibration of Luminosity Classes 

Type and Class M pg Type and Class M PB 

Sb I 
Sb I— II 
Sb II 
Sb 1 1— III 

Sb III 



galaxies. Those given to two decimals were obtained from the mean 
redshiftsof cluster members. A Hubble constant of 100 km./sec./mpc. 
was assumed. 

The number of individual distance moduli obtained by different 
methods are given below : 

From DDO luminosity classifications 411 

From radial velocities of field nebulae 365 

From cluster moduli 244 

An asterisk in the last column refers to a note at the end of the 
table. 

The Space Distribution of Galaxies 

The catalogue contains distance moduli for 82 per cent, of the 
northern Shapley-Ames galaxies. The data are therefore sufficiently 
complete to investigate the spatial distribution of the nearer galaxies: 

26.5 < m-Mo < 27.5 



20.4 


Sc I 


-20.0 


19.9 


Sc I— II 


-19.7 


19.4 


Sc and Ir II 


-19.4 


18.6 


Scand Ir II— III 


-18.9 


18.0 


Sc and Ir III 


-18.3 




Scand Ir III-IV 


-18.0 




S and Ir IV 


-17.3 




S and Ir IV-V 


-16.1 



162 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Eight of the ten Shapley-Ames galaxies within this distance inter- 
val are members of the M81 group. 

27.5 < m-M < 28.5 (Figure 1) 



27.3<m-M<2e.5 




Most of the galaxies in this distance interval are members of the 
Canes Venatici cluster. No other clusters are apparent in the figure. 

28.5 < m-M Q < 29.5 (Figure 2) 



28 5<m-M«9.3 




Only two small clusters show on the figure. They are the M96 
group (a ~ 10 h 40 m , 8 ~ + 13°) with V e = + 676 km./sec. and the 
M66 group (a ~ ll h 10 m , 8 ~ + 14°) with V e = + 598 km./sec. The 
small difference in radial velocity and the small angular separation 
of these two groups suggests that they are physically associated. 

(Continued on page 196) 



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Remarks 

NGC 178 Late type, has one resolved arm. 

NGC 275 Interacting with NGC 274. 

NGC 474 Fuzzy nucleus surrounded by segments of nebulous ring. Interacting 
with NGC 470. 

NGC 520 Colliding galaxies? 

NGC 1068 Seyfert galaxy. Halo. 

NGC 1415 Diameter does not include faint "tidal arms". 

NGC 2149 Probably galactic reflection nebula. 

NGC 2207 Interacting pair. 

NGC 2782 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 2835 Spiral arms of low surface brightness. 

NGC 2993 Interacting with XGC 2992. 

NGC 3077 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 3227 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 3368 This galaxy (M96) is a member of a small class of objects with a 
bright main body with tightly coiled spiral arms surrounded by a faint halo. 
Other members of this class are NGC 1068 (M77) and NGC 4736 (M94). 

NGC 3516 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 3690 Two colliding galaxies. 

NGC 4038 Colliding with NGC 4039. 

NGC 4051 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 4151 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 4258 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 4342 Identification uncertain. 

NGC 4568 Interacting with NGC 4567. 

NGC 4647 Interacting with NGC 4649. 

NGC 4736 M94, has halo similar to those of M77 and M96. 

NGC 4826 M64 is a very peculiar object. A blue plate taken with the 74-in. telescope 
shows tightly wound rather fuzzy spiral arms on which a large obscuring cloud 
is superimposed. The declination given in H.A. 88 should be increased by 10'. 

NGC 4889 In Coma cluster. Misidentified as NGC 4872 in H.A. 88. 

NGC 4902 Both radial velocity and luminosity classification place this galaxy 
beyond the Virgo Cluster. 

NGC 4941 The structural peculiarities of this galaxy are similar to, but less pro- 
nounced, than those in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. 

NGC 5377 Appearance similar to that of NGC 4941 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 
4151. 

NGC 5548 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 6814 Seyfert galaxy. 

NGC 7469 Seyfert galaxy. 

Anon 1 Has S V companion at a(1855) = h 54 m , 5(1855) = -8° 25'. 



I '.15 



196 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
29.5 < m-M < 30.5 (Figure 3) 



29 Sim-uao 3 




In this distance interval the Virgo cluster is the most prominent 
feature. Early type galaxies predominate in the nucleus of the cluster 
at a ~ 12 h 25 m , <5 ~ + 13°. A secondary clustering of predominately 
late type galaxies is located ata~ 12 h 20 m , 8 ~ + 5°. The figure shows 
the southern extension of the Virgo cluster as a loose grouping of 
galaxies near a ~ 12 h 50 m , 5 ~ — 10°. The Ursa Major cluster 
(a ~ 12 h 00 m , 5 ~ +50°) and the NGC 4274 group (a ~ 12 h 15 m , 
8 ~ + 30°) also show on the figure. The NGC 4274 group is probably 
somewhat closer to us than the Virgo Cluster. The NGC 3193 group. 
(a ~ lC^lO™, 5 ~ + 23°) is possibly associated with the Virgo cluster 
complex. 

30.5 < m-M < 31.5 (Figure 4) 



30.9<m-M«l.5 




A Reclassification of Northern Galaxies 



197 



The figure shows a concentration of galaxies near a ~ l-4 h 40 m , 
8 ~ + 2°, which are apparently associated with the NGC 5850 group. 
The figure also shows a loose clustering of galaxies near a ~ 3 h 25 m , 
8 ~ - 23°. 

31.5 < m-Mo < 32.5 (Figure 5) 



31 Hm.UtlZ i 




No conspicuous clustering is apparent in this distance interval. 



The Luminosity Function of Galaxies 

The frequency with which different DDO classification types occur 
among all Shapley-Ames galaxies north of 8 = —27° is given in 
Table II. 



TABLE II 
Frequency of Classification Types 
Determined from the classification of 935 Shapley-Ames Galaxies 



Type 


Frequency 


E (including SO) 

Sa 

Sb 

Sc (including S IV and S Y,) 

Ir 

Other 


22.9 per cent. 

7.7 
27 5 
27 . 3 

2. 1 
12.5 



198 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



Luminosity classes could be assigned to about 80 per cent, of all 
galaxies of types Sb, Sc and Ir. 

The number of Shapley-Ames galaxies of different types and 
luminosity classes is given in Table III. 

TABLE III 
Observed Frequency of Shapley-Ames Galaxies 



Type 


Sb 


Sc 


Ir 


Class 








I 


37.5 


30.5 





I— II 


22 


14 





II 


58 


68 


1 


1 1— 1 1 1 


37 


22 





III 


36 


31.5 


3.5 


III-IV 


0.5 


9.5 


2 


IV 




21 


6 


IV-V 




8.5 


4.5 


V 




1 






Using the magnitude calibration of Table I the observed frequency 
distribution of galaxies over the luminosity classes may be converted 
to relative space densities, if one makes the following assumptions: 
1. The distribution of galaxies throughout space is uniform. 2. The 
degree of completeness of the Shapley-Ames catalogue depends on 
apparent magnitude only, i.e. the Shapley-Ames catalogue does not 
discriminate against galaxies of a particular type or luminosity class. 

The assumption of a uniform space distribution of galaxies is 
probably valid for galaxies of luminosity classes I to IV. However, for 
fainter objects the Shapley-Ames catalogue contains only galaxies 
in the immediate vicinity of the local group. The space density of 
galaxies in the vicinity of the local group is probably higher than 
average. The assumption of a uniform distribution of galaxies will 
therefore lead to an overestimate of the space density of objects 
of luminosity classes IV-V and V. This effect is compensated for to 
some extent by the fact that the Shapley-Ames catalogue is more 
incomplete for large galaxies of low surface brightness than for small 
galaxies of high surface brightness. The faint end of the computed 
luminosity function must however be regarded as quite uncertain. 



A Reclassification of Northern Galaxies 



199 



TABLE IV 
Relative Space Density of Galaxies 



Luminosity 


Approximate 










Classes 


magnitude limits 


Sb 


Sc 


Ir 


Total 


I, I— II 


-20.5 to -19.5 


0.9 


1.0 





1.9 


II, 1 1— 1 1 1 


-19.5 to -18.5 


7.5 


4.9 


0.04 


12.4 


III, III-IV 


-18.5 to -17.5 


11 


10 


1.3 


22.3 


IV 


-17.5 to -16.5 





17 


4.8 


21.8 


IV-V 


-16.5 to -15.5 





36: 


19: 


55: 



Table IV gives the relative space densities for galaxies of different types 
and luminosity classes. The data have been normalized in such a way 
that they refer to a volume which contains one supergiant galaxy of 
type Sc. The table shows that the luminosity function of galaxies 
increases rapidly as one goes to fainter absolute magnitudes. The 
results for Sc and Ir galaxies are in fair agreement with those obtained 
by van den Bergh (1960a). 

It is of some interest to note that the ratio of the number of spiral 
galaxies to the number of irregular galaxies increases rapidly as one 
goes to intrinsically brighter galaxies. 



References 

van den Bergh, S. 1960a, Ap. J., vol. 131, p. 215; 1960b, Ap. J. (in press). 

Holmberg, E. 1958, Lund Medd. II, no. 136. 

Humason, M. L., Mayall, N. U., and Sandage, A. R. 1956, A.J., vol. 61, p. 97. 

Morgan, W. W. 1958, Publ. A.S.P., vol. 70. p. 364. 

Pettit, E. 1954, Ap. J., vol. 120, p. 413. 

Shapley, H. and Ames, A. 1932, Harv. Ann., vol. 88, no. 2. 

Stebbins, J. and Whitford, A. E. 1952, Ap. J., vol. 115, p. 284. 



}o 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 7 



THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS 

OF 
GALACTIC STAR CLUSTERS 



SIDNEY van den BERGH 
and DAVID SHER 



I960 
TORONTO, CANADA 



THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF GALACTIC 
STAR CLUSTERS 

Abstract 

The luminosity functions of the following galactic clusters have been obtained 
down to m pe ^ 20 

NGC 188 NGC 663 NGC 2158 NGC 2539 

XGC 436 NGC 1907 NGC 2194 NGC 2682 (M67) 

NGC 457 NGC 1960 (M36) NGC 2362 (r CMa) NGC 7789 

NGC 559 NGC 2099 (M37) NGC 2477 IC 361 

NGC 581 (M103) NGC 2141 NGC 2506 Trumpler 1 

It is found that striking differences exist among the main sequence luminosity 
functions of individual clusters. Also it appears that the faint ends of the luminosity 
functions of galactic clusters differ systematically from the van Rhijn-Luyten lumi- 
nosity function for field stars in the vicinity of the sun in the sense that (with one 
exception) all the clusters which were investigated to faint enough limits, had 
luminosity functions which either decreased or remained constant below M pg = 4-5. 
The differences between individual clusters and the differences between the lumi- 
nosity functions of clusters on the one hand and field stars on the other show that the 
luminosity function of star creation is not unique. This result is taken to indicate 
that the luminosity function with which stars are created probably depends on the 
physical conditions prevailing in the region of star creation. 

It is also shown that the observed surface density of cluster stars may be repre- 
sented by an exponentially decreasing function of the distance from the cluster 
centre. In a number of clusters, which have ages larger than their relaxation times, 
the brightest cluster stars are found to be more strongly concentrated towards the 
cluster centre than are the faintest stars. 

Observational Material 

This investigation is based on a series of 170 plates of galactic 
clusters obtained with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope on Palomar 
Mountain during nine nights in January and February of 1958*. A 
series of exposures ranging from 4 seconds to 10 minutes on Kodak 
103aO emulsion (no filter) was obtained of each cluster. Also one 
5-minute exposure of each cluster was taken on Kodak 103aE emulsion 
behind a red plexiglass filter. The limiting magnitude of each blue 
plate was determined from a magnitude sequence which had previously 
been established within the cluster. On each plate stars were counted 
in rings centred on the cluster. From these counts the number of 

*During the night of January 13/14, 1958, the seeing deteriorated rapidly. All 
plates taken after 19 h 15 m P.S.T. were subsequently rejected 

203 



204 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



cluster stars in each ring down to a given limiting magnitude was 
determined. By means of this procedure it was possible to investigate 
the luminosity functions of 20 galactic clusters down to about 20th 
magnitude. 

Counting Procedure 

The centre of each cluster was found by inspection and the plate 
was placed, emulsion downwards, on a sheet of transparent polar 
graph paper, in such a way that the centre of the cluster coincided 
with the pole of the co-ordinate system. 

The difference in the radii of two consecutive circles of the polar 
graph paper was 0.1 inches, corresponding to 171" on the plate. The 
annuli, henceforth called "rings", thus formed, were numbered 1, 2. 
3, etc., from the pole outwards. 

Counting stars on a plate is not free from a "personal equation" 
effect. Innumerable decisions have to be made, rejecting some marks 
on the plate while accepting others as stars. A comparison between 
independent counts by the two authors on four plates in M67 is 
shown in figure 1. The comparison shows that the counts by van den 





! 1 


• 


1 


vdB 


• 
• • 


• 


- 


300 






- 


200 


V 

• • 

• •• 

• • * 

•1 • 
♦. 

1 1 


1 


- 



100 200 300 Sr 

Fig. 1 — Comparison of independent counts by van den Bergh and Sher on lour 
plates of M67. 

Bergh are systematically higher than those by Sher; that is to say the 
latter author was more conservative in his judgment of faint markings 
on the plate. Most of the counts which are reported in this paper have 
been made by Sher. Multiple counts of the same plate by Sher indicate 
that the root mean square deviation of two independent series of 
counts is 3.7 per cent. 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 205 

An individual's counting limit is likely to vary somewhat over a 
period of time. To reduce, as much as possible, the effects of such 
systematic variations of the counting limit while counting stars on a 
single plate each cluster was divided into four quadrants and the 
quarter-rings thus formed were then counted in what was effectively 
a random order. 

The basic data on each cluster were obtained by counting stars 
down to the plate limit on plates with different limiting magnitudes. 
In a number of cases these data were supplemented by counting only 
those stars brighter than a certain star of known magnitude, which 
was well above the plate limit. The latter data are considered to be 
of somewhat lower accuracy than the counts down to the plate limit 

The Number of Cluster Stars 

To estimate the surface density of background stars, the area which 
was counted in each case extended well beyond the boundary of the 
cluster. A "rule of thumb" was to choose the background area roughly 
equal to the cluster area, but this precept was not followed rigidly. 

Suppose that the adopted background area, A b , contains N b stars, 
then the density of background stars, a b , is 

<r b = — (1) 

Aj, 

Let there be N(r n ) stars in the «th ring within the cluster, then the 
number of cluster stars within the ring is 

N e (r % ) = N(r n ) - A(n) <r b (2) 

where A (n) is the area of the nth ring. 

Mean errors were associated with each determination of the number 
of cluster stars. These errors were obtained in the following way: 
Let 

e c = mean error of the number of cluster stars 

€i = mean error of the number of background stars within the area 
of the cluster, due to the uncertainty in the surface density of back- 
ground stars, <r b 

«2 = error due to the statistical fluctuations of the number of back- 
ground stars, themselves, within the cluster 
then 

Cc 2 = ei 2 + €2 2 ( 3 ) 



206 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

in which 

ei 2 = Nb dl and e 2 * = n£* 
Af A, 

where A b is the background area and A c is the cluster area. 
It should be emphasized that these errors do not take into account the 
uncertainties in the adopted limiting magnitudes or the uncertainties 
which might be introduced by irregular absorption over the back- 
ground or cluster areas. Most of the clusters which will subsequently 
be discussed were selected for observation because they appeared 
projected on a relatively smooth field of background stars. 

Determination of the Limiting Magnitudes 

(a) Standard Sequences 

Photoelectric sequences and (or) photographic transfers were used 
to establish a standard sequence in or near each cluster. The photo- 
graphic magnitudes of the sequence stars were determined with the 
Eichner photometer of the California Institute of Technology. All 
magnitudes were transformed to the P system by means of the relation 
(Allen 1955). 

P - y = 1.10 (B - V) - 0.18 (4) 

Details on individual magnitude sequences are given below: 

NGC 188: A photoelectric magnitude sequence to magnitude 17.2 was kindly 
supplied by Dr. Sandage. As NGC 188 lies less than 5° from the pole two transfer 
plates were taken, with both the cluster and the North Polar Sequence appearing 
on the same 14 X 14 inch plate. These transfers were used to set up a sequence 
in the cluster that included fainter stars than those in the photoelectrically obtained 
sequence. No significant deviations were found in the magnitude range where the 
two sequences overlap. 

NGC 436, NGC 457, NGC 559, NGC 581, NGC 663, Trumpler 1: A photoelectric 
sequence by Pesch (1959) down to magnitude 14.6 was used. The sequence was 
extended by means of a photographic transfer to SA 51 in which Dr. Baum had 
established a photoelectric sequence which he kindly made available to us. 

NGC 1907, NGC 1960: A magnitude sequence was set up by means of two photo- 
graphic transfers to SA 51. No systematic differences between this sequence and 
sequences set up by Johnson and Morgan (1953) to m VQ = 12.7 and Cuffey (1937a) 
to m PB = 16.6 were found. 

NGC 2099: The magnitude sequence depends on one photographic transfer to SA 51. 

NGC 2141, NGC 2194: The magnitude sequence depends on two photographic 
transfers to SA 51. Comparison of our sequence with one set up by Cuffey (1943) 
in NGC 2194 indicates a systematic difference in the sense m (Cuffey) — m (adopted) 
= 0.08. Cuffey's sequence extends to magnitude 16.6. 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 207 

XGC 2158: A photoelectric sequence in this cluster down to magnitude 20.0 was 
kindly made available to us by Dr. Arp. 

XGC 2302: A photoelectric sequence down to magnitude 15.1 has been obtained in 
this cluster by Johnson and Morgan (1953). The sequence was extended to fainter 
magnitudes by means of two transfers to SA 57 in which a photoelectric sequence 
had been set up by Baum. The photographic transfers to this cluster are rather 
unsatisfactory since they were affected by fogging due to the lights of San Diego. 

XGC 2477: A sequence by Miss Sawyer (1930), which is probably of rather low 
accuracy, was used. 

XGC 2500, NGC 2539: The adopted magnitude sequences depend on two photo- 
graphic transfers to SA 57. 

XGC 2082: A photoelectric sequence down to magnitude 17.0 by Johnson and 
Sandage (1955) was extended to fainter magnitudes by means of two photographic 
transfers to SA 51. The transfer magnitudes were reduced by 0.2 magnitudes to 
bring them into agreement with the photoelectric sequence. 

XGC 7789: A photoelectric sequence (Burbidge and Sandage 1958) down to 
magnitude 17.3 was kindly supplied by Dr. Sandage. This sequence was extended 
by means of two transfers to SA 08. The transfer magnitudes were shifted by 0.78 
magnitudes to bring them into agreement with the photoelectric data. This large 
zero point error is probably due to the fact that the cluster was rather far west at 
the time of observation so that the plates may have been affected by twilight. 

IC 301: The adopted magnitude sequence depends on two photographic transfers 
to SA 57. 

In some cases the number of standard stars in a given magnitude 
interval was rather small. In such cases the magnitudes of additional 
stars were interpolated by measuring image diameters. 

(b) Determination of the plate limits 

The provisional limiting magnitude of each plate was determined 
from the standard sequence on that plate. Let m t and m, be the 
magnitudes of two adjacent stars of this sequence. If star i was 
visible but star j was not, then \{mi + w ; ) was adopted as the pro- 
visional limiting magnitude of the plate. Sometimes the appearance of 
the images suggested that this limiting magnitude was too bright, or 
perhaps, too faint and the simple average, accordingly, was reduced or 
increased slightly. In the case of transfer plates it was assumed that 
the limiting magnitude in the selected area was equal to that in the 
cluster. 

The limiting magnitudes obtained in this manner are unsatisfactory 
on two counts: 

(1) The limiting magnitude is an interpolation between two limits 
nii and m } which in ;i representative sequence might differ by 0.3 
magnitudes. 



208 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



(2) No account is taken of possible fluctuations in the sensitivity 
of the photographic emulsion as a function of position on the plate. 
Clearly such variations might affect the visibility or invisibility of a 
certain sequence star. 

The provisional limiting magnitudes were therefore adjusted by 
requiring them to fulfil the condition that the background count, 
N b (m) must be a smoothly increasing function of the limiting mag- 
nitude. Experience shows that the effective counting limit lies some- 
what above the actual plate limit. From a comparison of the luminosity 
function of the inner region of M67 derived in this paper, with that 
obtained by Johnson and Sandage (1955) it was estimated that the 
effective counting limit is 0.5 magnitudes brighter than the actual 
plate limit. This correction was applied to the limiting magnitude of 
all counts down to the plate limit. The magnitudes in Tables I and II 
(see p. 220 to p. 235) therefore refer to the actual limiting magnitude 
of the counts and not to the plate limit itself. 



TABLE III 
Basic Data on Clusters 



Cluster 




m — M pg 


m — M D 


Distance 


Age 


NGC 188 




10.5 


10.5 


1250 pc 


old 


NGC 436 




13.7: 


11.7: 


2200: 


young 


NGC 457 




14.3 


12.3 


2900 


young 


NGC 559 




14.5: 


11.7: 


2200: 


young 


NGC 581 (M103) 


13.9 


11.9 


2400 


young 


NGC 663 




15.3 


12. 1 


2600 


young 


NGC 1907 




13.1:: 


11.1:: 


1650:: 


young 


NGC 1960 


(M36) 


11.5 


10.5 


1250 


young 


NGC 2099 


(M37) 


111 


10.7 


1400 


intermediate 


NGC 2141 




— 


— 


— 


intermediate? 


NGC 2158 




14.8 


13.4 


4800 


intermediate 


NGC 2194 




12.9: 


10.4: 


1200: 


intermediate 


NGC 2362 


(r CMa) 


11.2 


10.8 


1450 


young 


NGC 2477 




10.5:: 


— 


— 


intermediate 


NGC 2506 




— 


— 


— 


intermediate? 


NGC 2539 




10.5 


9.4 


750 


intermediate 


NGC 2682 


(M67) 


9.8 


9.5 


800 


old 


NGC 7789 




12.5 


11.4 


1850 


intermediate 


IC 361 




— 


— 


— 


intermediate? 


Trumpler 1 




14.2: 


11.7: 


2200: 


young 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 209 

Notes on Table II J 
NGC 188: Modulus obtained by fitting Sandage's provisional main sequence to the 

zero-age main sequence. Zero reddening was assumed. 
XGC 436: True distance modulus taken from Boden (1951 J. Absorption assumed to 

be same as that measured in the nearby cluster NGC 457 by Pesch (1959). 
NGC 457: Data from Pesch (1959). 
N'GC 559: Data derived from Hiltner's (1956) observations of H.D. 8768 and 

H.D. 9105 using Johnson's (1959) intrinsic colours. 
NGC 581: From Kruspan (1959). Hiltner's (1956) data on B.D. -f59°273 confirm 

Kruspan's estimate of the reddening. 
NGC 663: Data derived from Hiltner's (1956) observations of B.D. +60°331, 333, 

339, 343 using Johnson's (1959) intrinsic colours. 
NGC 1907: Distance and reddening were obtained under the assumption that the 

cluster is physically associated with nearby OB stars. The data for these OB stars 

were taken from Hiltner (1956). 
NGC 1960: Data from Johnson (1957'. 
NGC 2099: Apparent modulus obtained by assuming the red giants in this cluster 

(Lindblad 1954) to have the same M pe as those in the Hyades and Praesepe. 
NGC 2158: Modulus obtained by fitting the colour-magnitude diagram given by 

Cuffey (1937b) to that of NGC 7789. The cluster-reddening was estimated by 

comparing provisional photoelectric magnitudes and colours obtained by Arp for 

some stars on the red giant branch with those obtained by Burbidge and Sandagc 

(1958) in NGC 7789. 
NGC 2194: Data from Cuffey (1943). 
NGC 2362: Data from Johnson (1957). 
NGC 2477: Measurements of the diameters of stellar images on red and blue plates 

indicate that the cluster colour-magnitude diagram is possibly intermediate 

between those of NGC 752 and M67. The cluster main sequence terminates at 

about m vg = 13.0. Assuming this to correspond to M pe = +2.5 one obtains 

tn — M po = 10.5. 
NGC 2539: Modulus obtained by comparing the cluster red giants (Zug 1933; with 

those in the Hyades and Praesepe. Absorption estimated by assuming A p0 = 

0.24 cosec b. 
NGC 2682: Data from Johnson and Sandage (1955). 
NGC 7789: Data from Burbidge and Sandage (1958). 
Trumpler 1: Modulus from Kruspan (1959). Hiltner's (1956) colour exces> for 

B.D. +60°274 is consistent with the absorption used by Kruspan. 

The Luminosity Functions of Clusters 

(1) Old Galactic Clusters: XGC 188, XGC 2682 (AI67) 

XGC 188 and M67 are the two oldest known galactic clusters. Both 
clusters are located at intermediate galactic latitudes and are therefore 
particularly well suited for a determination of their luminosity func- 
tions. M67 appears projected on a very smooth stellar background. 



210 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Some faint emission and reflection nebulosity is visible in the vicinity 
of NGC 188 and star counts indicate some irregularities in the stellar 
background. As a result the luminosity function of NGC 188 is 
probably less accurate than that of M67. The luminosity functions of 
NGC 188 and M67 are shown on pages 236 and 237 respectively. 
Comparison of these two figures shows that the luminosity functions 
of both clusters exhibit a number of points of similarity. The integral 
luminosity functions of NGC 188 and M67 show a sudden increase in 
slope at m P0 ~ 15.6 (M pg ~ + 5.1) and m vg ~ 13.3 (M PB ~ -+ 3.5) 
respectively corresponding to the termination points of the cluster 
main sequences. In both clusters the integral luminosity function has 
the largest slope (maximum of the differential luminosity function) 
less than one magnitude below the termination point of the main 
sequence. Below this maximum the luminosity functions decrease 
continuously down to the limits of observation. Comparison of the 
luminosity functions for the entire cluster with those for the inner 
region of each cluster shows that the brightest and hence most massive 
stars are more strongly concentrated towards the cluster nuclei than 
are the faintest least massive stars. Such an effect would be expected 
on dynamical grounds since both clusters are considerably older than 
their respective times of relaxation. 

Table IV gives for both clusters the distance from the galactic plane, 
Z, the radius containing half of the cluster mass in projection, r$, the 
largest distance to which the cluster could be traced, r m , the extra- 
polated total cluster mass, ffl, the extrapolated total number of cluster 
stars, N, and the cluster relaxation time, r, computed by means of an 
equation recently given by King (1959). 

TABLE IV 
Data on NGC 188 and M67 

Cluster Z ri r m $R N r 

NGC 188 +500pc. 6.5'=2.4pc. 20' = 7 .2 pc. 9009)? Q 1200: 1.2X10»y. 
M67 +450 9.4 = 2.2 28 =6.5 800 1000: 1.0X10" 

The mass-luminosity law tabulated by Schmidt (1959) was adopted to 
determine the total cluster mass. Stars which have evolved from the 
main sequence were assigned masses of 1.0 and 1.2 Wl Q respectively in 
NGC 188 and M67. The mass in the form of white dwarfs was assumed 
to be 509J? o in NGC 188 and 409)? o in M67. The extrapolated total 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 21] 

number of cluster stars, N, is considerably less accurate than the 
extrapolated total cluster mass 2ft. 

(2) Galactic Clusters of Intermediate Age: NGC 2099 (M37), NGC 
2141, NGC 2158, NGC 2194, NGC 2477, NGC 2506, NGC 2539, 
NGC 7789, IC 361. 

The luminosity functions of clusters of intermediate age (pages 238 
to 246) show a number of interesting differences. Some of these dif- 
ferences are due to evolutionary effects, i.e. differences in the shapes 
of the red giant branches of the cluster colour-magnitude diagrams. In 
other clusters the differences are due to genuine differences in the 
cluster main sequence luminosity functions. 

In the clusters NGC 2158 (p. 240) and NGC 7789 (p. 245) the slope 
of the integrated luminosity functions changes abruptly at m vg ~ 
17.0 (M pg ~ + 2.2) and m vg ~ 14.0 (M pg ~ + 1.5) respectively. This 
change in slope corresponds to the termination point of the cluster 
main sequence and to a concentration of red giants at the beginning 
of the cluster giant branch. The same explanation may also account 
for the sudden change in slope near m VQ ~ 17.7 in the rich cluster 
NGC 2141 (p. 239), for which the distance modulus is unfortunately 
unknown. A similar explanation may account for the change in slope 
of the integral luminosity function of NGC 2506 (p. 243) near m pg ~ 
15.5 for which the distance modulus is also unknown. 

The figure on p. 238 shows that the main sequence luminosity 
function of NGC 2099 (M37) has a flat maximum between the termi- 
nation point of the cluster main sequence near M vg = and M vg = +4. 
For fainter stars the luminosity function appears to decrease gradually. 
The main sequence luminosity functions of NGC 2477 (p. 242), 
NGC 2506 (p. 243) and NGC 2539 (p. 244), also seem to decrease 
slightly towards fainter magnitudes. The main sequence luminosity- 
function of NGC 7789 (p. 245) appears to remain approximately 
constant over the range +2.5 < M vg < +5.5. On the other hand 
the luminosity function of NGC 2194 (p. 241) seems to increase down 
to the limit of observation at M vg = +6. 

The data gave some indication that the brightest stars in NGC 
2099 (M37), NGC 2194 and IC 361 are more concentrated towards the 
cluster nucleus than are the fainter stars. 

(3) Young Galactic Clusters: NGC 436, NGC 457, NGC 559, NGC 
581 (M103), NGC 663, NGC 1907. NGC 1960 (M36). NGC 2362 
(r CMa), Trumpler 1. 



212 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Young galactic clusters, which have only recently been formed from 
the interstellar gas, are usually located at low galactic latitudes. They, 
therefore, appear projected on a rich stellar background, which, due 
to the effects of absorbing interstellar clouds, is often quite irregular. 
As a result the luminosity functions of young galactic clusters are less 
reliable than those for the clusters of intermediate age, which have 
been discussed previously. Only in the case of the clusters NGC 436, 
NGC 457 and NGC 2362 was the background sufficiently homo- 
geneous to determine the luminosity function in the usual manner. 

For the other clusters it could, however, be assumed that the back- 
ground was reasonably uniform over the two innermost rings. For 
these clusters only f<t>(M ) could be determined, in which/ is an un- 
known constant which is smaller than one and <t>(M) is the luminosity 
function of the entire cluster. 

Let N(r n ,m) be the total number of stars brighter than m in ring n 
and let N c (r n ,m) be the number of cluster stars brighter than m 
in ring ?i, then 

N c {r n ,m) = N(r n ,m) - <r b (m) A (n) (5) 

in which cr 6 (m) is the surface density of background stars brighter than 
m and A(n) is the area of ring n. Since we are dealing with very young 
clusters, which have ages smaller than their times of relaxation, it will 
be assumed that the radial density distribution of cluster stars is 
identical for all magnitudes. Equation (5) may then be written 

K{n) N c (m) = N(r n ,m) - a h (m) A(n) (6) 

in which K(n) is the fraction of all cluster stars N c (m) in ring w. From 
equation (5) for rings 1 and 2 one obtains 

fN e (m) = Ik(1) - ^]i\T e (m) = N(\,m) - ^pi (7) 

This equation was used to determine the function f<f>(M) for those 
clusters in which the absorption was judged to be relatively homo- 
geneous over the nuclear region of the cluster. 

The luminosity functions of the nine young clusters which were 
studied in the present investigation are shown on pages 247 to 250. 
The data indicate that the luminosity functions of young clusters differ 
from cluster to cluster. In the majority of the clusters the luminosity 
function appears to increase rapidly and then remains constant down 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 213 

to the limit of the observations. On the other hand the figures on p. 250 
indicate that the clusters NGC 1907, NGC 1960 (M36) and NGC 2362 
(t CMa) appear to contain few if any intrinsically faint stars. 

Star counts were made on the red prints of the Palomar Sky Survey 
in NGC 1907 and NGC 1960 to check the possibility that the apparent 
absence of faint cluster stars might be due to some peculiarity of the 
absorption in or near the nuclei of these clusters. Such absorption 
would of course be less effective in the red than in the blue. The results 
of the counts on the Sky Survey red prints are shown as open circles 
on p. 250 and seem to agree with the results obtained from the blue 
plates. Due to the fact that interstellar absorption is smaller in the 
red than in the blue, and because the faintest cluster stars are intrin- 
sically red, the counts on the red prints should reach even fainter 
cluster stars than those recorded on the blue plates. It is therefore 
concluded that the absence of intrinsically faint stars in NGC 1907 
and NGC 1960 (M36) is probably real. The possibility that the least 
massive stars in such very young clusters are still non-luminous, 
should of course, be kept in mind. 

It is of some interest to note that if <f> Cas is a member of NGC 457 
(Pesch 1959), then the cluster contains stars with a brightness range 
of at least 15 magnitudes. On the other hand the main sequences of 
NGC 1907 and NGC 1960 (M36) only appear to be populated over a 
range of about 7 magnitudes. 

The Radial Density Distribution of Cluster Stars 

From the counts of stars in rings centred on the cluster nucleus the 
radial density distribution of cluster stars could be determined for the 
majority of the clusters contained in the present programme. The 
results are shown in figure 2, in which the fraction of all cluster stars 
F(r/rk*) within radius r is plotted as a function of r/r$* in which 
rj* is the radius containing half of the cluster stars in projection. A 
cluster in which cluster stars could be traced out to a distance of n 
rings is represented in the figure by n points. The figure shows that 
the radial density distributions of all clusters which have been in- 
vestigated are essentially similar. The scatter of the points for the 
outer regions of clusters may be largely due to the uncertainties 
inherent in the observations. The data for the high latitude clusters 
NGC 188 and M67 and the very rich cluster X(\C 7789, which are 



214 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



believed to be more accurate than those for the other clusters, are 
given in Table V (the points for these clusters are shown as large 
dots in figure 2). 

TABLE V 
Fraction of all Cluster Stars F(r/r^*) Within Radius r/rj* 

NGC 188 
r/rj* 0.00 0.44 0.87 1.30 1.74 2.17 2.01 3.04 
F 0.00 0.17 0.43 65 0.77 0.86 0.95 1.00 



r/rj< 

F 



F 



XGC 2682 (M67) 

0.00 29 0.59 0.88 1.18 1.47 1.76 2.06 2.35 2.65 2.94 

0.00 0.10 0.28 0.43 0.58 0.71 0.80 0.86 93 0.96 1.00 

XGC 7789 

0.00 34 0.69 1.03 1.38 1.72 2.07 2.41 2.76 3.10 

0.00 0.11 34 0.51 0.68 0.81 0.90 0.94 0.98 1.00 



100 




I 1 






• 
• 


• 


• 


• • 
• • 


^^ 


i 


60 


- 


















- 


40 


• / 
















i 





r/ r* 



Fig. 2 — Fraction of the total number of cluster stars F(r/r$*) within a distance 
r/rj* of the cluster centre, (ri* is the radius containing half of the cluster stars in 
projection.) The curve shows F(r'r%*) for an isothermal cluster. 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 215 

In figure 2 a smooth curve shows F(r/r±*) for an isothermal cluster 
with a cutoff at £ = 10, which has been tabulated by Chandrasekhar 
(1942). The scale factor for the isothermal distribution was chosen 
such that F = 0.5 for r = ri*. Comparison of the observed points, 
with the curve representing an isothermal cluster, shows systematic 
deviations which are probably significant. For r/ri* < 0.5 the observed 
points lie above the isothermal curve and for r/ri* > 0.5 the observed 
points fall predominantly below it. The observations may be repre- 
sented remarkably well by a stellar surface density, a, of the following 
form 

^Jl = g -l.«8r/r 4 * (g) 

<t{6) 

The data on the radii of the clusters contained in the present pro- 
gramme are given in Table VI. 

TABLE VI 
Cluster Radii Containing Half of the Cluster Stars in Projection 







rf 


D 






r h* 


D 


NGC 188 


8.'5 


= 2.4 pc. 


1250 pc. 


NGC 2362 


1.'6: 


= 0.7:pc. 


1450 pc 


NGC 436 


US: 


= 1.2:pc. 


2200 :pc. 


NGC 2477 


e:o 


— 


— 


NGC 457 


s:s 


= 3.2 pc. 


2900 pc. 


NGC 2506 


4.'8 


— 


— 


NGC 2099 


8:8 


= 3.6 pc. 


1400 pc. 


NGC 2539 


67 


= 1.5 pc. 


750 pc. 


\GC 2141 


4.T 


— 


— 


NGC 2682 


97 


= 2.3 pc. 


800 pc. 


\ T GC 2158 


3f6 


= 5.0 pc. 


4800 pc. 


NGC 7789 


8!2 


= 4.4 pc. 


1850 pc. 


NGC 2194 


37 


= 1.3:pc. 


1200 :pc. 


IC 361 


3.'8 


— 


— 



The data in the table may indicate a loose correlation between the 
radius containing half the total number of cluster stars and the stellar 
content of the clusters. NGC 2158 and NGC 7789, which are extremely 
rich, are seen to have larger than average radii. 

Discussion- of Results 

Probably the most striking feature revealed by the luminosity 
functions shown on pages 236 to 250 is that significant differences exist 
between the luminosity functions of individual galactic clusters. Some 
of these differences may be explained in terms of the effects of stellar 
evolution on the positions of cluster stars in the Hertzsprung- Russell 
diagram. However, evolution of individual stars cannot account lor 



216 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

the differences which are observed among the luminosity functions of 
unevolved main sequence cluster stars. The data on the luminosity 
functions of those clusters for which the observations extend below 
M Pg = +5 are summarized in Table VII. The data for the Hyades, 
Pleiades and Praesepe were taken from Sandage (1957). 

TABLE VII 
The Faint Ends of Cluster Luminosity Functions 

Cluster Limiting M pg <t>(M pe ) 

NGC 188 

NGC 436 

NGC 457 

NGC 559 

NGC 581 (M103) 

NGC 663 

NGC 1907 

NGC 1960 (M36) 

NGC 2099 (M37) 

NGC 2194 

NGC 2362 (t CMa) 

NGC 2539 

NGC 2682 (M67) 

NGC 7789 

Trumpler 1 

Hyades 

Pleiades 

Praesepe 

Fable VII shows that, with only one exception, the faint ends of the 
luminosity functions of galactic clusters either decrease or remain 
constant. This behaviour is in sharp contrast to that of the van Rhijn- 
Luyten luminosity function for field stars in the vicinity of the sun. 
Recent computations by Schmidt (1959) show that <t>(M pg ) for field 
stars begins to increase sharply at M pg = +5. The present observa- 
tions show that such an increase does not, in general, occur in the 
luminosity functions of galactic clusters. 

In the case of very old clusters like NGC 188 and M67 it might be 
assumed that the difference between the cluster luminosity functions 
and the van Rhijn-Luyten luminosity function is due to the escape 
of faint cluster stars (van den Bergh 1957). However, the relaxation 
times of these clusters (see Table IV) are so long that it now appears 



+ 10 


Decreasing 


+ 6 


Constant? 


+ 6 


Constant? 


+ 6 


Constant? 


+ 6 


Decreasing slightly.-' 


+ 5 


Decreasing slightly? 


+ 7 


Decreasing 


+ 9 


Decreasing 


+ 8 


Decreasing slightly 


+ 6 


Increasing 


+ 9 


Decreasing 


+ 8 


Decreasing slightly 


+ 11 


Decreasing 


+ 6 


Constant 


+ 6 


Constant? 


+ 7 


Constant 


+10 


Decreasing slightly 


+ 7 


Constant 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 217 

unlikely that the entire discrepancy could be accounted for in this 
way. The fact that faint stars appear to be almost absent in such 
young objects as NGC 1907, M36 and the r Canis Majoris cluster 
could conceivably be accounted for by assuming that such faint stars 
have not yet contracted to a position near the main sequence. How- 
ever, this appears unlikely in the light of Walker's (1956) observations 
of the extremely young cluster NGC 2264, which show that stars as 
faint as M pg = +8 occur in that cluster. In any case neither of 
the two special hypotheses outlined above could account for the 
differences between the van Rhijn-Luyten luminosity function and the 
luminosity functions of galactic clusters of intermediate age. 

The differences between the luminosity functions of galactic clusters 
on the one hand and the luminosity function of field stars on the other 
may be accounted for in a number of ways. It may be assumed that: 

(1) There now exists a universal cluster luminosity function which 
is identical to the luminosity function of star creation during the last 
few million years and this luminosity function differs from the initial 
luminosity function of star creation in the galaxy. 

(2) The luminosity function of galactic star clusters is not repre- 
sentative of the luminosity function of star creation. This presumably 
implies that the conditions under which star clusters are created are 
not representative of the conditions under which "average" stars in 
the galaxy were formed. 

For a number of reasons, the second hypo thesis appears more 
attractive than the first. If the first hypothesis were correct then, to 
account for the present luminosity function of field stars, one would 
have to assume that the luminosity function of star creation in the 
galaxy initially contained a much larger fraction of faint stars than it 
does now. This is equivalent to saying that the initial luminosity 
function of star creation must have been deficient in bright stars. 
According to current views on stellar evolution, the ejection of heavy 
elements, formed by nucleogenesis in bright stars, enriches the heavy 
element concentration in the interstellar gas. It is, therefore, difficult 
to see how the presumably rapid increase in the heavy element 
abundance during the first phase of the evolution of the galaxy could 
be understood if the luminosity function of star creation were initially 
deficient in massive stars. 

The striking differences between the luminosity functions of in- 
dividual galactic clusters makes it difficult to believe in the universality 



218 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

of the luminosity function of star creation. It would appear to be 
more reasonable to assume that the differences between individual 
star clusters and also between star clusters on the one hand and field 
stars on the other are due to different physical conditions in the 
regions of star creation. Although our understanding of the processes 
by which stars are created from the interstellar gas is still very frag- 
mentary, it appears likely that the resulting spectrum of stellar masses 
will depend to some extent on the prevailing gas density, temperature 
and turbulent velocity and perhaps also on the prevailing strength and 
configuration of the magnetic field. 

The conclusion that the luminosity function with which stars are 
created depends on the physical conditions prevailing in the region of 
star formation implies that it is not possible to obtain a significant 
determination of the change in the rate of star formation with time by 
comparing the present main sequence luminosity function of bright 
field stars with the bright ends of cluster luminosity functions. Assum- 
ing the dependence of the rate of star formation, /(/), on the gas 
densitv p, to be given bv 

f{t) ~ p" (9) 

Schmidt (1959) obtains n = 1 to 2 from a comparison of the main 
sequence luminosity function of bright field stars with a "mean" 
luminosity function of bright stars in young clusters. On the other 
hand he finds that a comparison of the distribution of young stars and 
interstellar gas perpendicular to the galactic plane yields n = 2 to 3. 
The present investigation suggests that this discrepancy may be due 
to the fact that it is not legitimate to assume that the luminosity 
functions of galactic clusters are identical to the general luminosity 
function of star formation. 

(Concluded on page 251) 






TABLES AXD FIGURES 

Information concerning the arrangement of the tabular 
material and figures is given below. 



Table I - Star Counts 

The table contains the actual number of stars counted 
per ring down to each limiting magnitude. Limiting magni- 
tudes marked by an asterisk refer to counts of stars brighter 
than a star of that magnitude. Limiting magnitudes not so 
marked refer to counts to the plate limit. Uncertain limit- 
ing magnitudes are followed by a colon. Limiting magnitudes 
followed by the letters B or R refer to counts on the blue 
or red prints of the Palomar Sky Survey. A vertical line in 
the tables indicates the adopted boundary between the cluster 
and background areas. In XGC 2158 and XGC 7789 numbers in 
parenthesis are counts corrected for overlapping images in 
the crowded cluster nuclei. In NGC 2158 numbers preceded by 
a minus sign give the number of background stars in the quad- 
rant containing the nearby cluster 213 5. These were subtrac- 
ted from the total number of stars in each ring to give the 
adopted background. 

Table II - Integral Luminosity Functions 

The table gives the total number of cluster stars X(m) 
down to each limiting magnitude as determined from the star 
counts in Table I. For most clusters the data are given 
separately for the inner region of the cluster, in which the 
cluster luminosity function is less affected by uncertain- 
ties in the adopted background level, than is the luminosity 
function of the entire cluster. For a number of young clus- 
ters only f N(m) is given in which f is an unknown constant 
which is smaller than one. In the case of 2TGC 2362 the 
inner half ring was excluded because the data are affected 
by the bright star T CXa. which is in the centre of the clus- 
ter. 

Figures 

The following figures give the integral luminosity func- 
tions (below) and differential luminosity functions (above) 
for the clusters contained in the present programme. The data 
for the inner cluster region are represented by the lower 
curve (scale on right) and solid histogram. The data for the 
entire cluster are given by the upper curve (scale on left) 
and the open histogram. Data obtained from the red prints 
of the Palomar Sky Survey are shown as open circles. 



- 219 - 



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CMCMTj-vOt-lOCDiHOCOCMCOrHCO 

HHHN(N<N(M(NC0n 



HNNt-OOOlOONHNt-t- 



&0 

c 



-K "^ "K + -K -fc -K "* -K -4c •••*•• 

ONWOt-HHOlNOnOWOWOO 
OlOH^rlt-NininONOOCOHI'O 

CT><NcocOTj'Tjinmvot-t-f-t-f-cocoo 

tHiHrHrHi-lrHi-lr-lt-lrH^rHrHr- 



« 



00 

c 

•H * * 

« CO lO 

M -O CO 

O, • • 



- 22U 



r-tCMTrooaoiOvOccoit- 
rr m t- cm tt co 

r-i tH *T 



OOOCMt-*OOOC-OOOi— lOtHr-t 



CM CO O O CM CO 



oooaoo^maor-icoco^o^scMt- 

rH iH CM CM 



OCM^vOOCMCOCTSt- Tt 

co t" m oo cr> ac 
o 



HHnt-OHinffis'H 



tH CM CM -5? t- en lO 



tflt-coocomi-iCMt--o 

HMlCvOBHHt- 

hhtt 



r-tlOTfvOrHt-t-OCOlOOirrCnOO 

HHHHCgni"0 



oomoooiomHcnioojcc^t-o 
cMco-^tm^cot-ooroincMin 

t-l r-i CM CM 



H^NHniOCCHOO 



-* * -X * 

eomN^ooiBomo 

OCOCOrHlOCl'I'CMTfCO 

OlOr I CI ^f ^ IO <o o o 



Nt-0<NHr»^fOHH 
CMCOlOt-OiHOlO 



8 



Hnaot-oo^^cno-ot-CNimt- 
iMciiot-ooo^f-r. t-cft 

rH i-l CM T? vO vO 



CMCOCOvOCMCMOOCTJvOCOlOlOOCM 

HN'I'miDlOiOvOflONCDCDffl 

rH tH CM CM 



vOr-|CMiH-*COt-IOCOCM 

HN^fiD'Ocflaimn 
a> en 



rHCMCO-tfinvOt-CO 



rHCMCOt-COCOCOCOOCO 
HCMKlTjinHCft 



8 



OOCMCOCOvOr-tCOOCOlO 
CM CM rj" lO r-l 



OOOnHOOlCOHOllO 
iH rH CM CO no in cc 



cm in 



lOnOl^HOOHOOON 

i-Hr-)CO-<*Tfmot-C- 

CM CM 



cM^oomommo 

ooriiacftTfON^n 



M 



pa 

* * * * ~ *-.... 

comcMTOomominmooo 

bo -ococoi-ima>'<?ocM^co^ococo 

a « 

a WOrinrfifiO^O-OvOlDC'lO 
rHrHi-tiHrHi-lT-li-lrHrHiHT-ICM 



- 221 - 



oooo 

r-l 



own-oaimHfncot-ot-m 



CT> CT> t- 

Tf sQ t~ 



rH 
O 

o 



HHOJCOrfTfttm>OvO I I <Ot-rf I OB 



OOOONCCnt-t-T}iNNOO)nH^M 00 CO 



iHrHrHr-lt-ICM CO'* 



oooNTfiOvoinooivouiom^^oo>o noj 

HnnrfvOt-OlOOlOlOH i oooo 



04 



be 
p, 
e 



COCO. 

-JE + -Jc -K •• •• 

cococoHinmowomoooooooooo 
woiDiniflNt-noMvONinNfj't-Hmc 

NoidoHCMnTjinmioot-oBooooeorooo 

rHr-trHi-lr-lrHiHHrHr-liHiHrHrHiHCNlCM 



04 



00 CM 

6 OH 
rH rH 



222 - 



CniNTf-^vOvOr-lTfOCOvOCOt- 
HlO>OOHt-O)i»00rfC0Mt- 

HHririnoOHH^vO 



ri^MconOHvomoOnij 

HHHHTOOOOHOvO 
rH<H rH t-< 



ncoiaoooovot-moiNiNO 
<MiOvoc3CMvoooc»mot-t~co 

HHHlNt-OOHiO 
<-< rH r-l 



HHHHCgvODOlOCD 
rH rH 



HnTft*0)W'rJ'»ONvOt-int- 
HHOJvOt-OOOiH 



C-^rHCMCMr-lrHTr-rJ'OlOCMai 

CMTtc^ic-oocMc^t-ooaom 

iHrH<MCT3cr3"rJ«Tfir3t-00O 



O>00O)^vOlO»OHt-HHt-N 

HlCHDOOOKN'jmnHt-^H 

rHtHCMirSt-t-QOiH 



^foooooofMoaorHiniotOCTio 

HHHHNrflflvO^GO 



t-n(MO>HOCTilNHOaiO(N-? 

CMCOQOOJlOlMOOlCi-ICOCCvCLO 

rHrHOJCMCrj-^^vOt-aO 



OJ-^OOCOOIMTj'aO-'tfTtfCMlfirH 

HHNiMwmnmvot- 



iHCTiCOOOt-OaOOiaOt-CMlOCM 

•^lOoooonmoiHOODHa! 

HHH'JiOmxit- 



HNOClCMt-Ot-OJOIOOOW 



vOOOaiiNH'Jiowt-ajmcjo 

HHHHMCO^f'ri'lOvO 



Mm-jiflninirjO'ONcooncc 

HMIfl(DaiM>OHW'OvOlO>0 
rHi-ICSllMCMcrjrrm 



C0aOt"-<Mt-crjr-f^r-l-<a'0Oer3t- 

t-HoconiovOHmt-oaiQO 

rHtHr-lr-lr-lr-tCNcrjC'OCOCCj-rJ' 



■rjnvocnvooHnoio>cio^t- 

rHr-((M<MCMCrjTriC 



Olt-OqoOOO'Jt-lOMININOIN 

t-OlOlHONOi'tooaiOHIN 

rHi-HrHrHiHr-lrHIMlMC^ 



onvooinonoooocoTT^oo 

HHHHNIN CD 



aOOlrtOlOOlOirjOlOOOl^ 



CMcrjcrj'^'rf'^'rj'iot-t-aoooas 



ba 
a, 

S 



* * * 

fflvooiioiooioicowoinow 
cot-aorHt-r-ivoaotMcrjTj'CTiooio 



- 223 - 



vo-<j , a>CN-^OrHcr><Nt--oin^oint-eoc-j"3<t>coCT-. h>oo!)'<}'J 

I CT3OaOC0Q0CCCnC0L0lOiH00rHC<I-rj<C^C3CTli-IC<lTj<t-CNlCvl 

I 1 I IrHICNIICOrHCOi-HlOr-lC-CMCTJCMOCO 

I I I I I i-l I 



<*H^foooiNncoiooicoooo)TfOHO)n>oHoncon>o 



cm co co lo in <y> <m o 

OOOONNCTf 



OiHOCO(Mt-OCO 
t-t--<S , T)"'*'*OJC\l 

CMCMcocOTj-^LOin 



N^nmcoocot- 
cMoacoco^LOiom 



aoaococot-o^fvo 

(NINCOCO^^">J^f 



« 



224 



wo)<ooioint-aioo>oiononnn(MTtnrtoo o 

HHHOT'^t-Ninocn'<ja:a)H!Mt-O'T>0(M o 



HINOOOOOOlONH^OTtHlOaiOOHIIt-t-XMO 
rH HtWt-ONXOOn^t-t-H^Ot-O 



HiNOvo^HonMijno^coooot-NnmiN^ 
HriHn^t-oHvooioonn^moiHTfoi 

HHHHHNNMCMWnnTti; 



OHt-0)vOoiooiMnooineo'jiDco^t-oN>oN 
NnvooiHTfoooHOHm^oiTroH 



HONrfcoij't-oit-ifloinaiH>oaoxioi(caiO'<j 

l-HrHrHi-lrHi-liHrHr-tCMCM(N 



-|CM 



3S 



* -»c -K * * „ 

Nioioow>oo)iowoioiooommoioiniooio 

OHHHCMP3'J<OOt-t«t-t-Q0C0fl0C0<r)00fl0O)O) 
i-HrHrHrHT-H.-HrHr-lrHrH,-(rHT-lrH.-HrHrHrH,-HrHrHrH 

- 225 - 



* * 
a • • 

a o t- 



rH <N \0 00 05 lO 
HNO 



E 




O 


^-N 


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^— ' 


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u 


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I- 1 


W 


>w" 


hJ 




(S 


CM 


•si 


vO 


H 


co 




CM 




C J 




CJ 




is 



rHrHCgvOCOvOCOin 
rH CM CM lO 



oowHooHNHinom 

rH CM to O iH CO 



E- 
CM 


o 


rH CM lO 


O 












lO 


O Tf t- m CO o C- 

oo 01 o vo 

.-4 CM lO 



O CO t- r? CO CO rH 

Cft O) >o lO 

iH CM lO 



onaon^HHOiaiMCft 

rHiHCMCOinCOOvO 



iH lO vO CO CM CM CM 

CM <H CO Ol iO 

rH CM CM m 



Tfaoot-cot^comocMvo 

HHINMCTJOt-O 



© TT O rH •<* CM \£5 

CM CM iH CO vO 

iH CM CM t* 



HCM 



mroifliflcorfiorfnO'f 

iHiHrHCMCMCMCOCOCO 



OHOlOiOOXB 
riOOMvOH 



« 



ClO 

ex 

a 



-K -)c -fc -* 

nt-Hiooooomwo 

(OHNN'JflOOlO^t-O 

COOrHCMCO^TvOt-OOCOO 
rHr-ltHiHrH<HrHiHr-ICM 



« 



****** •• 

rH -^ tH lO CT> 00 O 



O tH CO Tj" lO O 00 
rlHHHHHrt 



- 226 - 



Ti C M pJ H 



O^fOOH 



NIOON^ 



coc-oooooonoor-toooc^ 

rinHNooivomH'q"?mx 

HHHHMnifiOt>t-X 



Lt X X rH CM LC 



rHiHr-tC-JCO^ruOOt-X 



iHXXrHOr-IO-O'^'LOCOO 



•? H^ C7- 



h- lo ci h r; 



iH'tfCOOO'tfCO^Ot-CMCncOCMCOCM 
rHpHCMC0rrLO>OvO 



H in .- m :j x r: pj o 



nifiTfrlvOvON'Jt-ON^^Ol 
Hin-O>On0!vO^(NvOXt- 



rH og rz TT t~- X o 



MioNinHmtaiNHOt-in^ 

HOOClt-nOO>OHXX 
rHCMCMrrrrm-ClO 



HW^mt-xo 



tHaoxiOLOocooaiocsim 

iHCMCMCMCMCOCOCO 



rH «H CM CM CO CO ^T 



* * * * * * en 

inoowoinwmmoomom 

rHOt-OinXrHvOOCMOO'^'-O 



g Mxnminioo>ot-t-xxxx 



momoomomm 

rfOlrlOt-OinXH 

oiocMcocomioiOvo 



- 227 - 



oHmcoTfiooomt-vo^oiOTi'OH 



r-l iH CM CM -*J> lO C- O CO O 

HHrt 



NnnrfvoioooflOvOoot-CTiOJooTt 

HHlMOOTtt-OiCO 



t-H CM CO CO rf vOCTiH in 



H^CClOOOOOIt-^CDOifiHflOt- 
tH rHCMCO^UOaaCTlCM 



(OWINlOOt- 
HHtOOH'J 
CO Tf to t- t~ O 



Nntnrfiot-oooofoo^wuj 

<HCMC0C0lOt--O5CM 



rr CO Tf CO 00 Tf 
vO CO vO o t- -o 
cm co rf so m co 



t-H CM CM CO ■** lO t- CO <H 



CMTfCOTflOvOCTiCMTtoO t~>o H oo 
iHCMCOCO-^vOCOrH 



■^r in t-i t~ t- ih 

CM CO rf in U3 CO 



O t- t- O O 03 

cm oo t- t- co >o 

CM CM CO rf rt vO 



OHnrointjt-coTfHTfiflHcooo 

CMCMCOCO Tf fOOO 



OCOCMCMCOTfrtTtr-HCOrH >0 I- H h 
rHCMCOrl'^vOCOO 



HHrttlfi0O(D>O00t-lOlDt-IDOl 
rHrHCMCOT3«vOC005 



OJO^OOJH 
CO CO CM O O b- 
r-t CM CO ^J" Tf to 



HINmn'f'Jt-O'J^NlNH'OvO 
i-H i-H CM CO lOvOb-O) 



OOOOHrincOOOfflO)K)-OOt) 
r-l CM CO CO Tf t-OO O 



00 i-H CM O ^O Tf 
t- rH vO rt CO lO 
i-H CM CM CO CO -* 



OHHN'<l l lDl00CllOvCIN05W>0H 
«-HCMCO-<tfWI>a>rH 



t— tJ" t— t— 00 CO 

iH iH CM CM CM CO 



OOrHCOCO-^-^t-lOt-t-COOCOCM 

HCOlDt-OON 



00 t- CM t- CM 00 

rH CO O 00 OS Tf 



i-t-^cMmiOvoooiocMaot-cMTto-iai 

r-l CM CO 'a* vOt-OOO 



tHOt-iHrHlCTtO^'Ot~CT)05C750 
r-ir-li-ICMCOT*t-a0 00<-ICMCO 



O 00 Oi lO ^ CO 
mm >o t-OOO 



omvoooaoHCMocoocMcootooi 

iHi-HCMCM'd'-^'lOinvOvO 



be 

c 

« * * 

winoowm 

bO vO O CM O O O 

o. 

S *o c- t- co oo oo 



M 

c 

oot-Or-icoiooiraoooioooo 
bo t~-vOiHioaoc7icocM>ocoO'^ , coait- 
o, 

S OlOrHiHrHiHCMCOCOTrTtmvOvOt- 
r-Hr-(r-li-li-lr-lr-lr-lr-l.-4<-lr-fr-lrH 



228 - 



O 00 •o t— CD CM 
CM CM CM CM CO Tf 



TfcnxHroiownvooaoot-o 

rHTfOOOCMvOmCMCMt—OOm 
i-HrHrHCOCMCMvOOCM 



O lO t- CO CM 00 
CM CM CM CM CO CO 



t~ -^ co co O) co 

rH CM CM CM CM CO 



oocMcococM-'tfTjcoot-m'^'vo m <~t 

Tfm , fl , cfl^ocoa)'?Hvooo rH oo 

HHNHCMincoo 10 in 



^ Hcnooo 

O -0 O t- rH O 
CM CM CM CM CO -^ 



IDrHCOlOCMOOCit-COLOOrHCM CM 

COCM^TCOrHCDCMlCCniOCMCO t- 

rH NHHTf COO CO 



lO CO rH CO "tf CM 
vOOHHDvO 
rH CM CM CM CM CO 



lO CO CO 00 CO -"3 1 
•■3" CO Cn 02 CM <T> 
HHHHINN 



t-mcoocMOcot— CDot-crivO 

CMCOCOt-OOTlOlOCXlOC'^'lO 
r-l CM rH r-t -rf t> CI 



CO O CM rH O 
lO Oi 02 Oi CO OO 
rH rH r-l rH CM CM 



GO CM rH C- rH vO 
Tf 00 CO CO rH ^ 
rH rH rH r-l CM CM 



t-f-vomHOfOOiHcor: o 
co~-^ i t-cnr- j OLOC7:cocovc 

HNHH^iOOO 



t- t> CM vO ^ rH 
CO t- t- t- rH vO 
rH rH rH rH CM CM 



O CM vO C71 lO vO 
CO O O t- Oi CO 
rH rH rH rH rH CM 



vOlDQOOOOTfOTffCCCSIDCMNOOOri^OCO) 

rorocococMrHiOvco^ococnoc-ccocoxot-x 

rHrHCMrHCM^vOt-OOOOOOrHCIrHrH 
^i-HrHrHrHrHrHrHrH 





t- 


t- t- t> t- CO vO 


t- 


cj io o in oi co 




rH rH rH rH rH CM 


O 




o 




Sq 


HOlt-OCMO) 




CM •<# r* vO t- O 




rH rH rH rH rH CM 





HvOOJ^HvOCHCt-HW-OO^aOrrCLOHC. H 

(NN^vOOC)H-?t-OCBOOtin3100Nt-C 

rH WHiHKlOt-t-OClCBOHHCC 

-^ w rH rH rH rH rH 



COt-vCrHCMCMrH-^ , '"^LOrHlOCOlOlOTyt-OrHCrivOO 

MNTr\005CflHn , a;air:t-xcao~HOH!MT!' 

NrlrininvOvOIffieOClOOOO 



O rH CM CM O t- 

K IDrJ ID CO H 
rH rH rH rH rH CM 



lOHOlO^WCMCCXCOBHOBf-mCHHX T~. 

cMH^ioxoiHcocDioiNinvowrot^cs^'-cnm 
ojHHcocooKxcoxaioiaia 



co io o io co cr> 

CO O ^O \D C- C71 
rH rH rH rH rH rH 



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CO TT CO Tf vO t- 
rH rH rH rH rH rH 



vO CT> 00 rH O) CM 

-rr rf m vo vo t- 

rH rH rH rH rH rH 



HCNOmOCOCONvOCOHOOlCOt-C-rtvCCNr.'CO 

HHCMvOOcocococo^ ,, ?'^mt-cct-xf>cinc~ 

r-H HHHCOTfWiOvC'OO-CC-f-M^ 



WWrfO>0(NNH^H>0'5 , X^t-t->C'?OMOt- 

CMN^CONOlfCCCM'ir'JOCMHnOrO.NOCOH 

rH cMrHCMco"3 , mmvo^oovct-c^oc- 



mcoTf ocncM 

C- t- O X t- CO 



Ht-ot-iniOvOO)Hmcnt--LOxr: o h ai m io o cs 

Hrlft-^ , 0)0!HOO , .CNCOlOiO'0^^000 
i-Hi-HrHCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCOCMCO 



lOioooiflin 

lO CM CO rr 00 >C 



CO O) CftOI o o 



X 



* * * * * * * -* •• 

t-x^Miniot-o>minc»>oo 

OOHXNt-t-OH^TNO 

H<NconTtT«i'inmio-ot-t- 

rHr-frHt-HrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHi-H 



- 229 



t-Olf5aOCMrHOOOC^OvOrHCX) 



O4lOvO00CO(Mt-Q0cnO5(MrH^O 
HCM(N(MCr3C0rJ't-lM 



3 






HN'*iooomoona:oxi'<J 



(Dt-lOvOMOt-NOt-HWH 

HNNCOINOLOCOmTjHrf 

HHHHOM'Jt- 



HHNOOCMlOlOOOOOJt-in 
HHHHINNCOir: 



raHWomocovONOiomt- 

HCM^vOQOlOCOvOOOrfinH 
HHHHHININCO 



« 



03 
* 

oooiooommmirsoo 

tlfl OlOCOrlrlt-NNlDOOOO 

a •• cd 

1-li-lrHHrHiHiH^iHrH i-H.N 

- 230 - 



TABLE II - LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS 



NGC 11 





Inner 


Region 


Entire 






m pg 


Rings 


1,2,3 


Cli 


IS' 


ter 






9.90* 


1 


± 


1 


± 


2 






12.02* 





± 1 


6 


± 


5 






13.15* 


8 


± 1 


13 


± 


7 






13.40 


6 


± 2 


6 


± 


8 






14.17* 


29 


+ 2 


40 


± 


12 






14.71* 


34 


± 3 


42 


± 


16 






15.21* 


70 


± 3 


89 


± 


17 






15.59* 


97 


± 3 


116 


± 


19 






16.52* 


300 


± 5 


381 


± 


27 






17.00 


295 


+ 6 


401 


± 


31 






17.23* 


338 


± 6 


466 


+ 


31 






17.60 


375 


+ 7 


559 


+ 


36 






17.65 


372 


+ 7 


521 


+ 


37 






17.80*: 


412 


± 7 


597 


+ 


39 






18.15: 


400 


± 7 


567 


+ 


40 






18.40: 


409 


± 8 


581 


+ 


42 






20.00:B 


524 


+ 10 


807 


+ 


57 






R 


563 


+ 11 


873 


+ 


60 










NGC • 


136 






NGC 


457 




Inner 


Region 


Entire 


Inner Region 


Entire 


^g 


Ring 1 


Cluster 


Rings 1,2 


Cluster 


5.77* 





± 





± 





1+0 


1+0 


7.53* 





± 





+ 





2 + 


2 + 


9.68* 





± 





+ 





6+0 


8 + 1 


10.35* 





+ o 


1 


+ 


1 


11 + 1 


15+2 


11.82* 


5 


+ 1 


5 


± 


1 


29+1 


38+2 


13.14* 


12 


+ 1 


11 


+ 


2 


45 ± 1 


61 ± 3 


14.50 


16 


+ 2 


16 


± 


4 


82 ± 4 


96 ± 9 


14.90 


19 


+ 2 


22 


± 


5 


94 ± 4 


111 ± 10 


15.45 


34 


± 3 


37 


± 


6 


111 ± 5 


137 ± 12 


16.00: 


37 


+ 3 


43 


± 


6 


- 


- 


16.25 


39 


+. 4 


47 


± 


7 


143 ± 7 


199 + 15 


16.45 


47 


+ 4 


67 


± 


8 


142 ± 7 


204 + 16 


20.30:B 


144 


± 12 


153 


+ 


25 


281 + 23 


406 ± 52 


R 


143 


+ 12 


233 


+ 


25 








NGC 


559 


NGC 581 


NGC 663 


Tr 1 


V 


fN(m) 


fN(m) 


fN(m) 


fN(m) 


9.68* 


+ 


1 


+ 





0+1 


0+0 


10.35 


i 


: 


2 


± 


1 


-2 ± 1 


± 


11.82* 


-1 ± 1 


12 


± 


1 


± 2 


6 + 


13.14* 


2 ± 1 


20 


± 


2 


11 ± 3 


7 ± 1 


14.50 


10 ± 1 


37 


+ 


3 


24 + 4 


24 ± 3 


14.90 


17 ± 2 


39 


± 


4 


26 ± 5 


25 ± 3 


15.45 


22 + 3 


34 


± 


5 


23+7 


33 ± 4 


16.00: 


29 i 


: 4 


33 


± 


6 


26 ± 7 


35 *. 4 


16.25 


38 + 4 


39 


± 


6 


26 + 8 


45 ± 5 



- 231 



TABLE II (continued) 



(cont'd) 


NGC ! 


559 


NGC 581 


NGC 663 


Tr 1 


m pg 


fN(m) 


fN(m) 


fN(m) 


fN(m) 


16.45 


41 


± 


5 


33 


± 


7 


30 ± 8 


44 ± 5 


16.85*: 


47 


+ 


8 


28 


+ 


9 


29 + 8 


42+7 


18.60: 




- 




32 


+ 


11 


45 + 11 


59+9 


19.30: 




- 




51 


+ 


14 


38 + 12 


47 ± 12 


20.30:B 


117 


+ 


14 


55 


+ 


17 


75 ± 14 


92 ± 14 


R 


101 


+ 


17 


50 


± 


17 


47 + 16 


90 + 17 




NGC 1907 


NGC 1960 






Pg 


fN(m) 


fN(m) 






7.53* 





± 








± 









9.08* 





± 





5 


+ 


1 






9.58* 





± 





6 


± 


1 






10.51* 


2 


± 





7 


+ 


2 






11.55 


3 


± 


1 


10 


+ 


2 






12.25 


4 


± 


1 


13 


± 


2 






13.70 


12 


± 


2 


18 


± 


4 






14.35 


26 


± 


3 


24 


± 


4 






15.00 


34 


± 


5 


25 


± 


5 






15.25 


31 


± 


5 


24 


± 


5 






15.60 


42 


± 


6 


26 


± 


5 






16.20 


44 


± 


6 


25 


t 


6 






17.50 


48 


+ 


8 


25 


± 


7 






18.20 


52 


i 


8 


22 


± 


8 






18.40 


35 


+ 


9 




- 








18.40 


37 


+ 


9 




- 








18.70 


43 


+ 


9 


16 


+ 


8 






19.10 


39 


+ 


10 


22 


+ 


9 






20.50-.B 




- 




21 


+ 


13 






20.60:B 


59 


+ 


13 




- 








R 


51 


+ 


14 


24 


+ 


14 







NGC 2099 (M37) 





Inner 


Region 


Entire 


m 
Pg 


Rings 


1, 


-2,3 


Cluster 


10.68* 


2 


± 


1 


-6 


± 5 


11.72* 


93 


± 


2 


114 


± 9 


12.78* 


206 


± 


4 


274 


± 13 


13.60 


273 


± 


6 


383 


± 21 


13.65 


261 


± 


6 


367 


± 22 


14.00 


324 


± 


8 


482 


± 27 


14.15 


304 


1 


8 


443 


± 30 


14.50 


343 


t 


10 


524 


± 35 


14.65 


358 


t 


10 


572 


± 36 


15.55 


437 


i 


13 


709 


± 48 


17.40 


494 


± 


21 


823 


± 77 


17.95 


509 


i 


24 


961 


± 86 


18.20 


482 


i 


25 


1028 


± 90 


18.60 


508 


± 


27 


93« 


± 97 


19.35 


552 


1 


30 


1253 


± 10' 
232 - 







NGC 


2141 






NGC 2194 






Inner 


Region Entire 


Inner Region 


Entire 


m 
Pg 


Rings 1,2 


Clusl 


:er 


Ring 


1 


Cluster 


10.72* 




- 






- 




1 ± 








± 2 


11.45* 




- 






- 




-1 ± 


1 





± 2 


11.75 




- 






- 




10 + 


1 


14 


± 5 


11.80 




- 






- 




12 + 


1 


24 


± 5 


12.35* 


1 


+ 


2 





+ 


4 


1 ± 


2 


4 


± 5 


13.76* 


7 


+ 


3 


16 


+ 


7 


19 ± 


2 


33 


+ 8 


14.89* 


7 


+ 


4 


12 


x 


9 


41 ± 


3 


65 


± 9 


16.15 


33 


± 


6 


48 


± 


15 


60 i 


3 


127 


± 12 


16.75 


49 


± 


8 


72 


± 


18 


83 ± 


4 


172 


± 12 


17.10 


66 


~ 


8 


95 


+ 


19 


78 ± 


4 


169 


± 16 


17.65 


105 


± 


10 


132 


± 


23 


95 ± 


5 


211 


± 18 


17.85 


140 


± 


11 


193 


+ 


25 


116 ± 


5 


273 


± 20 


17.90 




- 






- 




121 ± 


5 


252 


± 20 


18.20 


216 


± 


12 


319 


+ 


28 


138 ± 


6 


326 


± 21 


18.25 




- 






- 




122 ± 


6 


297 


± 22 


18.35 


244 


± 


13 


370 


± 


30 


141 ± 


6 


306 


± 23 


18.40 


265 


± 


14 


390 


i 


30 


140 ± 


6 


330 


± 23 


18.65 




- 






- 




136 ± 


7 


361 


± 25 


18.75 




- 






- 




141 ± 


7 


368 


± 26 


18.95 


326 


■k 


16 


473 


± 


37 


158 ± 


7 


439 


± 27 


19.30 


378 


± 


18 


582 


± 


41 


185 ± 


8 


516 


± 30 


19.55:B 


578 


± 


19 


844 


± 


44 


203 ± 


9 


541 


± 31 






NGC 


2158 






NGC 2362 


( ^Ofa) 




Inner 


Region Entire 










Pg 


Rings 1,2 


Cluster 


m pg 




fN(m) 


10.69* 


1 


± 


1 


2 


j. 


4 


6.63* 





+ 1 


12.85 


9 


+ 


3 


22 


+ 


10 


7.61* 


1 


+ 1 


13.65 


14 


+ 


4 


24 


+ 


14 


8.83* 


3 


+ 1 


14.00 


12 


i 


5 


30 


± 


16 


10.17* 


10 


± 1 


14.35 


21 


+ 


5 


54 


+ 


18 


11.21* 


16 


+ 2 


15.35 


21 


± 


7 


65 


± 


24 


12.25* 


26 


± 2 


16.00 


88 


± 


8 


166 


+ 


29 


13.40 




33 


+ 3 


16.70 


121 


± 


10 


214 


+ 


34 


14.80 




37 


+ 4 


16.90 


136 


± 


10 


225 


+ 


36 


16.00 




40 


+ 5 


18.00 


394 


I 


14 


531 


± 


48 


17.50 




48 


± 8 


18.50 


483 


± 


16 


662 


+ 


55 


18.45 




40 


+ 11 


19.00 


736 


± 


18 


960 


+ 


62 


18.75 




57 


+ 11 


19.25 


753 


+ 


19 


1084 


+ 


66 


20.00 




57 


+ 15 






NGC 


2477 
















Inner 


R( 


2gion Entire 










m 


Rings 1.2 


Clus 


ter 










Pg 






















10.1* 





+ 


1 


-3 


+ 


3 










11.4* 


2 


± 


2 





t 


6 










13.1* 


40 


+ 


2 


54 


± 


8 










14.5* 


188 


+ 


5 


379 


± 


16 










15.9* 


293 


± 


8 


610 


± 


27 










16.8*: 


363 


± 


10 


717 


± 


33 










18.0:: 


483 


* 


15 


1093 


± 


51 


















_ 


233 - 



















TABLE II i 


'cont 


inued) 














NGC 


2506 








NGC 2539 






Inner 


Region Entire 


Inner 


Region 


Entire 


m 
Pg 


Rings 1,2 


Cluster 


Rings 


1, 


,2,3 


Cluster 


9.15* 




_ 






- 







+ 








± 1 


10.90* 




- 






- 




1 


+ 


1 


5 


± 4 


12.12* 


3 


+ 


2 


-2 


+ 


6 


33 


+ 


2 


42 


± 6 


13.00* 


7 


+ 


2 


1 


± 


8 


58 


+ 


3 


84 


± 8 


13.70* 


21 


+ 


3 


18 


+ 


11 


79 


+ 


5 


122 


± 12 


15.05 


116 


+ 


6 


129 


+ 


21 


89 


+ 


7 


154 


± 17 


15.50 


128 


+ 


7 


162 


+ 


22 


109 


+ 


9 


177 


± 22 


15.85* 


108 


+ 


7 


183 


+ 


22 


128 


+ 


9 


247 


± 23 


16.15 


268 


+ 


9 


387 


+ 


28 


130 


+ 


12 


218 


+ 28 


16.65 


355 


+ 


10 


518 


+ 


33 


130 


+ 


14 


214 


± 34 


17.05 


413 


+ 


11 


688 


+ 


38 


144 


+ 


16 


229 


± 39 


17.20* 


511 


+ 


14 


878 


+ 


45 


161 


+ 


19 


261 


± 45 


18.00 


546 


+ 


16 


925 


+ 


51 


138 


+ 


21 


241 


+ 52 


18.05*: 


589 


+ 


16 


952 


+ 


54 


175 


+ 


21 


293 


+ 52 


18.40B 


559 


+ 


17 


1069 


+ 


57 




- 






- 


18.65 


656 


+ 


18 


1037 


+ 


60 


150 


+ 


26 


210 


± 63 



NGC 2682 (M67) 





Inner 


R( 


Jgion 


Entire 


m ^^ 


Rings 


1, 


,2,3 


Cluster 


pg 












9.78* 


1 


+ 


1 


-2 


+ 3 


10.67* 


14 


+ 


1 


11 


± 4 


11.10* 


14 


+ 


1 


13 


+ 4 


11.51* 


23 


± 


1 


25 


± 5 


11.83* 


22 


± 


1 


26 


± 6 


11.95 


30 


± 


2 


36 


± 6 


12.30* 


41 


± 


2 


47 


± 7 


13.25 


59 


± 


2 


98 


± 10 


13.60 


87 


+ 


3 


148 


± 11 


14.30 


143 


± 


3 


255 


± 13 


14.60 


163 


± 


4 


316 


± 14 


15.45 


186 


± 


4 


369 


± 17 


16.30 


222 


± 


5 


468 


± 21 


16.90 


250 


± 


6 


535 


± 23 


17.70 


264 


± 


7 


574 


± 27 


18.55 


294 


± 


8 


625 


+ 30 


19.25 


297 


± 


9 


676 


± 34 


19.30 


295 


± 


9 


649 


± 35 


19.40 


312 


± 


9 


700 


± 35 


19.85 


320 


+ 


9 


731 


± 38 


20.65B 


331 


± 


10 


770 


± 42 






NGC 7789 






Inner 


Region 


Entire 


m 
Pg 


Rings 


1, 


,2,3 


Cluster 


11.07* 





± 


2 


-2 


± 9 


12.68* 


24 


± 


5 


55 


± 19 


13.14* 


31 


± 


5 


53 


± 20 



234 



TABLE II (concluded) 
NGC 7789 (concluded) 





Inner 


R 


2gion 


Entire 


Pg 


Rings 


1 


,2,3 


CI 


jster 


13.88* 59 


± 


5 


100 


± 22 


14.25 


149 


i 


7 


216 


± 30 


14.75 


240 


± 


8 


381 


± 35 


14.77* 170 


± 


8 


364 


± 32 


15.09* 403 


± 


12 


811 


± 50 


15.15 


331 


± 


10 


601 


± 41 


15.45 


417 


± 


11 


737 


± 46 


16.49* 621 


± 


16 


1313 


± 68 


17.26* 696 


± 


21 


1350 


± 89 


17.60 


841 


± 


24 


1661 


± 99 


18.00 


: 937 


± 


27 


1886 


± 116 


18.10 


909 


± 


28 


1857 


± 119 


18.20 


1063 


± 


30 


1054 


+ 126 


18.20 


1037 


± 


29 


2083 


± 125 



IC 361 





Inner 


R 


jgion 


Entire 


in 
Pg 


Ring 


1 


Cluster 


14.60 


1 


+ 


1 


-5+7 


15.50 


7 


± 


2 


-1 ± 10 


15.80 


18 


± 


2 


29 ± 11 


16.15 


33 


+ 


3 


47 ± 12 


17.10* 


53 


+ 


3 


119 + 16 


17.70 


111 


± 


4 


234 ± 20 


18.25 


127 


± 


5 


259 ± 24 


18.25 


110 


± 


5 


231 ± 24 


18.55 


131 


± 


6 


267 ± 26 


18.85 


146 


± 


6 


322 ± 28 


19.00 


175 


± 


6 


352 ± 29 


20.00:B 


187 


± 


8 


445 * 38 


R 


204 


± 


11 


654 ± 52 



235 - 



236 Publications of the David Dun lap Observatory 



5 M p« 



4>(M) 



200 - 



100 



N(m) 



800 



400 



NGCI88 



i i_ 

10 




400 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 237 




400 



zoo 



238 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 




- 400 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 



I'M) 




300 



240 



Publications of the David Ditnlap Observatory 



(j>(M) 



-i 1 1 1 r 



400 



200 



-r 1 1 ' ! I 




N(m) 



NGC2I5 



800 



400 




800 



400 



-I lQ 



20 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 241 



■w 



n 1 1 r 



CjXM) 

160 



80 - 



N(m) 



400 



200 



NGC2I94 





200 



242 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



<(>(M) 



180 



60 



N(m) 



800 



400 



-I 1 1 r 



5 M P« 10 

— i 1 1 1 1 



n 1 r 



NGC2477 




400 



_i 1 1 

20 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 243 




800 



- 400 



244 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



5^ 

-i r- 1 1 1 r — 1 1 1 1 1 r 



>(M) 
40 




N{m) 



200 



NGC 2539 





200 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 



245 



MM) - 



400 



200 



2000 



N(m) 



1000 - 



— 1 1 I 1 


i i 








_j 








- 








- 




I 1 1 1 








r 


N6C7789 














\l 


\ 






*/ 








- 


f\ 




/♦ 


y 





' / 


1 




■ 



1000 



20 



246 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 




200 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 



247 



o m ps 



1 1 r- 



T 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 



4>(M) 

N(m) 
200 

100 - 



- » 



<J>(M) 
20 



200 

N (m) 

100 




200 



100 



- 200 



100 



248 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



>(M) 
10 



N(m) 



40 



-5 


M P9 


5 












^^n 




^^^ 


NGC58I 








■ 






' -1 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 
i t i 




Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 2M) 

-5 o ^a 5 



-i 1 1 1 r 



<J>(M) 
10 

N(m) 



80 - 



40 - 



4>(M) 
10 \ 



N(m) 

90 

60 
30 



Trl 



NGC663 



i 1 r 





10 




250 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 




NGCI960 



T 1 1 r 




■ I I I I 



"Pfl 



20 



-i 1 r—r 



20 

N(m) 
60 




N6C 1907 



-" W— *-i 




20 



Luminosity Functions of Galactic Clusters 251 

Acknowledgements 

The observations on which this investigation is based were obtained while one of 
us (S. v. d. B.) was a guest investigator at the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observa- 
tories on temporary leave from the Ohio State University. The hospitality which he 
enjoyed at Mount Wilson and at the California Institute of Technology is gratefully 
acknowledged. In particular it is a pleasure to thank Dr. I. S. Bowen for his kind 
co-operation and Dr. A. R. Sandage for a number of helpful discussions. The com- 
petent assistance of Mr. C. Kearns with the 48-inch telescope is also gratefully 
recorded. 

We are also indebted to Dr. H. C. Arp for providing us with an unpublished 
photoelectric sequence in NGC 2158 in addition to a set of plates of the same cluster 
taken with the 200-inch telescope. Dr. A. R. Sandage kindly provided photoelectric 
sequences in NGC 188 and NGC 7789 and Dr. W. A. Baum gave us unpublished 
photoelectric sequences in a number of selected areas. Dr. M. S. Roberts gave us 
some of his unpublished data on luminosity functions of a few clusters. 

Part of this investigation was supported by a grant from the Ontario Research 
Foundation. 

References 

Allen, C. W. 1955, "Astrophysical Quantities", (London: The Athlone Press) p. 180. 

van den Bergh, S. 1957. A. J., vol. 62, p. 100. 

Boddn, E. 1951, Uppsala Ann., vol. 2, no. 10. 

Burbidge, E. M. and Sandage, A. R. 1958, Ap. J., vol. 128, p. 174. 

Chandrasekhar, S. 1942, "Principles of Stellar Dynamics", (Chicago: Univ. of 

Chicago Press) p. 234. 
Cuffey, J. 1937a, Harv. Ann., vol. 105, p. 403. 
Cuffey, J. 1937b, Harv. Ann., vol. 106, p. 39. 
Cuffey, J. 1943, Ap. J., vol. 97, p. 93. 
Hiltner, W. A. 1956, Ap. J. Suppl., vol. 2, p. 389. 
Johnson, H. L. and Morgan, W. W. 1953, Ap. J., vol. 117, p. 313. 
Johnson, H. L. and Sandage, A. R. 1955, Ap. J., vol. 121, p. 616. 
Johnson, H. L. 1957, Ap. J., vol. 126, p. 121. 
Johnson, H. L. 1959, Lowell Obs. Bull., vol. 4, p. 37. 
King, I. R. 1959, A. J., vol. 64, p. 351. 
Kruspan, E. 1959, Zs.f. Ap., vol. 48, p. 1. 
Lindblad, P. O. 1954, Stockholm Ann., vol. 18, no. 1. 
Pesch, P. 1959, Ap. J., vol. 130, p. 764. 
Sandage, A. R. 1957, Ap. J., vol. 125, p. 422. 
Sawyer, H. B. 1930, Harvard Obs. Bull., no. 875, p. 16. 
Schmidt, M. 1959, Ap. J., vol. 129, p. 243. 
Walker, M. F. 1956, Ap. J. Suppl., vol. 2, p. 365. 
Zug, R. S. 1933, Lick Obs. Bull., vol. 16, p. 119. 






PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 8 



SPECTROGRAPHS ORBITS FOR THE 

ECLIPSING SYSTEMS V548 CYGNI, 
V805 AQUILAE AND V451 OPHIUCHI 



JOHN F. HEARD and DONALD C. MORTON 



1962 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



SPECTROGRAPHIC ORBITS FOR THE ECLIPSING SYSTEMS 
V548 CYGXI, V805 AQUILAE AND V451 OPHIUCHI 

By John F. Heard and Donald C. Morton* 

Abstract 

The orbital elements of these three eclipsing systems have already been published 
in an abstract by Heard and Morton (1956). These elements are unchanged in the 
present paper, but the observational data are here recorded in full, and the orbits 
are discussed in detail. Photometric elements are available for all three systems from 
the work of other authors. Thus, for the systems Y805 Aql and V451 Oph, which are 
solved spectrographically for both stellar components, it has been possible to combine 
spectrographic and photometric results to obtain absolute values of diameters, 
masses and bolometric magnitude 

V548 Cygni 

This star. V548 Cygni, H.D. 189371, a (1900) 19 h 54 1 ?6, 8 (1900) 
+ 54°32 / , m pg 8.90-9.72, sp. A0, was once listed as an RR Lyrae 
variable (see I.A.U., 1951). The late Professor A. Colacevich observed 
it photoelectrically at Naples and recognized it as an Algol-type 
system with a period of about 1.8 days. Fresa (1956) has analysed the 
light curve resulting from the Naples observations and has determined 
elements of the photometric orbit. 

During 195-4 and 1955 thirty-six spectrograms of Y548 Cyg were 
obtained here with dispersion 33 A. /mm. The velocities from these 
were used to obtain the spectrographic orbit. The spectral lines are 
broad; on most of the plates only the hydrogen lines and X3933 of 
Ca II and X4481 of Mg II were measurable. Lines of the secondary 
spectrum were not seen with sufficient certainty for velocity measures. 

The period reported by Fresa (1956), namely 1.805257 days, fitted 
our observations well and was accepted for our solution. The other 
elements were obtained first by the precompiled curves of R. K. 
Young, and then were corrected by a computer method of least squares 
reported by Heard and MacRae (1957). Table I lists the preliminary 
and final elements along with the mean errors; Table II lists the 
observed and computed velocities; figure 1 shows the velocity curve. 

There is a contradiction between the value of co (94°) derived here 
from the spectrographic data and the value, 316°, derived by Fresa 

Mow at Princeton University Observatory. 

255 



256 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE I 
Orbital Elements for V548 Cyg 



Element 



Preliminary 



Final 



Period 


P 


1 . 805257 days (Fresa) 






Eccentricity 


e 


0.10 


0.11 


±0.03 


Angle of periastron 


Cs> 


90° 


94° 


±17° 


Periastron passage 


T 


J.D. 2435336.356 


J.D. 2435336. 383 


±0.084 


Velocity of the system 


y 


— 22.5 km. /sec. 


-22.4 km. /sec. 


±2.9 


Semi-amplitude 


K 


68.5 km. /sec. 


66.7 km. /sec. 


±1.9 


a sin i 






1.65 X 10 6 km. 






Figure 1. 



(1956) from the photometric data, although our value of e agrees 
with Fresa's value of 0.10. Regardless of the fact that neither Fresa's 
nor our value of co is very precise, the contradiction is inherent in the 
forms of the light curve and the velocity curve; in the light curve the 
secondary eclipse follows the primary by appreciably more than half 
the period, which is consistent with a value of co in the general neigh- 
bourhood of 360°, whereas the velocity curve is almost precisely the 
form given by an orbit of oj = 90°. 



Spectrographs Orbits 



257 



It we compute the time of the minima from our spectrographic 
elements and then use Fresa's period (over about 600 cycles) to 
compare these with his, we get: 

For primary minimum, Fresa: J.D. 2434298.393 
ours: J.D. 2434298.342 
For secondary minimum, Fresa: J.D. 2434299.373 

ours: J.D. 2434299.240 



TABLE II 
Radial Velocity Observations of V548 Cyg 







Phase 








Vo 


from 


V c 


V - V c 


J.D. 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


2434932.789 


-51 


0.784 


-40.3 


-10.7 


933.813 


-44.4 


0.003 


-28.5 


-15.9 


'.134.730 


-10.2 


0.920 


-15.1 


+ 4.0 


935.778 


-78.4 


0.162 


-69.3 


- 9.1 


936.815 


+24.7 


1.199 


+30.3 


- 5.6 


937.768 


-84.5 


0.347 


-89.5 


+ 5.0 


938.780 


+52 -1 


1.359 


+43.1 


+ 9.3 


939.785 


-75.9 


0.550 


-76.6 


+ 0.7 


946.779 


-90.2 


0.332 


-89. 1 


- 1.1 


947.683 


4-38.1 


1 . 236 


+34 . 5 


+ 3.6 


949.710 


4-40.9 


1 457 


+42.2 


-1.3 


950762 


-49.2 


704 


-54.7 


+ 5.5 


956.746 


4-35.8 


1 272 


+38.0 


— 2.2 


957.755 


-76.1 


0.476 


-85.2 


+ 9.1 


958.694 


4-39 2 


1.415 


+43 . 6 


- 4.4 


1160.671 


4-25.3 


1.587 


+27. 1 


- 2.1 


961.674 


-47.8 


. 785 


-40 3 


- 7.5 


968.644 


-92 :; 


. 534 


79 <i 


-12.7 


2435083.461 


4-11 6 


1 .619 


+21.3 


- 9 7 


262.810 


-89.9 


452 


-86.9 


- 3.0 


280.831 


-85.9 


411 


-89.0 


+ 3.1 


201.788 


-78 1 


ii 537 


-79.2 


+ 11 


292.757 


+33 1 


i 506 


+38 5 


- 5.1 


301 712 


+46.5 


1 . 434 


+431 


+ 3.4 


302.735 


-60.9 


0.652 


-63.3 


+ 2.4 


335 653 


+ 14 7 


1.075 


+ 12 3 


+ 2.4 


338.658 


-89.9 


ii 170 


-85.7 


- 4.2 


339.652 


• lo 6 


1 464 


11 8 


+ 7 - 



258 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE II — Continued 







Phase 








V„ 


from 


V c 


Vo - V c 


J.D. * 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km./sec. 


km./sec. 


2435341.698 


+ 9.6 


1.705 


+ 0.9 


+ 8.7 


343.711 


-50.6 


0.107 


-56.9 


+ 6.3 


350 . 747 


+ 113 


1 727 


- 5.0 


+ 16.3 


353 . 669 


4-11.5 


1.039 


+ 6.3 


+ 5.2 


355 . 767 


+23.0 


1.332 


+42 . 1 


-19.1 


356.719 


-77.8 


0.478 


-85.0 


+ 7 2 


357.682 


+44.4 


1.441 


+42.9 


+ 1.5 


373 724 


+45.1 


1.236 


+34.5 


+10.6 



V805 Aquilae 

This star, V805 Aquilae, H.D. 177708, a (1900j 19 h 00^7, 8 (1900) 
-11°48', m P y 7.81-8.48, sp. A2, was identified as an Algol-type 
eclipsing variable by Bakos (1950) who assigned to it a period of 
1.20409 days. 

From photoelectric observations made at Naples in 1952 Fresa 
( 1954) has found that there are two unequal minima and that the 
period is twice that assigned by Bakos. Fresa analysed the light curve 
and determined the elements of the photometric orbit. 

Between July 10, 1953 and August 16, 1955, twenty-nine spectro- 
grams of Y805 Aql were obtained here with dispersion 33 A. /mm. It is 
these which have been used to obtain the spectrographic orbit reported 
here. 

Both primary and secondary spectra are visible, the primary 
considerably the stronger. In the primary spectrum many lines are 
measurable, but in the secondary the lines are so weak that only the 
few strongest of them could be measured near the phases of extreme 
velocities. 

Fresa's period of 2.408230 days fitted our observations well; no 
attempt was made to improve it. From the velocity curve for the 
primary, preliminary elements were obtained by the use of R. K. 
Young's precomputed curves, and then least-squares corrections to 
five elements were obtained by a computer method of Heard and 
MacRae (1957). 



Spectrographic Orbits 



259 



As for the secondary component, the velocities were used only for 
the purpose of determining the value of K 2 by least squares, the 
other elements being regarded as fixed by the solution for the primary. 

The preliminary and final elements are listed in Table III, the 
velocity curves are shown in figure 2, and the observed and calculated 

TABLE III 
Orbital Elements for V805 Aql 



Element 



Preliminary 



Final 



Period 
Eccentricity 
Angle of periastron 
Periastron passage 
Velocity of the system 
Semi-amplitude, primary 

secondary 
'; i sin i, primary 
a 2 sin i, secondary 



P 2.408230 days (Fresa) 



e 





0.018 


±0.0 


CJ 




37°±31° 




T 




J. D. 2434959. 513 


±0.2 


7 


—39 km. /sec. 


-39.6 


±0.7 


Kt 


107 km. /sec. 


106.2 


±0.9 


K 2 


P27 km. /sec. 


130.5 

3.5 X 10 6 km. 

4.32 X 10 6 km. 


±5.7 




260 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



velocities are listed in Table IV (in which the velocity of the primary 
component is always listed first). 

When we compute the expected time of eclipses from the spectro- 
graphic orbit and compare them with Fresa's observed times (using 
his period), we find no significant discordance. 



FABLE IV 
Radial Velocity Observations of V805 Aql 







Phase 








V 


from 


V c 


V„ - Vc 


J.D. 


km. /sec. 


final T 


kin. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


2434567.661 


-119.0 


0.690 


-122.5 


+ 3.5 


568.722 


+ 11.3 


1.751 


4- 9.8 


4- 1-5 




-148.7 




-100 3 


-48.4 


934.692 


- 15.0 


1 . 670 


- 11.0 


- 4.0 


035.720 


- 24.7 


0.290 


- 23.8 


- 0.9 


037.716 


4- 62.3 


2.286 


+ 62.6 


- 0.3 




-165.1 




-166.4 


+ 13 


038.656 


-138.9 


0.817 


-138.6 


- 0.3 




4- 76.5 




+ 82 . 1 


- 5.6 


'.130.700 


+ 34.3 


1.870 


+ 36.3 


- 2.0 




-154.4 




-133.1 


-21 3 


946.649 


- 30.8 


1.586 


- 33.5 


4 2.7 


949.657 


4- 72.6 


2.186 


4- 67.9 


4- 4.7 


950.653 


-135.4 


0.773 


-134 4 


- 1 . 




+ 81.0 




4- 76.6 


+ 4.-1 


058.634 


- 46.0 


1.530 


- 486 


+ 17 


060.625 


-133.0 


1.112 


-135.1 


+ 2.1 




4- 70.3 




4- 77.0 


- 7.3 


001.622 


4- 65.0 


2 109 


+ 66.7 


- 1.7 




-190.8 




-170 4 


-20.4 


007.608 


-138.2 


0.871 


-142.5 


+ 4 3 




+ 99.2 




4-86.6 


4-12.6 


071.610 


4-33.7 


0.065 


+ 33.8 


- 0.1 




-133.7 




-129.8 


- 3.9 


981.598 


- 61.5 


0.411 


- 57.9 


- 3.6 


982.594 


- 72.6 


1.407 


- 80.4 


4 7.8 


2435006.531 


-118.3 


1 262 


-112.4 


- 5.9 




+ 57.1 




+ 49.0 


4- 7.2 


261.828 


-108.2 


1.287 


-107.5 


- 0.7 


262 . 762 


4- 70.8 


2.221 


4- 67.1 


+ 3.7 




-131.7 




-170 6 


4-38 





Spectrographs 


Orbiti 




261 




TABLE 


IV — Continued 










Phase 










Vo 


from 




v c 


v - v c 


J.D. 


km. /set'. 


final T 




km. /sec. 


km./sec. 


2435279.765 


+ 52.0 


2.366 




+ 53.2 


- 1.2 




-108.1 






-153.6 


4-45.5 


280 770 


-146.6 


0.963 




- 144 2 


- 2.4 




+ 90.5 






+ 88.8 


+ 1-7 


291 .729 


+ 62 3 


2 289 




+ 62.5 


- 0.2 




-162.2 






-165.0 


+ 2.8 


292.692 


-137.8 


0.844 




-140.3 


+ 2.5 




+ 85.3 






4-84.1 


+ 1 2 


301 .650 


+ 7.1 


0. 169 




+ 9.2 


- 2 1 




-123.0 






- 99.6 


-23.4 


302 675 


-126.6 


1 194 




124. 1 


- 2.5 




+ 85.5 






+ 64.3 


+21.2 


321 624 


-146.6 


0.877 




- 142 . 7 


- 3.9 




+ 73.2 






+ 87. 1 


-13.9 


327 . 593 


+ 59 2 


2.029 




+ 60.8 


-1.6 




-157.9 






-162.9 


+ 5.0 


335.610 


- 52.6 


0.414 




- 58.8 


+ (i 2 



\ 4.31 (Jphiuchi 

The star V451 Ophiuchi, H.D. 170470, a (1900) 1&24&5, 8 (1900) 
+ 10°49', m vg 7.86-8.46, sp. A0, was identified as an Algol-type 
eclipsing variable by Hoffmeister (1935). Colacevich (1953) studied 
the light variations in detail and determined photometric elements. 
At that time, on the basis of five radial velocities for 1936, 1939 and 
1940 which were supplied to him by one of us (J. F. H.), he determined 
the amplitudes of the velocity variations of both components, and 
combined these with his photometric data to determine the dimensions, 
mass and absolute magnitudes of the stars. 

Between 1952 and 1955, thirty-nine additional radial-velocity 
observations of this star were made here. The original five observations 
had been made with a dispersion of 66 A. mm.; most of the additional 
ones were made with 33 A. /mm. dispersion and were much superior in 
quality. Of these higher dispersion spectrograms, twenty-three were 
selected on which double lines were clearly seen. These form the basis 
of the spectrograph ic orbit here reported. 



262 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

All lines in the spectrum of both components are much broadened, 
so that only the stronger lines (those of hydrogen, X3933 of Ca II 
and A4481 of Mgll) could be measured, and only at phases near the 
maxima of velocity could the double lines be resolved. The result is 
that the velocity curves are not distinguishable from sine curves; 
therefore the orbital eccentricity was taken as zero. (Colacevich, 
1953, obtained e = 0.025 from the photometric orbit.) Furthermore, 
the velocity observations over the whole 10 years of our observations 
were well satisfied by Colacevich's period of 2.1965962 days; therefore 
the period was not included in our solution. Likewise Colacevich's 
epoch of primary eclipse, J.D. 2434165.499, was consistent with our 
velocity observations, and we assumed the corresponding epoch of the 
ascending node of the brighter component, namely J.D. 2434164.950 
(or J.D. 2434237.438 as brought forward to the time of our observa- 
tions). Therefore our least-squares solution was made for three 
unknowns only, namely the velocity of the system and the two semi- 
amplitudes of velocity. Table V gives preliminary and final elements 
so derived. 

1'ABLE V 
Orbital Elements for V451 Oph 



Element 




Preliminary 


Final 


m.e. 


Period 


P 


2.1965962 days 
(Colacevich ) 






Eccentricity 


e 


I) 






Epoch of ascending node 










of primary component 




J.D.2434237 .438 






Velocity of the system 


1 


— 15.0 km. /sec. 


— 14.7 km. /sec. 


±2.0 


Semi-amplitude, primary 


A', 


120 km. /sec. 


121.1 km. /sec. 


±3.3 


secondary 


K 2 


145 km. /sec. 


145.7 km. /sec. 


±3.3 


«i sin i, primary 






3.66 X 10 6 km. 




</■■ sin i, secondary 






4.40 X 10« km. 





In a later section we give the values for the dimensions, masses and 
absolute magnitudes of the component stars as derived from a com- 
bination of the photometric and spectrographic elements. These are 
more accurate than those given by Colacevich (1953) who used very 
rough values of K x and Ko derived, as stated above, from only five 
of our earlv observations. 



Spectrographic Orbits 



268 




J.D 4237 



4238 

Figure 3. 



Figure 3 shows the velocity curves, and Table VI lists the observed 
and computed velocities, the primary component being listed first in 
each case. 

TABLE V] 
Radial Velocity Observations of Y451 Oph 







Phase 








V, 


from 


V, 


V - V 


J.D. 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km. se< 


km. sec. 


2434237.640 


+ 65.9 


1 850 


+ 86.6 


-20.7 




-124 .0 




-136.6 


+12.6 


238.678 


-109.8 


0.691 


-126.0 


+16.2 




+116.2 




+119.2 


- 3.0 


242 647 


-128 1 


0.267 


- 98.5 


-29.6 




+ 77.4 




+ 86.1 


- 8.7 


248.696 


+ 68.4 


1 .923 


+ 70.6 


— 2.2 




-124.1 




-117.4 


- 6.7 


249.640 


-128.2 


0.670 


- 128 6 


+ 0.4 




+107.7 




+122.4 


-14 7 



264 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE VI — Continued 







Phase 








v„ 


from 


v c 


V - V c 


J.D. 


km. /sec. 


iinal T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


2434251.641 


-124.7 


0.475 


-133.1 


+ 8.4 




+120.1 




+ 127.7 


- 7.6 


252 . 638 


4- 88.3 


1 472 


+ 92.0 


- 3.7 




-140.4 




-143.0 


+ 2.6 


543.681 


-134.6 


. 367 


-119.7 


-14.9 




+ 131.8 




+ 111.7 


+20.1 


(122.59V) 


- 81.1 


0.208 


- 84.0 


+ 2.9 




+ 53.0 




+ 68.6 


- 15 . 6 


623.681 


+ 57.1 


1 . 290 


+ 48 4 


+ 8.7 




- 81.8 




- 90.7 


+ 8.9 


639.593 


+ 75.3 


1.826 


+ 90.9 


-15.6 




-146.8 




-141.8 


- 5.0 


663.514 


+ 132.6 


1.584 


+ 104 4 


+28.2 




-1559 




-158.0 


+ 2.1 


664 525 


-118.0 


39!) 


-124.8 


+ 6.8 




+ 102.5 




+ 117.8 


-15.3 


666.500 


- 95.9 


0.177 


- 73.6 


-22.3 




+ 58.3 




+ 56.1 


+ 2.2 


685 . 487 


+111.7 


1.591 


+ 104.8 


+ 6.!) 




-139.7 




-158.5 


+ 18.8 


2435245 82 1 


+ 72.7 


1.796 


+ 95.6 


-22.9 




-150.3 




-147 4 


- 2.9 


246.818 


-134.1 


0.51)1 


-134.8 


+ 0.7 




+157.0 




+ 129.8 


+27.2 


269 . 748 


+ 105.3 


1 . 558 


+ 102.5 


+ 2.8 




-155.3 




-155.7 


+ 0.4 


279 719 


-139.4 


0.546 


-135.8 


- 3.6 




+ 133.5 




+ 131.0 


+ 2.5 


280.710 


+ 98.4 


1.537 


+ 100.4 


- 2.4 




-134.2 




-153.2 


+ 19.0 


292 632 


-107.6 


0.27!) 


-101.4 


- 6.2 




+ 103.4 




+ 89.6 


+ 13.8 


301.748 


- 130 2 


0.609 


-134 3 


+ 4 1 




+ 152.5 




+ 129 2 


+23 3 


302 . 776 


+ 105.8 


1.637 


+ 106.4 


- 0.6 




-174.7 




-160.3 


-14.4 



Spectrographic Orbits I'li.") 

Masses and Luminosities of Y805 Aql and \ 451 Oph 

When a binary system has been solved both photometrically and as 
a double-line spectrographic binary a rich harvest of information 
about the separate components becomes available, i.e., 

(a) the inclination, i, being known from the photometric solution, the orbital 
semi-axes, ai and a», may be determined from the spectrographic values of a t sin /and 
ii-> sin i\ 

(b) thus, in turn, the sum of the masses may be computed, and, from the mass 
ratio, the individual masses; 

(c) the stellar radii being known (in terms of the total orbital semi-axis, a a + a«) 
from the photometric solution, and d + a 2 being known from the spectrograph^ 
solutions, the stellar radii may be computed in absolute units; 

(d) if the spectral type of the brighter component is known (and thus an effective 
temperature may be assigned) and if the ratio of the luminosities of the two com- 
ponents is known from the photometric solution, then it is possible, by an application 
of the Stefan-Boltzmann theorem, to compute values of the effective temperature 
(and thus spectral type) of the fainter component, and to assign the bolometrir 
absolute magnitudes of both components. 

For the two of these systems which show double lines, namely 
Y805 Aql and V451 Oph, we have used our results along with those 
of the photometric solutions to obtain the data referred to above. 
These are given in Table VII in which the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to 
the brighter and fainter components respectively, and the symbols 
have the following meanings: m is the mass of the star; r is the radius; 

TABLE VII 
Physical Data for the Component Stars 





V805 Aql 


V451 Oph 


»l\ 


1.85 O 


2.38 O 


III 


1.50 O 


1.98 O 


>■) 


2.16 O 


2.51 O 


l'-2 


1.84 O 


2.01 O 


sp.i (obs. 


A2 


A0 


T n 


9800°K 


10700° K 


sp.-: (comp. I 


A7 


A2 


T tl 


8000° K 


9800°K 


M M i 


+0.6 


-0.1 


Mho! 2 


+ 1.8 


+0.8 


.1/, 


+1.2 


+0.5 


Mt 


+2.2 


+ 1.3 



266 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

sp. is the spectral type, observed for the brighter component, computed 
for the fainter; T e is the effective temperature either appropriate to the 
observed type or computed from the Stefan-Boltzmann theorem in the 
manner described by Plaut (1953); M m is the bolometric absolute 
magnitude computed in the manner of Plaut (1953); M is the ''reduced" 
bolometric magnitude given by M = M m + 2 log (7V5200) which 
has been used by Petrie (1950) and Plaut (1953) in their discussions 
of the mass-luminosity relation. 

When plotted on either Petrie's (1950) or Plaut's (1953) mass- 
luminosity diagram, the four values of mass and reduced bolometric 
magnitude lie close to the median of the points. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMEN rs 

We wish to thank Dr. A. Fresa of the Osservatorio di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy, 
for helpful correspondence and discussions relating to the photometric solutions of 
these stars. We had also been indebted to the late Professor A. Colacevich for similar 
kindness. 

This investigation was supported in part by a grant from the National Research 
Council, Ottawa. 

References 

Bakos, G. 1950, Leiden Ann., vol. 20, p. 177. 

Colacevich, A. 1953, Mem. S. A. It., vol. 24, p. 123 = Contr. Oss. Astr. di Capo- 
dimonte, ser. 2, vol. 4, no. 12. 

Fresa, A. 1954, Mem. S. A. It., vol. 23, p. 231 = Contr. Oss. Astr. di Capodimonte, 
ser. 2, vol. 4, no. 13. 

Fresa, A. 1950, Mem. S. A. It., vol. 27, p. 187 = Contr. Oss. Astr. di Capodimonte. 
ser. 2, vol. 4, no. 17. 

Heard, J. F. and MacRae, D. A. 1957, J. R. A. S. Canada, vol. 51, p. 29. 

Heard, J. F. and Morton, D. C. 1950. A. J., vol. 01. p. 179. 

Hoffmeister, C. 1935, A. X., vol. 255, p. 413. 

I. A. U. 1951, "47th Name-List of Variable Star^". 

Petrie, R. M. 1950, Pub. D. A. 0., vol. 8, p. 319. 

Plaut, L. 1953, Pub. Kapteyn Astr. Lab., no. 55. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
May 1, 196? 






PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 9 



THE SPECTROGRAPHIC ORBIT OF 

BIDELMAN'S PECULIAR STAR 

H.D. 30353 



JOHN F. HEARD 



1962 
TORONTO, CANA 1 1 \ 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



THE SPECTROGRAPHIC ORBIT OF BIDELMAX'S 
PECULIAR STAR H.D. 30353 

By John F. Heard 



Abstract 

Orbital elements of this single-lined, hydrogen-poor spectrograph^ binary were 
published in abstract form by Heard and Boshko (1955). Since then additional 
observations have been obtained, and a more rigorous solution of the orbit ha? 
been made by the present writer. Velocity observations from other observatories 
are discussed as possible evidence of variations of the orbital elements. Photometric 
observations are presented which indicate that the system is not eclipsing, although 
a high orbital inclination might have been expected from the very large mass function. 
Indirect evidence that the svstem is verv massive is adduced from the elements. 



Introduction 

The star H.D. 30353, a(1900) 4 h 41 m 8, 5(1900) + 43°06', m vg 8.3, 
sp. Ape, has been studied by Bidelman (1950) who discussed its very 
peculiar spectrum and who discovered its binary character. 

On the basis of the lines of ionized metals the star's spectrum 
resembles that of an A5 supergiant, but it shows extremely weak 
hydrogen lines and, at the same time, strong helium lines and numerous 
lines which do not appear in normal stellar spectra. Bidelman con- 
cluded that the star is truly deficient in hydrogen, and attributed the 
richness of the spectrum to the low opacity resulting from the hydrogen 
deficiency. He compared the star to several others which exhibit 
similar spectral peculiarities. 

Bidelman's 18 published radial-velocity measures from spectrograms 
extending from October 1946 to April 1949 suggested a period of about 
one year. The range of velocities, namely about 100 km. /sec, com- 
bined with the one-year period indicated a large mass function — at 
least 3 solar masses. 

From an extensive analysis of the very rich spectrum Bidelman was 
able to select only eight lines which he believed were sufficiently free 
of blending to be trustworthy for velocity measures at moderate dis- 
persions. These were XX 3951.97 (V n), 4028.33 (Ti n), 4067.05 Xi n, 
4101.74 (Hi), 4122.64 (Fe n), 4233.20 (Fe n + Cr n), 4246.83 (Sc Ii) 
and 4481.23 (Mg n). He found no evidence of lines which could be 
attributed to the companion star. 

269 



270 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Observations and Orbital Elements 

The star was placed on the observing programme here in 1951 in 
the hope that the determination of definitive orbital elements would 
shed more light on the nature of the system and the component stars. 
Between 1951 and 1956 61 one-prism spectrograms of measurable 
quality were obtained — 17 with a dispersion of 33 A. /mm. at H7, the 
rest with a dispersion of 66 A./mm. The measurements for velocity 
were made with the use only of the lines chosen by Bidelman as listed 
above. On most of the plates either seven or all eight of the lines were 
measured, and the internal probable error of the mean velocity from 
a spectrogram was about 3 km. /sec. on the average. In weighting the 
velocities for the least-squares solution for the orbital elements, weight 
4 was assigned to the 33 A./mm. observations compared with weight 
1 for the {^0 A. mm. observations. 

It is these 61 Dunlap observations of 1951-56 which form the basis 
of the orbital solution reported here. The period turned out to be so 
close to a year that there was an interval of about eighty days in the 
velocity curve without observations. However, in 1962 two new 
observations were made which fall in the middle of this gap. These 
observations were not incorporated in the solution, but are shown in 
the velocity curve of figure 1 along with the earlier Dunlap observa- 
tions. 




--40 



J.D. 5150 5250 5350 

Figure 1 



H.D. 30353 



271 



A preliminary orbit was derived by the use of R. K. Young's pre- 
computed curves, and then a least-squares solution was carried out 
by the digital computer method reported by Heard and MacRae 
(1956). The period was included in the solution, and there was no 
grouping of the observations. Table I gives the preliminary and final 
elements so derived, and Table II gives the Dunlap observations from 
which the solution was made plus the two 1962 observations not used 
in the solution. 

TABLE I 
Orbital Elements for H.D. 30353 



Element 




Preliminary 




Final 


m.e. 


Period 


P 


360 . 00 days 


360. 


47 


days 


±1.07 


Eccentricity 


e 


0.30 


0. 


28 




±0.03 


Angle of periastron 


O) 


270 °0 


268 < 


'4 




±4.8 


Periastron passage 


T 


J.D.2435142.80 .D.2435141 .74 


±5.06 


Velocity of the system y 


+6.0 km. /sec. 


+ 7. 


km. /sec. 


±1.0 


Semi-amplitude 


K 


50.0 km. /sec. 


51. 


4 k 


m./sec. 


±1.6 


a sin i 






2.43X10 8 km. 


±0.08X10 8 


Mass function 


f(m) 




4. 


41 


O 


±0.44 






TABLE 


II 








Dunlap Rad 


ial Velocity Observations 


; of H.D. 


30353 








Phase 










Disp. 


V 


from 




v c 


Vo-V e 


J.D. A. /mm. 


km. /sec. 


final T 




km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


2433945.787 


66 


-40.1 


245 . 922 




-26.1 


-14.0 


955.825 


" 


-36.0 


255 . 960 




-30.7 


- 5.3 


960.754 


" 


-41.3 


260 . 889 




-33.2 


- 8.1 


2434086.541 


" 


+44.6 


26.206 




+42 . 7 


+ 1.9 


260.806 


33 


+ 0.8 


200.471 




- 2.6 


+ 3.4 


347.597 


" 


-44.5 


287.262 




-42.3 


- 2.2 


375.557 


" 


-52.0 


315.222 




-43.2 


- 8.8 


398.538 


" 


-32.1 


338.203 




-27.3 


- 4.8 


412.610 


66 


-13.5 


352.275 




- 8.1 


- 5.4 


426.506 


" 


+ 15.9 


5.701 




+ 14.6 


+ 1.3 


432.596 


" 


+21.0 


11.791 




+23.3 


- 2.3 


443.591 


" 


+45.2 


22.786 




+38.9 


+ 6.3 


454.522 


" 


+55.1 


33.716 




+49.3 


+ 5.8 


467.567 


" 


+63.3 


46.762 




+56.0 


+ 7.3 


470.562 


" 


+55 . 2 


49.757 




+56.9 


- 1.7 


475.556 


" 


+63 . 1 


54.751 




+57.7 


+ 5.4 


482.565 


" 


+60.4 


61.760 




+58.0 


+ 2.4 


489.566 


" 


+51 . 1 


68.761 




+57.3 


- 6.2 


589.862 


" 


+ 11.0 


169.057 




+13.9 


- 2.9 


592.888 


" 


+ 12.3 


172.083 




+12 3 


0.0 



272 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



FABLE II {continued) 









Phase 








Disp. 


Vo 


from 


v c 


Vo-V e 


J.D. 


A. /mm. 


km. /sec. 


final T 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


2434600.894 


66 


+ 6.3 


180.089 


+ 8.1 


- 1.8 


606.899 


" 


+ 8.1 


186.094 


+ 5.0 


+ 3.1 


613.893 


" 


+ 6.9 


193.088 


+ 1.3 


+ 5.6 


620.891 


" 


- 4.4 


200.086 


- 2.8 


- 1.6 


626.899 


33 


- 8!) 


206.904 


— 5.5 


- 3.4 


642.913 


66 


- 4.1 


222.108 


-13.9 


+ 9.8 


666.907 


33 


-33.1 


246.102 


-26.0 


- 7.1 


699.709 


66 


-43.0 


278.904 


-41.6 


- 1.4 


713.688 


" 


-32.3 


292.883 


-43.8 


+ 11.5 


735.657 


" 


-37.1 


314.852 


-433 


+ 6.2 


742.590 


" 


-52.3 


321.785 


-40.6 


-11.7 


750.579 


" 


-44.6 


329.774 


-35.1 


- 9.5 


791.490 


" 


4-17.0 


10.215 


+21.8 


- 4.8 


793 . 502 


" 


+36.2 


12.227 


+24.5 


+ 11.7 


800.506 


" 


+25.0 


19.231 


+34.6 


- 9.6 


810.505 


" 


+34.7 


29.230 


+45.6 


-10.9 


819.566 


" 


+48.9 


38.291 


+52.2 


- 3.3 


838.540 


" 


+44.4 


57.265 


+57.9 


-135 


856.565 


" 


+52 . 7 


75.290 


+56.1 


- 3.4 


942.852 


" 


+ 18.4 


161.577 


+ 17.8 


+ 0.6 


949.853 


33 


+ 17.5 


168.578 


+ 14.1 


+ 3.4 


957.875 


" 


+ 9.4 


1 76 . 600 


+ 9.8 


-0.4 


970.868 


" 


+ 9.8 


189.593 


+ 3.1 


+ 6.7 


977.892 


66 


-11.9 


196.617 


- 0.6 


-11.3 


2435009.879 


" 


-17 1 


228.604 


-17.2 


+ 0.1 


033.920 


" 


-31.0 


252.645 


-29.1 


- 1.9 


039.945 


" 


-28.1 


258.670 


-31.9 


+ 3.8 


050.822 


" 


-28.9 


269.547 


-36.6 


+ 7.7 


055.823 


" 


-46.8 


274.548 


-38.4 


- 8.4 


083.785 


33 


-36.7 


302.510 


-44.8 


+ 8.1 


089.717 


" 


-38.5 


308.442 


-44.6 


+ 6.1 


121.578 


66 


- 8.7 


340303 


-24.9 


+ 16.2 


126.774 


" 


- 5.5 


345.499 


-18.2 


+ 12.7 


135.578 


" 


+ 1.9 


354.303 


- 4.9 


+ 6.8 


143.662 


" 


+ 5.2 


1.917 


+ 7.2 


- 2.0 


151.665 


33 


+22.0 


9.920 


+21.4 


+ 0.6 


162.655 


" 


+40.2 


20.910 


+36.7 


+ 3.5 


440.808 


" 


-41.1 


299.063 


-44.7 


+ 36 


457 . 686 


" 


-39.7 


315.941 


-43.0 


+ 3.3 


463.565 


" 


-38.5 


321.820 


-40.4 


+ 1.9 


480.676 


" 


-33.4 


338.931 


-26.5 


- 6.9 


2437789.581 


66 


+32.7 


124.551 


+37.0 


- 4.3 


791.594 


" 


+29.0 


126.564 


+35.8 


- 6.2 



H.D. 30353 273 

Velocity Observations from other Observatories 

Bidelman's 18 published velocity observations of 1946-49 cannot 
be reconciled with the Dunlap observations as well as might be 
expected. The question is: can the discordances be construed as evi- 
dence of changes in the orbit; ? 

The velocities published by Bidehnan (1950) were obtained from 
McDonald spectrograms of the years 1946 to 1949; they include one 
prism spectrogram (//2) with dispersion 76 A. /mm., three prism 
spectrograms (CG) with dispersion 27 A. mm. and 14 prism spectro- 
grams (CQ) with dispersion 55 A. /mm. (all dispersions at H7). The 
manner in which they disagree with the Dunlap velocity curve is seen 
in figure 2 where they are plotted, along with eleven unpublished 
velocities, kindly supplied by Bidelman, derived from McDonald CQ 
spectrograms taken in 1949 and 1950 in the season immediately 
following his published series. It will be observed that Bidelman's 
1946-50 velocities, regardless of dispersion, have this pattern relative 
to the Dunlap velocity curve: they are systematically more negative 
by about 20 km. /sec. over the greater part of the velocity curve, but 
agree with the Dunlap curve (in fact tend to be a little above it) in 
the middle of the steep rising branch. 

It is apparent that no adjustment of the period will reconcile the 
two sets of observations; neither will a steady change of any of the 
orbital elements. Rather, it would appear that either there was a 
seasonal effect in the McDonald or the Dunlap velocity system (the 
period being so close to one year), or there was an abrupt change in 
the apparent orbital elements between the end of Bidelman's series 
in February 1950 and our series beginning in October 1951. 

A single Mount Wilson Coude spectrogram of December 22, 1950, 
taken by Greenstein and measured by Bidelman, falls close to the 
Dunlap velocity curve. So also do three velocities from McDonald 
Coude spectrograms (dispersion 35 A. mm.) of December 1955, kindly 
taken and measured by A. Blaauw at the writer's request. 

All 15 of the unpublished velocities are listed in Table III with the 
kind permission of the investigators involved. Along with the earlier 
18 velocities published by Bidelman they are also shown plotted with 
reference to the Dunlap velocity curve in figure 2. 

In correspondence with the writer, Bidelman has pointed out that, 
while he would expect his Oct. 31, 1946 velocity (from an// 2 spectro- 
gram with dispersion 76 A. ■'mm.) to be poor, a re-examination of his 
measures of the CG and CQ series and a survey of the velocities of 



274 



Publications of the David Dunlnp Observatory 



TABLE III 
Unpublished Velocities of H.D. 30353 



Observatory 








and 




Date 


Vel. 


Spectrograph 




(U.T.) 


(km. /sec.) 


Mr. W. Coude 


1950 


Dec. 22.244 


-48 


(4.5 A. /mm.) 








McD. Coude 


1955 


Dec. 4.423 


-43.2 


(35 A. /mm.) 




Dec. 7.468 


-36.6 






Dec. 8.429 


-40.8 


McD. CQ 


1949 


Sept. 12.344 


-13.8 


(55 A. /mm. 1 




Sept. 12.364 


-131 






Sept. 12.386 


-18.9 






Sept. 12.405 


-17.4 






Dec. 4.275 


-58.9 






Dec. 11.264 


-52.6 






Dec. 19.324 


-65.3 






Dec. 22.132 


-64.7 




1950 


Jan. 5.267 


-54.8 






Feb. 2.094 


-25.8 






Feb. 24.075 


+ 3.5 




©.(DO -1946- 1950 McDonald, VZ, CG, CQ, top 
■ -I950 Mount Wilson Coude 
• -I9SS McDonald Coudi 



'cPo ° 



Figure 2 



H.D. 30353 275 

standard velocity stars taken during the long "run" of McDonald 
CQ spectrograms of 19-48-49 have convinced him that there are no 
large systematic or seasonal errors in his velocities. On the other 
hand, the present writer has a similar conviction regarding the Dunlap 
velocities, and draws attention again to the agreement of the 1955 
McDonald Coude velocities and the 1950 Mount Wilson Coude 
velocity with the Dunlap velocities. Furthermore, each of us, using 
the same lines, fails to find systematic velocity differences which could 
be attributed to effects of blending with different dispersions, and, 
indeed, our dispersions are not dissimilar (McDonald 27 and 55 
A. /mm., Dunlap 33 and 66 A. /mm.). 

If, as it would thus appear, we may rule out what might have seemed 
to be systematic errors of either or both of the McDonald and Dunlap 
velocity systems, we are left with the conclusion that there occurred 
between early 1950 and late 1951, if not a change in the elements, 
at least some effect which mimicked such a change. 

Photometric Observations 

The large mass function of 4.4 O for H.D. 30353 brought up the 
interesting possibility of this binary being an eclipsing system. In 
Moore's (1948) Fifth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binaries there are 
seven binaries with listed mass functions greater than 30; all seven 
are eclipsing systems. Since there is no evidence whatever of a second- 
ary component of H.D. 30353 in the spectrum, one might expect the 
eclipse of the primary star, if it occurs, to be deeper than that of the 
secondary. From the orbital elements the times of superior conjunction 
of the primary were calculated to be about August 4, 1955 and July 29, 
1956, with mean error of about 5 days. Because of the long period 
the eclipse, if any, might be expected to last for some days. With 
the possibility of detecting an eclipse, G. A. Bakos, then at this 
Observatory, undertook to make photoelectric observations of H.D. 
30353, using the 19-inch reflecting telescope. The observations at the 
time of superior conjunction of the primary were made difficult by 
reason of the large easterly hour angle of the star at dawn; it will be 
noticed that this difficulty has been aggravated from year to year. It 
will not be convenient to observe the star again at superior conjunction 
for some years to come. An inferior conjunction, corresponding to 
possible eclipse of the secondary, would have occurred about Jan. 31, 
1956. 

From the observations which Bakos was able to obtain in 1955 and 
1956 there is no evidence of an eclipse. His observations near superior 



276 Publications of the David Duniap Observatory 

conjunctions were on 1955 Aug. 8, 16, and 24, and on 1956 July 28, 
29, 31, Aug. 8, 14, 22, and 25; and near inferior conjunction he had 
observations on 1956 Jan. 17 and Feb. 10. Xo minima were detected 
at these times. Also it should be remarked that a study of our spectro- 
grams revealed no evidence of an atmospheric eclipse near the times 
of conjunctions of the primary. 

Although Bakos' observations revealed no eclipses, they did indicate 
variability of the light. Altogether, between Aug. 8, 1955 and Nov. 8, 
1956, he obtained photoelectric observations, mostly in two colours, 
on 57 nights. Variations amounting to about 0.1 magnitude were 
detected. There is an indication that the variations may consist of 
short-lived increases in brightness about every 30 days. 

The Masses of the Components 

Bidelman (1950) has remarked on one consequence of the large 
mass function of H.D. 30353, namely that it indicates a fairly massive 
secondary. Table IV indicates a few possible combinations of the 
masses of primary and secondary which are consistent with our mass 
function of 4.4© for inclinations of 90° and of 45°. 

TABLE IV 

Possible Mass Combinations and Deviations from the Mass- 
Luminosity Law 

For i = 90° For i = 45° 



Mass of Mass of Mass of 

observed unobserved Mag. unobserved Mag. 

component component dev. component dev. 



2© 


"O 


-in 


150 


10" 


10 


13 


3 


25 


ti 


20 


19 


2 


33 


4 



If the mass-luminosity law is given by AM = 9.54 log mo/nti, and 
if the secondary is at least two magnitudes fainter than the primary 
(since the secondary's spectrum is not seen), then the figures desig- 
nated by "Mag. dev." in Table IV are the least number of magnitudes 
by which the stars would fail to be related by the mass-luminosity 
law, in the sense of the observed component being over-luminous. It 
is seen that the departure would be rather spectacular if the primary 



H.D. 30853 277 

is a dwarf, and would amount to several magnitudes even if the 
primary has the mass of a supergiant. 

The absolute magnitude of the primary is not known with certainty, 
but Bidelman (1950) has remarked on the fact that the spectrum 
resembles that of a supergiant, and he calculated that if the difference 
between the measured colour index of 0.54 and an assumed normal 
colour index of 0.10 can be attributed to interstellar reddening, then 
the primary would be a rather luminous supergiant (M = — 6, say). 
If this is the case he would expect the mass of the primary to be of 
the order of 20 O, and we would then be dealing with a very massive 
pair. Bidelman noted that these are mere speculations, however, since, 
for all we know, a star with such a peculiar spectrum may be very 
over-luminous for its mass and it may be intrinsically reddened. 

Since Bidelman (1950) wrote the foregoing discussion of the red- 
dening, Hiltner (1956) has published three-colour and polarization 
observations of H.D. 30353. From Hiltner's data we may compute 
that the absorption in the visual is at least 0™83, and that 
(B-V)o < m 18, and (U-B)„ < -0^37, and we should note that 
the weakness of the hydrogen lines will be expected to make the 
star bright in the ultra-violet because of the smallness of the Balmer 
jump. To draw further conclusions, however, would require a precise 
spectral classification — which we do not have. 

Acknowledgements 

The writer gratefully acknowledges the help of Miss Olga Boshko, formerly an 
assistant at the Observatory, who did a great part of the plate measuring and made 
a preliminary orbital solution. He is also indebted to Dr. William P. Bidelman for 
valuable discussions and for providing unpublished velocity observations with per- 
mission to include them in this report. Dr. Adriaan Blaauw also made three velocity- 
observations and permitted them to be included in the report. Dr. Gustav Bakos 
made the photometric observations which have been referred to. 

The investigation was supported in part by a grant from the National Research 
Council, Ottawa. 

References 

Bidelman, W. P. 1950, Ap. J., vol. Ill, p. 333. 

Heard, J. F. and Boshko, O. 1955, A. J., vol. 60, p. 102. 

Heard, J. F. and MacRae, D. A. 1957, J.R.A.S. Canada, vol. 51, p. 29. 

Hiltner, \Y. A. 1956. A p. J. Slip p., vol. 2, no. 24, p. 389. 

Moore, J. H. and Xeubauer. F. J. 1948, L.O.B., no. 521. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
May 31, 1962 






PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 10 



PHOTOELECTRIC 
SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 

OF 
GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 



SIDNEY van den BERGH 

AND 

R. C. HENRY 



1962 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



PHOTOELECTRIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY OF 
GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 

By Sidney van den Bergh and R. C. Henry 

Abstract 

A spectrum scanner attached to the 74-inch telescope has been used to derive 
absolute energy distributions over the range XX3400 to 5200 for the following globular 
clusters: 

NGC 5024 (M53) NGC 6273 (M19) NGC 6838 (M71) 

NGC 5272 (M3) NGC 6341 (M92) NGC 6864 (M75) 

NGC 5904 (M5) NGC 6356 NGC 6934 

NGC 6093 (M80) NGC 6402 (M14) NGC 7006 

NGC 6205 (M13) NGC 6626 (M28) NGC 7078 (M15) 

NGC 6229 NGC 6656 (M22) NGC 7089 (M2) 

NGC 6254 (M10) NGC 6779 (M56) NGC 7099 (M30) 

An effective resolution of about 35A. was used for all globular-cluster observations. 
For comparison purposes the nuclei of the galaxies M31 and M32 and a number 
of MK standard stars were also observed with the same resolution. 

Certain combinations of monochromatic colour indices are found to yield reddening- 
free parameters which correlate well with Morgan's metallic line strength classifica- 
tion of globular clusters. A discontinuity in the spectral energy distribution near 
X4000 is found to correlate with metallic line strength in globular clusters and with 
metal abundance in main sequence stars. Colour-colour diagrams may be con- 
structed which permit a clear-cut segregation of the effects of interstellar reddening 
from those of intrinsic colour differences. Observations of M31 show that cyanogen 
giants provide a major contribution to the total luminosity of the nucleus in blue 
light. 

Introduction 

The properties of the integrated light of globular clusters have been 
studied on low dispersion spectra by Mayall (1946), Morgan (1956, 
1959) and Kinman (1959). These investigations have established that 
globular clusters exhibit a considerable range in spectroscopic charac- 
teristics, which may be partially interpreted in terms of differences 
between the metal abundances of stars in different clusters. Three- 
colour observations of globular clusters in the galaxy have recently 
been published by Johnson (1959) and by Kron and Mayall (1960). 

It is the purpose of the present investigation to help fill the gap 
between the very-low-resolution, wide-band photometry and the 
higher-resolution spectroscopic work. In particular multi-colour 

281 



282 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

narrow-band photometry should be able to separate the effects of 
interstellar reddening from intrinsic colour effects. This does not 
appear to be possible using the wide-band UBV and PVI systems. 
Spectral scanning with intermediate resolution also holds promise of 
being able to measure some of the qualitative differences between 
globular clusters which have previously been found by visual inspection 
of cluster spectra. 

Instrumentation and Observing Technique 

The observations reported in this paper were made with a spectrum 
scanner designed by J. B. Oke, which is located at the Cassegrain 
focus of the 74-inch telescope. The light enters the instrument through 
an entrance diaphragm, which, in the present observing programme, 
was 4.6 mm. in diameter, corresponding to 28 seconds of arc on the 
sky. The collimator in the scanner matches the //18 beam of the 
telescope and has a focal length of 36 inches. The dispersing element 
is a Bausch and Lomb replica reflection grating with 600 grooves 
per millimetre. The centre of its blaze is at X3750 in the second order, 
which was the order used. A Newtonian "camera" with a focal length 
of 9 inches forms an image on an adjustable Hilger spectrograph 
slit. During the globular cluster observations a slit width of 0.56 
millimetres was used, which corresponds to 18.5 A. 

Immediately behind the slit is a quartz Fabry lens which has a 
focal length of 1.4 inches. A selected RCA 1P21 photomultiplier, 
which was refrigerated by dry ice, was used as a light detector. The 
output of the photomultiplier was fed to a General Radio 1230 
amplifier and recorded by a Brown recorder. During the observations 
a scanning speed of 4 A. /sec. was used, giving a dispersion of 4.65 
A. /mm. on the tracing. A time constant of 2.5 seconds was employed 
for all the globular cluster observations. The effective resolution 
(spectral purity) resulting from the time constant, entrance diaphragm 
size and exit slit width was about 35A., the exact value depending 
slightly on the degree of central concentration of light in the globular 
cluster image. 

A single observation consisted of a direct scan from XX5200 to 3400 
and a reverse scan from XX3400 to 5200 followed, for bright clusters, 
by a single direct scan of the sky. For those faint clusters, for which 
the cluster plus sky deflection was less than two or three times larger 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 



283 



than the sky reading, a direct and a reverse sky trace were obtained. 
Due to the proximity of the city of Toronto to the David Dunlap 
Observatory the sky background at low altitudes is primarily a func- 
tion of azimuth. For clusters observed at low altitudes the sky tracings 
were therefore obtained at the same altitude and azimuth as the 
cluster tracings. The instrumental arrangement did not permit guiding 
during the 8 minutes required to make a single scan. For clusters 
observed near the meridian no serious difficulties due to driving errors, 
resulting in drifting of the cluster image, were encountered. 



Determination of the Atmospheric Absorption 

The following early-type stars, for which Oke (1960) has determined 
the absolute energy distributions, were used to determine both the 
atmospheric extinction and the instrumental sensitivity function: 



$ 2 Cet B9 III 
7 Gem A0 IV 
a Leo A B7 V 



a CrB A0 V 
a Lyr A0 V 



The wave-length dependence of the atmospheric extinction was deter- 
mined by measurements of the same star at high and low altitudes 
at 12 wave-lengths in the range 3500 < X < 5150 A. (The star a CrB, 
which is an eclipsing variable, was not observed at or near times of 
eclipse.) 

TABLE I 
The Observed Atmospheric Extinction 



X 


X-" GO 


K(\)-A 


m.e. 


5150 


14.22 


m 186 


± 0".'024 


5000 


16.00 


0.204 


0.020 


4700 


20 . 49 


0.227 


0.012 


4500 


24.39 


0.256 


0.020 


4200 


32.14 


0.358 


0.016 


4040 


37 . 54 


0.412 


0.020 


3920 


42.35 


0.461 


0.024 


38G0 


45.05 


0.474 


0.027 


3815 


47.21 


0.471 


0.023 


3700 


53.36 


0.593 


0.025 


3600 


59.54 


0.684 


0.022 


3500 


66.64 


0.743 


0.028 



284 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



It was found that, within the accuracy of the observations, the 
data for each night could be adequately represented by an equation 
of the form: 

K{\) = A+B \~\ (1) 

in which K is the absorption (in magnitudes) for one air mass and 
A a grey term which varies from night to night. The mean values 
of K(\) — A, from 14 extinction observations on 10 nights, are given 
in Table I and plotted in figure 1. With X measured in microns a 



m 
0.8 




1 


1 


1 
• / 


"~~ 


0.6 


— 








— 


KUJ-A 






v»» 






0.4 


— 








■~ 


0.2 


— 


• y/ 






— 






l 


_L 


I 





20 



40 



r 



60 



Fig. 1 — Wave-length dependence of the atmospheric absorption, with grey term 
subtracted. The figure shows that the observed absorption may be adequately 
represented by a X~ 4 law. 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 285 

least-squares solution yields the following mean value for the co- 
efficient B in equation (1): 

B = 0.01085±0.00021; 

this may be compared with the value 

B = 0.01077±0.00017, 

which Greig (1962) has derived from observations on 12 nights by 
Bless (1958) at Michigan. (Both Observatories are located at about 
the same altitude above sea level.) 

The value B = 0.01085 was subsequently used for all nights. 
Actually changes in the atmospheric pressure will result in slight 
variations of B from night to night. Use of the mean value of B will 
therefore result in random errors, which are, however, judged to be 
small compared to the observational uncertainty of the determination 
of B from observations obtained during a single night. Furthermore 
not all nights produced a measure of the extinction because on some 
nights clouds appeared before a second observation of an extinction 
star could be obtained. 

Absorption in the blue and violet region of the spectrum was found 
to be larger than average on nights during which observations were 
made through hot moist tropical air. Such nights were characterized 
by a very red setting sun, a "light" night sky and often by unusually 
good seeing. Tracings obtained on such nights were not used to derive 
absolute energy distributions. 

The Instrumental Sensitivity Function 

The observing equipment does not give an identical response when 
illuminated with equal intensities of light of different wave-lengths. 
This is due to the wave-length dependence of the reflectivity of the 
mirrors in the light path and the wave-length dependence of the 
response of the 1P21 photomultiplier. The instrumental sensitivity 
function may be determined by comparing the observed spectral 
energy distribution of Oke's standard stars corrected to outside the 
atmosphere by means of equation (1), with the absolute energy 
distributions of these stars which have been published by Oke (1960). 

On the average two standard star observations were obtained each 
night. Usually all individual sensitivity functions obtained during one 
dark-run were combined into a single mean sensitivity function, which 



286 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



was then used to reduce all the globular cluster observations obtained 
during that period. 

In deriving the instrumental sensitivity function from observations 
of Oke's standard stars difficulties were encountered in the region 
between XX3700 and 3900. Over this wave-length range the Balmer 
lines are crowded so close together that limited wave-length resolution, 
seeing and the amplifier and pen-recorded time constants all tend to 
lower the observed continuum. In this region Oke therefore recom- 
mends the use of a pseudo-continuum drawn through the peaks at a 
breadth of 12 A. In our experience this procedure did not yield repro- 
ducible results. Since the instrumental sensitivity function changes 
only slowly with wave-length over this region, a simple interpolation 
procedure was used. It is believed that the sensitivity function obtained 
in this way is correct to within 0™02 at all wave-lengths in the range 
3700 < X < 3900 A. 

Extensive data are available on the changes in the instrumental 
sensitivity function during the period from May 1961 to May 1962 
(the mirrors of the 74-inch telescope were re-aluminized in May 
1962). Table II summarizes the available data for this period on 
8 5(X), defined as the rate of change of the sensitivity function in 
magnitudes per year, relative to the rate of change of the sensitivity 
function at X4500. The data in Table II, which are plotted in figure 2, 
show that the instrumental sensitivity function changes most rapidly 
in the ultraviolet. Over the range XX3500 to 5200 the rate of change 

TABLE II 

Observed Relative Change of Instru- 
mental Sensitivity Function in Mag- 
nitudes per Year 



X 


SS(\) 


5150 


-0 m 123 


5000 


-0.088 


4700 


-0.026 


4500 


-0.007 


4200 


+0.055 


4040 


4-0.076 


3700 


4-0.143 


3600 


4-0.167 


3500 


4-0.190 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 



287 




4000 



4500 



5000 



Fig. 2 — Rate of change of the instrumental sensitivity function in magnitudes per 
year, normalized to zero at X4500. The rapid decrease of the instrumental sensitivity 
at short wave-lengths is due to the deterioration of the ultraviolet reflectivity of the 
mirrors in the light path. 

of the sensitivity function in magnitudes per year, at any wave-length 
relative to that at X4500 is given by 

8S(X) = 1.85XlO- 4 (4500-X). (2) 

The fact that the instrumental sensitivity decreases fastest at short 
wave-lengths is no doubt due to the rapid deterioration of the ultra- 
violet reflectivity of aluminized reflecting surfaces. 

Young (1962) has shown that the spectral response of 1P21 photo- 
multipliers is slightly dependent on temperature. To reduce such 
temperature-dependent variations of the photomultiplier sensitivity 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 289 

to a minimum, dry ice was introduced into the cold-box surrounding 
the 1P21 about one hour before the beginning of the actual observa- 
tions. 

Reduction of the Observations 

Figure 3 shows a typical globular cluster tracing with a sky tracing 
superimposed. The irregular line represents the actually-observed 
spectral-energy distribution and the smooth curve shows the adopted 
pseudo-continuum. Except in the regions near H/3, H5, the C7-band 
and the Mgl triplet XX5167-84 the adopted pseudo-continuum repre- 
sents the smoothed mean of the actually-observed spectral-energy 
distribution. Attention should be drawn to the apparent discontinuity 
in the pseudo-continuum near X4000; just to the red of the H-\- He 
blend. The size of this discontinuity expressed in magnitudes, will be 
denoted by the symbol A. 

On each tracing the height of the pseudo-continuum and of the 
sky background was measured at 100-A. intervals. The intensity 
difference between sky, and object plus sky, was then converted to 
a magnitude scale with arbitrary zero point. These magnitudes were 
then corrected for atmospheric extinction and for the instrumental 
sensitivity function to yield the absolute energy distribution m(l/X) 
at 100-A. intervals. The absolute energy distributions of the same 
cluster obtained on different nights, each of which contains an arbi- 
trary zero point, were plotted on transparent graph paper and fitted 
together by visual inspection. The resulting mean absolute energy 
distributions, normalized to ra(l/X) = 0.0 at X4500, are given in 
Table III. A minimum of three tracings on good photometric nights 
were averaged to obtain the adopted mean absolute energy distribu- 
tion of a single cluster. (The average number of tracings per cluster 
was 5.) Also given in Table III are the spectral energy distributions 
of the galaxies M31 and M32 and of the MK standard stars p Gem 
(FOV), /3CVn (GOV) and 61 UMa (G8 V). 

The fact that so many globular clusters occur in the general direction 
of the galactic nucleus necessitated observations down to rather large 
negative declinations. Many of the clusters contained in the present 
programme had to be observed through more than two air masses. 
However, no observations were made at sec z > 3.0. The fact that so 
many clusters had to be observed at large values of sec s placed very 
severe demands on the photometric quality of the nights on which 



290 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE III 

Absolute Energy Distributions of Globular Clusters, Galaxies, and 

Standard Stars 





NGC 221 (M32) 


NGC 224 (M31) 


XGC 5024 (M53) 




n = 6 


n = 7 


n = 8 


X 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


5200 


-0.32 ± 0.01 


-0.29 ± 0.01 


-0.30 ± 0.02 


5100 


-0.32 0.01 


-0.28 0.01 


-0.28 0.01 


5000 


-0.29 0.01 


-0.28 0.01 


-0.23 0.01 


4900 


-0.25 0.01 


-0.24 0.01 


-0.17 0.01 


4800 


-0.21 0.01 


-0.19 01 


-0.13 0.01 


4700 


-0.16 0.01 


-0.14 0.01 


-0.10 0.01 


4600 


-0.09 0.01 


-0.09 0.01 


-0.05 0.01 


4500 


0.00 0.01 


0.00 0.01 


0.00 0.01 


4400 


0.17 0.01 


0.20 0.01 


0.09 0.01 


4300 


0.36 0.01 


0.42 0.01 


0.20 0.01 


4200 


0.53 0.01 


0.62 0.01 


0.29 0.02 


4100 


0.65 0.02 


0.75 0.01 


0.34 0.02 


4000 


0.75 0.02 


0.82 0.02 


0.38 0.03 


3900 


1 . 34 . 02 


1.57 0.02 


0.65 0.04 


3800 


1.40 0.03 


1.65 0.03 


0.75 0.04 


3700 


1.42 0.03 


1.66 0.03 


0.96 0.06 


3600 


1.61 03 


1.79 0.04 


1.01 0.08 


3500 


1.72 0.04 


1.89 0.05 


1.06 0.09 


3400 


1.63 0.05 


1.89 0.07 


1.36 0.12 




XGC 5272 (M3) 


XGC 5904 (M5) 


XGC 6093 (M80) 




n = 6 


n = 5 


n = 3 


X 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


5200 


— 


-0.30 ± 0.02 


-0.37 ± 01 


5100 


-0.27 ± 0.02 


-0.29 0.01 


-0.33 0.01 


5000 


-0.22 0.01 


-0.26 0.01 


-0.26 0.01 


4900 


-0.18 0.01 


-0.21 0.01 


-0.20 0.01 


4800 


-0.12 0.01 


-0.16 0.01 


-0.14 0.01 


4700 


-0.11 0.01 


-0.13 0.01 


-0.11 0.01 


4600 


-0 07 0.01 


-0.08 0.01 


-0.06 0.01 


4500 


0.00 0.01 


0.00 0.01 


0.00 0.01 


4400 


0.09 0.01 


07 0.01 


0.12 0.02 


4300 


0.19 0.01 


0.19 0.01 


0.24 0.02 


4200 


0.28 0.01 


0.28 0.01 


0.33 0.02 


4100 


0.36 0.01 


0.35 0.01 


0.43 0.02 


4000 


0.39 0.02 


0.40 0.01 


. 52 . 03 


3900 


0.66 0.02 


0.74 0.02 


0.82 0.03 


3800 


0.74 0.02 


0.84 0.02 


0.91 0.04 


3700 


0.91 0.02 


0.97 0.02 


1.11 0.05 


3600 


1.07 0.03 


1.16 0.03 


— — 


3500 


1.22 0.04 


1.26 0.05 


— — 


3400 


— — 


1.52 0.07 


— 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 



291 



TABLE III (Continued) 





NGC6205 (M13) 


XGC 6229 — 


NGC 6254 (M10) 




n = 7 


n = 5 


n = 4 


X 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


5200 


-0.29 ± 0.02 


-0.33 ± 0.02 


-0.44 ± 0.06 


5100 


-0.30 0.02 


-0.33 0.02 


-0.38 0.04 


5000 


-0.26 01 


-0.28 0.01 


-0.31 0.03 


4900 


-0.21 0.01 


-0.23 0.01 


-0.21 0.03 


4800 


-0.17 0.01 


-0.18 0.01 


-0.17 0.02 


4700 


-0.13 0.01 


-0.14 0.01 


-0.14 0.02 


4600 


-0.07 0.01 


-0.08 0.01 


-0.08 0.02 


4500 


0.00 0.01 


0.00 0.01 


0.00 0.02 


4400 


0.10 0.01 


0.10 0.01 


0.17 0.02 


4300 


0.20 0.01 


0.23 0.01 


0.29 0.02 


4200 


0.29 0.02 


0.33 0.01 


0.38 0.02 


4100 


0.36 0.02 


0.43 0.01 


0.44 0.02 


4000 


0.43 0.02 


0.52 0.02 


0.50 0.03 


3900 


0.72 02 


0.82 0.02 


0.86 0.04 


3800 


0.78 0.03 


0.89 0.02 


0.98 0.05 


3700 


0.98 0.03 


0.99 0.02 


1.22 0.07 


3600 


1.10 0.04 


1.20 0.02 


1.27 0.09 


3500 


1.25 0.04 


1.31 0.03 


— — 


3400 


1.42 0.05 


1.48 0.03 






NGC6273 (M19) 


NGC 6341 (M92) 


NGC 6356 — 




n = 4 


n = 6 


n = 4 


X 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


5200 


-0.50 ± 0.02 


-0.30 ± 0.02 


-0.52 ± 0.02 


5100 


-0.42 0.02 


-0.29 0.02 


-0.46 0.02 


5000 


-0.32 0.02 


-0.24 0.01 


-0.40 0.02 


4900 


-0.23 0.02 


-0.18 0.01 


-0.33 0.01 


4800 


-0.16 0.02 


-0.14 0.01 


-0.26 0.01 


4700 


-0.13 0.02 


-0.11 0.01 


-0.21 0.01 


4600 


-0.07 0.02 


-0.05 0.01 


-0.10 0.02 


4500 


0.00 0.02 


0.00 0.01 


0.00 0.02 


4400 


0.11 0.02 


0.08 0.01 


0.17 0.02 


4300 


0.26 0.03 


0.16 0.01 


0.36 0.03 


4200 


0.41 0.03 


0.23 0.01 


0.53 0.03 


4100 


0.50 0.04 


0.32 0.01 


0.68 0.04 


4000 


0.55 0.05 


0.40 0.02 


0.76 0.05 


3900 


0.98 0.06 


0.58 0.02 


1.34 0.06 


3800 


1.07 0.08 


0.72 0.02 


1 . 42 . 10 


3700 


1.20 0.13 


0.88 0.03 


1.58 0.12 


3600 


— — 


1.05 0.04 


— — 


3500 


— — 


1 . 20 . 04 


— — 


3400 


— — 


1.39 0.07 


— — 



292 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE III {Continued) 





NGC6402 (M14) 


NGC 6626 (M28) 


NGC 6656 (M22) 




n = 5 


n = 5 


n = 4 


X 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


5200 
5100 
5000 
4900 
4800 
4700 
4600 
4500 
4400 
4300 
4200 
4100 
4000 
3900 
3800 
3700 
3600 
3500 
3400 


-0.67 ± 0.01 

-0.56 0.01 

-0.44 0.01 

-0.33 01 

-0.25 0.01 

-0.18 0.01 

-0.10 0.01 

0.00 0.01 

0.12 0.01 

0.31 0.01 

0.44 0.02 

0.56 0.02 

0.67 0.03 

1.08 0.04 


-0.51 ± 0.03 

-0.44 0.02 

-0.36 0.02 

-0.28 0.02 

-0.22 0.01 

-0.18 0.01 

-0.11 0.01 

0.00 0.01 

0.16 0.01 

0.36 0.01 

0.50 0.02 

0.61 0.02 

0.75 0.03 

1.16 0.06 


-0.49 ± 0.03 
-0.45 0.03 
-0.37 0.02 
-0.27 0.02 
-0.22 0.02 
-0.19 0.02 
-0.10 0.02 
0.00 0.02 
0.08 0.02 
0.21 0.02 
0.33 0.03 
0.38 0.03 
0.38 0.04 
0.80 0.05 
0.90 0.06 
1.00 0.09 
N.B. — Brightest clus- 
ter stars avoided. 




NGC 6779 (M56) 


NGC 6838 (M71) 


NGC 6865 (M75) 




n = 5 


n = 6 


n = 5 


X 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


m(l/X) m.e. 


5200 
5100 
5000 
4900 
4800 
4700 
4000 
4500 
4400 
4300 
4200 
4100 
4000 
3900 
3800 
3700 
3600 
3500 
3400 


-0.46 ± 0.02 

-0.41 0.02 

-0.32 0.02 

-0.25 0.01 

-0.19 0.01 

-0.15 0.01 

-0.08 0.01 

0.00 0.01 

0.10 0.02 

0.21 0.02 

0.30 0.02 

0.41 0.02 

0.49 0.03 

0.74 0.03 

0.88 0.04 

1.10 0.06 

1.33 0.07 

1.48 0.10 


-0.48 =fc 0.02 

-0.46 0.02 

-0.39 0.01 

-0.32 0.01 

-0.25 01 

-0.20 0.01 

-0.15 0.01 

0.00 0.02 

0.19 0.02 

0.40 0.02 

0.53 0.02 

0.63 0.03 

0.69 0.04 

1.34 0.05 

1.30 0.08 

1.36 0.13 


-0.38 ± 0.03 

-0.35 0.02 

-0.32 0.02 

-0.26 0.02 

-0.22 0.01 

-0.15 0.02 

-0.07 0.02 

0.00 0.02 

0.14 0.02 

0.26 0.02 

0.35 0.03 

0.44 0.03 

0.47 0.04 

0.96 0.05 

1.10 0.06 

1.16 0.10 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 



293 



TABLE III (Continued) 





XGC 6934 


— 


XGC 7006 


— 


XGC 7078 


(M15) 




n = 


4 


n = 


4 


n = 


5 


X 


m(l/X) 


m.e. 


m(l/X) 


m.e. 


m(l/X) 


m.e. 


5200 


-0.38 ± 


0.02 


-0.34 ± 


0.02 


-0.29 ± 


0.02 


5100 


-0.33 


0.02 


-0.28 


0.02 


-0.29 


0.02 


5000 


-0.27 


0.02 


-0.23 


0.02 


-0.24 


0.01 


4900 


-0.22 


0.02 


-0.17 


0.02 


-0.17 


0.01 


4800 


-0.17 


01 


-0.13 


0.02 


-0.14 


0.01 


4700 


-0.12 


0.01 


-0.09 


0.02 


-0.11 


0.01 


4600 


-0.07 


01 


-0.05 


0.02 


-0.06 


0.01 


4500 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.02 


0.00 


0.01 


4400 


0.10 


0.02 


0.08 


0.02 


0.07 


0.01 


4300 


0.22 


0.02 


0.19 


0.02 


0.16 


0.01 


4200 


0.32 


0.02 


0.26 


0.02 


0.25 


0.01 


4100 


0.41 


0.02 


0.34 


0.02 


0.32 


0.01 


4000 


0.50 


0.02 


0.41 


0.03 


0.38 


0.01 


3900 


0.82 


0.02 


0.75 


0.03 


0.61 


0.01 


3800 


0.91 


0.03 


0.80 


0.03 


0.72 


0.01 


3700 


1.05 


0.03 


0.91 


0.04 


0.90 


0.02 


3600 


1.34 


0.05 


1.08 


0.05 


1.09 


0.02 


3500 


— 


— 


1.20 


0.08 


1.18 


0.03 


3400 






1.29 


0.16 


1.30 


0.05 




NGC 7089 


(M2) 


NGC 7099 


(M30) 








n = 


5 


n = 


6 




X 


m(l/X) 


m.e. 


m(l/X) 


m.e. 




5200 


-0.29 ± 


0.04 


-0.28 ± 


0.03 




5100 


-0.26 


0.02 


-0.23 


0.02 






5000 


-0.21 


0.02 


-0.17 


0.02 






4900 


-0.17 


0.02 


-0.13 


0.02 






4800 


-0.14 


0.01 


-0.10 


0.02 






4700 


-0.11 


0.01 


-0.08 


0.01 






4600 


-0.07 


0.01 


-0.04 


0.01 






4500 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.02 






4400 


0.10 


0.01 


0.08 


0.02 






4300 


0.19 


0.01 


0.18 


0.02 






4200 


0.26 


0.01 


0.25 


0.02 






4100 


0.33 


0.01 


0.33 


0.02 






4000 


0.39 


0.01 


0.40 


0.02 






3900 


0.70 


0.01 


0.62 


0.02 






3800 


0.78 


0.02 


0.78 


0.03 






3700 


0.95 


0.02 


0.96 


0.04 






3600 


1.13 


0.02 


— 


— 






3500 


1.19 


0.03 


— 


— 






3400 


1.28 


0.05 


— 


— 







294 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
TABLE III {Continued) 



1 


p Gem 


F0 V 


CVn 


GOV 


61 UMa 


G8 V 




n 


= 4 


n 


= 4 


n 


= 4 


X 


m(l/X) 


m.e. 


m(l/X) 


m.e. 


m(l/X) 


m.e. 


5200 


-0.03 


± 0.01 


-0.20 


± 0.01 


-0.24 


± 0.01 


5100 


-0.07 


0.01 


-0.19 


0.01 


-0.24 


0.01 


5000 


-0.04 


0.01 


-0.16 


0.01 


-0.20 


0.01 


4900 


-0.02 


0.01 


-0.13 


0.01 


-0.18 


0.01 


4800 


-0.02 


0.01 


-0.12 


0.01 


-0.15 


0.01 


4700 


-0.04 


0.01 


-0.08 


0.01 


-0.12 


0.01 


4600 


-0.02 


0.01 


-0.06 


0.01 


-0.08 


0.01 


4500 


0.00 


01 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.01 


4400 


0.04 


01 


0.11 


0.01 


0.15 


0.01 


4300 


0.07 


0.01 


0.20 


0.01 


0.28 


0.01 


4200 


0.12 


0.01 


0.29 


0.01 


0.39 


0.01 


4100 


0.17 


0.01 


0.37 


0.01 


0.49 


0.01 


4000 


0.22 


0.01 


0.44 


01 


0.58 


0.01 


3900 


0.48 


0.01 


0.84 


0.01 


1.10 


0.01 


3800 


0.63 


01 


0.88 


0.01 


1.15 


0.01 


3700 


0.93 


0.01 


0.92 


01 


1.19 


0.01 


3600 


1.05 


0.01 


1.03 


0.01 


1.28 


0.01 


3500 


1.15 


0.01 


1.14 


0.02 


1.40 


0.01 


3400 


1.24 


0.02 


1.27 


0.02 


1.49 


0.02 



observations were made. In fact many tracings had to be rejected 
because observations of standard stars showed that some nights were 
not of the highest photometric quality. Other reasons for rejecting 
tracings were moderate or strong auroral activity, cloud danger to 
individual tracings and occasional instrumental difficulties. In the final 
analysis about one third of all tracings obtained had to be rejected 
for one of the reasons listed above. 

Inspection of Table III shows that absolute energy distributions 
could not be obtained for all clusters to the extreme short wave-length 
limit of X3400. This was due to the fact that, for globular cluster 
observations, the difference between total brightness and sky bright- 
ness is much smaller in the ultraviolet than it is in the blue-green 
region of the spectrum. In no cases were differences of less than 0.5 
inches between total signal and sky background measured on the 
tracings. 

Inspection of the sample tracing illustrated in figure 3 shows that 
three wave-length regions, with a width of about 50 A. each, are 
completely obscured by mercury emission lines of terrestrial origin. 
Our experience indicates that these lines introduce very little uncer- 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 



295 



tainty in the interpolated position of the pseudo-continuum. In fact 
these lines were found to furnish convenient wave-length standards 
for the measurement of the tracings of faint globular clusters. The 
N2 4 " emission band near X3900, which occurs with variable strength 
during weak aurorae, proved much more bothersome and frequently 
introduced considerable uncertainty in the measurements of the dis- 
continuity A near X4000. 



Observational Errors 

The mean errors of the absolute energy distribution of globular 
clusters at each wave-length were estimated from the scatter of the 
individual observations about the mean. Figure 4 shows a plot of the 

m 
0.050 



m.e. 



0.020 - 



0.010 - 



0.005 - 



0.00 2 




4000 



5000 



Fig. 4 — Wave-length dependence of the observational errors of the absolute energy 
distribution of M92. The smooth curve shows the adopted wave-length dependence 
of the errors, the dots the observed errors at each wave-length. 



296 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



observed mean error of ra(l/X) at each wave-length obtained for 
M92. The smooth curve in the figure represents the adopted mean 
error at each wave-length. Comparison of figures 3 and 4 shows that 
the observational errors are smallest at those wave-lengths at which 
the observed brightness of globular clusters is greatest. The fact that 
the extinction corrections are largest in the far ultraviolet probably 
contributes to the relatively large errors at short wave-lengths. (For 
sec z = 2.5 the extinction correction is 1.66 magnitudes larger at X3400 
than it is at X5200.) The temperature sensitivity of photomultipliers 
in the yellow (Young 1962) and the uncertainty of the adopted pseudo- 
continuum level due to the Mg I triplet XX5167-84 may contribute to 
the increase of the observational uncertainties longward of X5000. 

To ensure adequate wave-length resolution the size of the entrance 
diaphragm of the spectrophotometer had to be rather small. The 28" 
diaphragm which was used during all globular cluster observations 
admitted only a small fraction of the total cluster light. The P magni- 



TABLE IV 
Comparison of P-V and C(41-51) 



NGC 


M 


P 28 


P-V 


A.D. 


n 


C(41-51) 


m.e. 


n 


5024 


53 


11.2 


0.50 


0.00 


2 


0.63 


0.03 


8 


5272 


3 


10.1 


0.56 


0.04 


3 


0.63 


0.02 


6 


5904 


5 


10.2 


0.63 


0.01 


4 


0.64 


0.01 


5 


6093 


80 


10.1 


0.76 


0.02 


4 


0.76 


0.02 


3 


6205 


13 


10.7 


0.57 


0.02 


6 


0.66 


0.02 


7 


6229 


— 


11.6 


0.64 


0.01 


2 


0.76 


0.02 


5 


6254 


10 


12.0 


0.79 


0.01 


3 


0.82 


0.04 


4 


6273 


19 


11.2 


0.90 


0.03 


4 


0.91 


0.05 


4 


6341 


92 


9.7 


0.53 


0.00 


2 


0.61 


0.02 


6 


6356 


— 


12.0 


1.06 


0.02 


3 


1.13 


0.04 


4 


6402 


14 


12.9 


1.12 


0.04 


5 


1.12 


0.02 


5 


6626 


28 


— 


0.97 


0.02 


3 


1.05 


0.03 


5 


6656 


22 


11.4 


0.86 


0.01 


2 


(0.83) 


0.04 


4 


6779 


56 


12.8 


0.74 


0.04 


3 


0.82 


0.03 


5 


6838 


71 


13.1 


0.95 


0.01 


2 


1.10 


0.04 


6 


6864 


75 


10.6 


0.71 


0.00 


2 


0.79 


0.04 


5 


6934 


— 


11.4 


0.62 


0.01 


3 


0.75 


0.02 


4 


7006 


— 


12.6 


0.61 


0.01 


2 


0.62 


0.03 


4 


7078 


15 


9.2 


0.59 


0.01 


2 


0.61 


0.02 


5 


7089 


2 


10.1 


0.57 


0.01 


2 


0.59 


0.03 


5 


7099 


30 


10.6 


0.48 


0.00 


2 


0.56 


0.03 


6 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 297 

tudes of a region with a diameter of 28" centred on the cluster were 
extrapolated from data given by Kron and Mayall and are given 
under the column heading P 2 8 in Table IV. The table shows that 
P 2 8 ranges from 9™2 for the brightest observed cluster to 13™1 for 
the faintest cluster. The 18.5 A. width of the exit slit reduces the 
effective brightness of the cluster, which is seen by the photomulti- 
plier, by an additional factor of about 4 magnitudes compared to 
that which would be observed in wide-band photometry. The resulting 
weakness of the observed signal undoubtedly contributes significantly 
to the observational errors for the faintest globular clusters. 

The determination of the absolute energy distribution of each 
globular cluster was based on observations during at least two dark 
runs. Errors in the determination of the sensitivity function for any 
one dark run will therefore manifest themselves by an increase in 
the scatter of the individual absolute energy distributions about the 
mean. Since only one observation of a given globular cluster was 
obtained on any one night, deviations of the nightly absorption co- 
efficients from the adopted mean absorption coefficient will also show 
up as scatter of the individual spectral energy distributions about 
the mean. It is therefore believed that the mean errors of the absolute 
energy distribution derived from the scatter of the individual observa- 
tions which are quoted in Table III, represents a realistic appraisal 
of the actual accuracy of the results. Any errors in the adopted 
absolute energy distribution of the primary standard star a Lyrae 
will of course be reflected in the results. 

An additional check on the accuracy of the data may be obtained 
from intercomparison of the spectral energy distributions of high 
latitude, and hence presumably little reddened, clusters which accord- 
ing to Kron and Mayall have the same spectral type and which have 
been assigned to the same metallic line class by Morgan. Such clusters 
would be expected to have closely similar spectral energy distribu- 
tions. Figure 5 shows such a comparison for the high latitude clusters 
M2 and M53. The figure shows that within the accuracy of the data, 
the absolute spectral energy distributions of these two clusters are 
identical. 

Comparison with Wide-Band Photometry 

Observations of a number of globular clusters on the UB V system 
have been published by Johnson (1959). A more extensive series of 



298 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



+ 0.2 
+0.1 
0.0 
-0.1 
-0.2 



r 

M2-M53 



a 



n 



I ' ' 4 I t I 



±-4 



3500 



4000 



4500 



5000 



Fig. 5 — Observed difference between the absolute energy distributions of the high 
latitude clusters M2 and M53. Both clusters have the same integrated spectral type 
and are assigned to the same metallic line strength group by Morgan. The length 
of the error bars indicates the mean error of each point. Within the accuracy of the 
data both clusters are seen to have the same absolute energy distribution. 



observations on the PVI system has been reported by Kron and 
Mayall (1960). The latter series contains P-V colour indices for all 
of the globular clusters for which absolute energy distributions are 
given in Table III. 

To compare the present results with those of Kron and Mayall it 
is convenient to introduce monochromatic colour indices. For example, 
the colour index C(41-ol), which will be defined as the difference 
between m{\/\) at X4100 and m{\/\) at X5100, may be compared 
with P-V. The observational data on P-V and C(41-51) are listed 
in Table IV and plotted in figure 6. The figure shows that the data 
may be adequately represented by the linear relation: 



C(41-51) = P-V + 0.07. 



(3) 



The observations of the very scattered large diameter cluster M22 are 
not plotted in figure 6. The P-V observations of this cluster pre- 
sumably refer to the integrated light of the entire cluster, whereas 
individual bright cluster stars had to be avoided during the spectro- 
photometric observations. 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 299 




0.4 



0.6 



0.8 P-V 1.0 



Fig. 6 — Comparison of the P-V colours of globular clusters with the observed 
monochromatic colour indices C(41-51). 

Within the accuracy of the data, no systematic differences exist 
between the C(41-51) versus P-V relations for clusters at high and 
low declinations. Since the low declination clusters were observed 
through a much larger air mass than the high declination clusters, 
this provides an additional check on the accuracy of the adopted 
wave-length dependence of the atmospheric extinction. 



Discussion of Results 

Intrinsic Differences Between Clusters 

The absolute energy distributions given in Table III for the rela- 
tively metal-rich cluster NGC 6356 and for the very metal-poor cluster 
M92 are compared in figure 7. The figure shows a number of striking 
differences which cannot be accounted for in terms of differences in 
the amount of interstellar absorption suffered by these two clusters. 



300 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



-0.5 




1 1 


1 


1 ^^. _ 


0.0 


- 






- 


m(l/X) 










+ 0.5 




M92 jf^ 




— 


+ 1.0 








- 


+ 1.5 




1 


NGC6356 

1 


. 



3500 



4000 



4500 



5000 



Fig. 7 — Comparison of the observed absolute energy distributions of the very 
metal-poor cluster M92 and the relatively metal-rich cluster NGC 6356. 

In the first place figure 7 shows that the discontinuity A of the 
adopted pseudo-continuum near X4000 is very much larger in the 
metal-rich cluster NGC 6356 than it is in the metal-poor cluster M92. 
This indicates that the index A may be correlated with metal abun- 
dance. Inspection of the figure also shows that the slope of the pseudo- 
continuum of the two clusters differs much more strongly over the 
range XX4100 to 4500 than it does over the range XX4600 to 5100. This 
suggests that a combination of the monochromatic colour indices 
C(41-45) and C(46-51) might permit a separation of intrinsic colour 
effects from the effects of interstellar reddening. 

Interstellar Reddening 

In a colour-colour plot using either the UBV system (Johnson 
1959) or the PVI system (Kron and Mayall 1960) the points corre- 
sponding to the intrinsic colours of globular clusters lie almost exactly 
along a reddening line. As a result UB V and PVI colour observations 
cannot be used to segregate intrinsic colour effects from the effects 
of interstellar reddening. Inspection of figure 7 suggests that a two- 
colour diagram, using the colour indices C(41-45) versus C(46-51), 
might be useful in separating intrinsic colour effects from interstellar 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 



301 



TABLE V 
Monochromatic Colour Indices and Parameters * and ^ 



NGC 


M 


C(41-45) m.e. 


C(46-51) m.e. 


* 


m.e. 


* 


m.e. 


221 


32 


0.65 ±0.02 


0.23 ±0.01 


0.47±0.02 


1.02 ±0.03 


224 


31 


0.75 


0.02 


0.19 


0.01 


0.60 


0.02 


1.29 


0.02 


5024 


53 


0.34 


0.03 


0.23 


0.02 


0.16 


0.03 


0.37 


0.04 


5272 


3 


0.36 


0.02 


0.20 


0.02 


0.20 


0.02 


0.39 


0.03 


5904 


5 


0.35 


0.01 


0.22 


0.01 


0.18 


0.02 


0.44 


0.02 


6093 


80 


0.43 


0.03 


0.27 


0.02 


0.22 


0.03 


0.49 


0.04 


6205 


13 


0.36 


0.02 


0.23 


0.02 


0.18 


0.02 


0.43 


0.03 


6229 


— 


0.43 


0.02 


0.24 


0.02 


0.24 


0.02 


0.49 


0.03 


6254 


10 


0.44 


0.03 


0.30 


0.04 


0.20 


0.04 


0.47 


0.06 


6273 


19 


0.50 


0.05 


0.35 


0.03 


0.22 


0.05 


0.57 


0.07 


6341 


92 


0.32 


0.01 


0.24 


0.02 


0.13 


0.02 


0.29 


0.03 


6356 


— 


0.68 


0.04 


0.36 


0.02 


0.39 


0.05 


0.88 


0.07 


6402 


14 


0.56 


0.02 


0.46 


0.01 


0.20 


0.03 


0.52 


0.04 


6626 


28 


0.61 


0.03 


0.33 


0.02 


0.35 


0.03 


0.72 


0.07 


6656 


22 


(0.38) 


0.04 


(0.35) 


0.03 


(0.10) 


0.04 


(0.35) 


0.06 


6779 


50 


0.41 


0.02 


0.33 


0.02 


0.14 


0.03 


0.33 


0.04 


6838 


71 


0.63 


0.04 


0.32 


0.02 


0.38 


0.04 


0.87 


0.06 


6864 


75 


0.44 


0.04 


0.28 


0.03 


0.22 


0.04 


0.61 


0.06 


6934 


— 


0.41 


0.02 


0.27 


0.02 


0.20 


0.03 


0.48 


0.03 


7006 


— 


0.34 


0.03 


0.23 


0.02 


0.15 


0.04 


0.46 


0.04 


7078 


15 


0.32 


0.01 


0.23 


0.02 


0.14 


0.02 


0.31 


0.02 


7089 


2 


0.33 


0.01 


0.19 


0.03 


0.18 


0.03 


0.44 


0.03 


7099 


30 


0.33 


0.02 


0.19 


0.03 


0.18 


0.03 


0.39 


0.04 


p Gem 


F0 V 


0.17 


0.01 


0.05 


0.01 


0.13 


0.01 


0.41 


0.02 


j3CVn 


GOV 


0.37 


0.01 


0.13 


0.02 


0.26 


0.02 


0.65 


0.02 


61UMa 


G8V 


0.49 


0.01 


0.16 


0.01 


0.36 


0.01 


0.86 


0.02 



reddening. These colour indices as derived from the data in Table III, 
are given in Table V. Figure 8 shows a plot of C(41-45) versus C(46-51) 
for those clusters for which Morgan has given metallic line strength 
classifications. Also shown is the reddening line derived from Whitford's 
(1958) reddening law. The figure shows that metal-rich clusters lie 
well to the right of the reddening line for metal-poor clusters. The 
position of a globular cluster in figure 8 may be used to estimate 
both the metallic line strength classification of that cluster and the 
reddening of that cluster relative to other clusters of the same metallic 
line strength. However, the total reddening of the cluster can be 



302 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



u.b 






1 








1 


















IV 

• 








0.4 


— 
















_ 


io 
1 

CD 

o 
0.2 




• 2jh 

. • ••• 

1 II # ll 




• ,v 


• lv 






• Vl 

+ 


VIII 








1 








1 







0.2 



0.4 C(4h45) 0.6 



0.8 



Fig. 8 — Two-colour index diagram of globular clusters which have Morgan 
metallic line strength classifications. The reddening line for metal-poor clusters is 
indicated by an arrow. The figure shows a clear-cut segregation of intrinsic colour 
effects from the effects of interstellar reddening. The nuclei of M31 and M32 are 
indicated by crosses. 



determined only after some a priori assumption is made about the 
intrinsic colours of clusters in a certain metallic line strength group. 

The Metal Abundance Parameter A 

The size of the discontinuity in the pseudo-continuum near X4000 
was measured directly on each globular cluster tracing (see figure 3). 
It should be emphasized that such measurements are quite difficult, 
especially for faint clusters in which the signal-to-noise ratio is small. 
The strong terrestrial mercury emission lines near X4050 and the N2 + 
night sky band near X3900 also contribute to the uncertainty of the 
measurements. Table VI lists the mean observed values of A, expressed 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 



303 



TABLE VI 
Observations of the Discontinuity A 













Morgan 


NGC 


M 


A 


A.D. 


n 


metal class 


221 


32 


0.50 


0.04 


6 


— 


224 


31 


0.59 


0.03 


5h 


VIII 


5024 


53 


0.21 


0.04 


7 


II 


5272 


3 


0.20 


0.04 


9 


II 


5904 


5 


0.23 


0.03 


5 


II 


6093 


80 


0.25: 


0.11 


3^ 


— 


6205 


13 


0.28 


0.06 


9 


Ill 


6229 


— 


0.20 


0.04 


6 


III 


6254 


10 


0.25: 


0.09 


1\ 


IV 


6273 


19 


0.40 


0.04 


4| 


IV 


6341 


92 


0.09 


0.03 


9 


I 


6356 


— 


0.48 


0.05 


4 


VI 


6402 


14 


0.30 


0.03 


2\ 


IV 


6626 


28 


0.26: 


0.11 


^2 


— 


6656 


22 


(0.31:) 


0.08 


3 


II 


6779 


56 


0.21 


0.06 


5 


— 


6838 


71 


0.52 


0.08 


8 


VI 


6864 


75 


0.26: 


0.06 


3^ 


— 


6934 


— 


0.23 


0.02 


4 2 l 


— 


7006 


— 


0.33 


0.02 


41 
^2 


II 


7078 


15 


0.14 


0.03 


10 


I 


7089 


2 


0.23 


0.04 


5 


II 


7099 


30 


0.12 


0.04 


6 


— 



in magnitudes, for all the programme clusters. Also given are the 
average deviation, A.D., of the individual A observations from the 
mean and the number of observations, n, on which this mean is 
based. In forming the mean, half weight was given to those A deter- 
minations which were considered to be of lesser accuracy; either 
because of small deflections on the tracings or on account of the 
strength of N 2 + night sky emission. It will be seen that for some 
clusters the number of observations used to determine A was larger 
than the number employed to derive the absolute energy distribution 
of that same cluster. This is due to the fact that the index A could 
be measured on a number of tracings obtained on nights which were 
not of the highest photometric quality. 



304 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 





1 


1 


1 


1 


I 


I 


1 1 


m 
0.6 














+ " 


A 












• 
• 




0.4 








• 






— 


0.2 


• 
• 

1 


• 

•• 
t 

1 


• 
• 

1 


• 
• 

1 


1 


1 


1 1 



IV 



V 



VI VII VIII 



Fig. 9— Correlation between Morgan's metallic line strength classification and 
the discontinuity A near X4000. The cross represents the nucleus of M31. 

For those clusters for which this information is available the metallic 
line-strength classification (Morgan 1959) is also given in Table VI. 
Figure 9 shows that the discontinuity index A correlates well with 
Morgan's metallic line-strength classification. That such a correlation 
between metallic line-strength and discontinuity of the observed 
pseudo-continuum near X-4000 is to be expected may be seen from 
figure 1 of Wildey et al. (1962). Their figure shows that, for F- and 
G-type stars, the fraction of the radiant flux which is blocked by Fraun- 
hofer lines is much larger to the blue of X4000 than it is redward of 
this wave-length. 

Additional confirmation of the relation between the size of the A 
index and metal abundance is provided by observations (van den 
Bergh, unpublished) of the A index in main-sequence stars of differ- 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 305 




0.6 B-V 0.7 



Fig. 10 — The figure shows the relation between A and B-V for main sequence 
stars of normal metal abundance (dots) and metal-poor stars (crosses). At a given 
colour the discontinuity A is seen to be smaller for metal-defficient stars than for 
stars of normal metal abundance. The mean relation for stars with normal metal 
abundances is indicated by a straight line. 



ing metal abundances. For these measurements the effective spectral 
resolution was comparable to that employed during the globular 
cluster observations. The results of these measurements are plotted 
in figure 10. The figure shows that, for any B-V value, stars of 
normal metal abundance [8(U— B) < 0.06] have a larger A value 
than do metal-poor stars [8(U—B) > 0.12]. The smallest observed 
A value occurs for the subdwarf H.D. 140283, which is the most 
metal-deficient dwarf star known. 

Some caution should be exercised in the interpretation of the 
relation between metal abundance and the quantity A in the nuclei 
of M31 and M32. For composite stellar systems the observed value 
of A will depend on both the metal abundance and the frequency 



306 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



m 
0.6 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 

+ - 


4> 


















0.4 


— 










s 




— 


0.2 

n n 


S 

1 


• 
•• 

t 

1 


• 
• 

1 


• 
•• 

1 


1 


1 


1 


1 



IV 



VI 



VII VIII 



Fig. 11 — Relation between the parameter 4> and Morgan's metallic line strength 
classification. The cross represents the nucleus of M31. 

distribution of stars in different regions of the colour-magnitude 
diagram. For example the large value of A observed for the nucleus 
of M31 might be due either to a metal-rich stellar population or to 
a strong contribution of late-type stars to the total light. Also K-type 
giant stars have larger A values than do main sequence stars of the 
same spectral type. 

Other Intrinsic Parameters of Globular Clusters 

Using the wave-length dependence of interstellar reddening, which 
has been determined by Whitford (1958), it is possible to form com- 
binations of monochromatic colour indices which are independent of 
interstellar reddening. Such reddening-free indices may be regarded 
as intrinsic parameters of composite stellar systems. For example 
one may define a quantity 



$ = C(41-45)-0.8C(46-51), 



(4) 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 307 

which is a function of the gradient of the absolute energy distribution 
to the red of the discontinuity A near X4000. The <£ indices for all 
clusters observed during the present programme are listed in Table V. 
Figure 11 shows that the index $> correlates well with Morgan's 
(1959) metallic line strength classification. From an observational 
point of view the index 4> has the advantage that it is determined in 
the blue-green region of the spectrum where the signal-to-sky ratio 
is large and where atmospheric extinction corrections are not as great 
as they are in the ultraviolet. Spectrophotometric observations of 
high- and low-velocity main sequence stars by Greig (1962) also show 
that combinations of monochromatic colour indices determined in the 
range 4100 < X < 5100 A. yield parameters which correlate with the 
ultraviolet excess and metal abundance of those stars. 

Another reddening-free parameter, which includes the discontinuity 
A near X4000, may be defined by 

¥ = C(39-45)-C(45-51). (5) 

Due to the inclusion of a measurement in the violet region of the 
spectrum, the errors associated with the determination of ^ are larger 
than those associated with the measurement of <£. These larger errors 
are, however, compensated for by the fact that among globular clusters 
ty, which includes the discontinuity A, exhibits a wider range of 
variation than does <i>. The values of ^ derived from the observations 
are given in Table V. Figure 12 shows that the parameter ^ correlates 
well with Morgan's metallic line strength classification. 

The correlations of A, <£, and ^ with the integrated spectral types 
of globular clusters (Kron and Mayall 1960) show considerably more 
scatter than do the correlations with Morgan's metallic line strength 
classification. Presumably this indicates that metallic line strength 
is a more accurate classification parameter than is "integrated spectral 
type". 

The fact that A, $>, <fr and metallic line strength classification all 
correlate well together suggests that they all measure essentially the 
same parameter i.e. metal abundance. This view receives support from 
a comparison of the spectral energy distributions of the very metal- 
poor cluster M92 and the relatively metal-rich cluster NGC 6356. The 
difference in the visual absorption suffered by these two clusters is 
0?7 for Kron and Mayall's "Solution I" and 1"?3 for their "Solution 
II". Adopting a visual absorption of 1™0 and Whitford's reddening 
law the difference between the true absolute energy distributions of 



308 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 





I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


m 
1.2 
















+ 


Y 


















0.9 












t 




— 


0.6 




A 
1 


• 
• 


• 
• 
• 








— 


0.3 


- * 














"■• 


on 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 



I II III IV V VI VII VIII 

Fig. 12 — Relation between the parameter ^ and Morgan's metallic line strength 
classification. The cross represents the nucleus of M31. 



these two clusters may be determined. The resulting differences between 
the absolute energy distributions of M92 and NGC 6356, normalized 
to zero at X4500, are plotted in figure 13. Also shown in the figure 13 
is the quantity e x ; the fraction of the total energy in the solar con- 
tinuum (A^ichard 1950) which is blocked by Fraunhofer lines. The 
similarity of these two curves strongly suggests that differences 
between the metal abundances of the stars in M92 and NGC 6356 
are largely responsible for the observed differences of the absolute 
energy distributions of these two clusters. 

Comparison of MSI and MS2 with Globular Clusters 

In Table VII the indices A, $>, and ^ for the nuclei of the galaxies 
M31 and M32 are compared with those of the relatively metal-rich 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 309 



NGC6356- M92 



Ml 




+ 0.6 
t0.4 
+ 0.2 
0.0 
-0.2 



3500 



4000 



4500 



5000 



Fig. 13 — Difference between the true absolute energy distributions of the relatively 
metal-rich cluster NGC 6356 and the very metal-poor cluster M92 under the assump- 
tion that the interstellar absorption A v suffered by NGC 6356 is 1.0 magnitudes 
larger than that suffered by M92. Error bars indicate means errors of each difference. 
The histogram shows the fractional blocking of radiant energy by Fraunhofer lines 
in the sun. The similarity of the two curves suggests that the observed differences 
between the spectral energy distributions of the two clusters may be largely accounted 
for by the difference in their metal abundances. 

TABLE VII 
Comparison of M31, M32 and Globular Clusters 



* 



Morgan 
metal class 



M31 

M32 

NGC 6356 

M71 



0.59 
0.50 
0.48 
0.52 



0.60±0.02 
0.47±0.02 
0.39±0.05 
0.38±0.04 



1.29±0.02 
1.02 ±0.03 
0.88±0.07 
0.87±0.06 



VIII 

VI 
VI 



globular clusters NGC 6356 and M71. The data in the table show 
that, for the nucleus of M31, the indices A, <J>, and ^ are larger than 
those observed for the two least metal-deficient clusters observed 
during the present programme. The parameters A, $, and ^ for the 




o 
o 
o 


00 

O 


C 

o 
u 

tn 


10 


u 


rt 




CU 


U) 




R- 


~ 




tn 


rt 










rt 


bo 





"o £ 






,„ o 






«> « 


















£ S 




o 


■5 "o 


J3 


o 


bo 


lO 




■"" ' 


* 


T3 rt 


3 



>>.2 

■a a 1 © 

•c o 3 
■c .3 JJ 

— 3 

,-, g c 
co bo i> 

*2 C J5 



i O .3 
J! M.H 

° «■= 

C >- 2 
O U2 O 

■is*" 

6 ~ ~ 
o > 2 

las 

„ _b0 
O 'en 



312 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

nucleus of M32 appear to be intermediate between those of M31 
and those of the least metal-deficient globular clusters observed. 
Morgan (1959) lists four globular clusters which he considers to be 
metal-richer than M71 and NGC 6356. Unfortunately these clusters 
were either too far south or too faint to be observed during the 
present programme. 

Figure 14 shows tracings of M31 and M32 obtained on the same 
night and at the same value of sec z. Comparison of these two tracings 
shows that M32 is considerably bluer than is M31. 

Figure 15 shows a comparison of a tracing of M31 with tracings of 
a G8 III giant and a G8 V dwarf. For the scans of the two stars the 
width of the exit slot was increased to make the effective resolution 
similar to that on the tracing of M31. Comparison of the three tracings 
in the region between XX4100 and 4200 shows that "cyanogen giants" 
must provide a major contribution to the total radiation of the nucleus 
of M31 in the blue region of the spectrum. Morgan and Mayall (1957) 
have arrived at the same conclusion from an examination of low dis- 
persion spectra of M31. 

Acknowledgments 

We are deeply indebted to Dr. John F. Heard for making large 
blocks of 74-inch telescope observing time available to us during the 
summers of 1961 and 1962. 

Thanks are also due to Mr. W. E. Greig for occasional assistance 
at the telescope and to Mr. W. H. Clarke for advice on the computer 
reduction of the observations. 

One of us (R.C.H.) wishes to acknowledge the receipt of the 1961— 
1962 Chant Fellowship in Astronomy. 

Part of this work was supported by grants from the Advisory 
Committee on Scientific Research, Toronto, and the National Research 
Council, Ottawa. 

References 

Bless, R. C. 1958, Univ. of Michigan Ph.D. Dissertation. 
Greig, W. E. 1962, Univ. of Toronto, M.A. Thesis. 
Johnson, H. L. 1959, Lowell Obs. Bull., vol. 4, p. 117. 
Kinman, T. D. 1959, R.A.S., M.N., vol. 119, p. 538. 
Kron, G. E. and Mayall, N. U. 1960, A. J., vol. 65, p. 581. 
Mayall, N. U. 1946, Ap. J., vol. 104, p. 290. 



Photoelectric Spectrophotometry of Globular Clusters 313 

Michard, R. 1950, B.A.N., vol. 11, p. 227 (no. 416). 

Morgan, W. W. 1956, P.A.S.P., vol. 68, p. 509; 1959, A.J., vol. 64, p. 432. 

Morgan, W. W. and Mayall, X. U. 1957, P.A.S.P., vol. 69, p. 291. 

Oke, J. B. 1960, Ap. J., vol. 131, p. 358. 

Whitford, A. E. 1958, A J., vol. 63, p. 201. 

Wildey, R. L., Burbidge, E. M., Sandage, A. R. and Burbidge, G. R. 1962, Ap.J., 

vol. 135, p. 94. 
Young, A. T. 1962, .4.7., vol. 67, p. 286. 



315" 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 11 



SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES 

OF 60 Be STARS 

OVER A PERIOD OF 24 YEARS 



JUDITH A. COPELAND and JOHN F. HEARD 



1903 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF 60 Be STARS 
OVER A PERIOD OF 24 YEARS 

By Judith A. Copeland and John F. Heard 



Abstract 

The spectra of 60 Be stars have been observed with a fair degree of regularity, 
about once a year, over the past 24 years for the principal purpose of surveying the 
spectral variations. A brief summary of the spectral characteristics and changes of 
each of these stars is here presented. For those stars showing double emission, studies 
of the fluctuations of the relative intensities of the violet and red components ( V/R) 
have been made. For 15 of the stars it was possible to assign periods for these fluctua- 
tions; the mean period is about 6.8 years. About half of the stars show shell charac- 
teristics at times; the strength of the hydrogen absorption core intensities for about 
half of these shell stars show a degree of correlation with the V/R variations. 



Introduction 

Bright-line stars of class B are not uncommon. Merrill and Burwell 
(1933) in their "Catalogue of Be Stars" and in their two supplements 
(1943 and 1949) have listed 1088 such stars. 

The emission lines in most Be stars are confined to the hydrogen 
lines, and invariably the emission is weaker as we proceed to the 
higher members of the Balmer series; indeed many such stars show 
emission only at Ha. Emission lines other than hydrogen are some- 
times observed, e.g. Fe II, Mg II, Si II, Ni II, Cr II, He I. Main 
sequence B stars more commonly show emission lines than do the 
more luminous stars, and stars of spectral class B3 include a higher 
proportion of emission-line stars than do earlier or later classes. 

It was shown by early investigations that the emission lines are 
almost invariably centred, or nearly so, within broad, dish-shaped 
absorption lines. This led Struve (1931) to the conclusion that the 
emission lines arise in a disk or ring cast off from rapidly rotating 
stars. The relatively few stars showing narrow single emission have 
also relatively narrow underlying absorption; they are explained as 
rotating stars which are presented "pole-on". The more common 
broad emissions (super-imposed on very broad absorption) are always 
double. The two components of the emission, violet (V) and red (R), 
frequently show variations in relative intensity (V/R) and also in 

317 



318 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

position relative to the underlying absorption. The interpretation of 
these V/R variations and the concomitant velocity shifts has been 
difficult. McLaughlin (1961), who has observed a number of Be stars 
over a long period of time, put forward a model of an extensive 
envelope which both rotates and pulsates in such a way as to give 
rise to the V/R variation. Another model, first suggested by Struve 
(1931) and re-discussed by McLaughlin (1961), involves gaseous rings 
which are elliptical in shape. The choice between these two models 
hinges, in part, upon the observed Doppler shifts of the absorption 
core and the emission lines. Concerning these Doppler shifts there 
has been a difference of opinion between McLaughlin and Miss 
Underhill (1959). 

The dark reversal (if it may be so termed) which separates the V 
and R components of double emission is sometimes so strong as to 
resemble the sharp cores in the so-called shell stars. Indeed when 
these shell-like reversals are marked, other lines, mostly of ionized 
metals, appear strong and sharp in absorption. The fact that shell 
characteristics appear in stars with rapid rotation lends support to the 
idea that the outer regions of the star's envelope, where the absorption 
cores are produced, are not rotating rapidly. In a number of Be stars 
the shell characteristic appears to come and go. 

It appears that many more data will be required before satisfactory 
explanations can be found for all the curious features that are observed 
in the spectra of Be stars. 

The Observations 

One of us (J.F.H.) in 1938 selected from Merrill and Burwell's 
(1933) Mount Wilson Catalogue (M.W.C.) a list of 60 Be stars, most 
of which, at that time, were not being observed at Michigan where 
most of the detailed long-term observations of Be stars had been 
made. The writer's intention was to observe these stars once or twice 
per season over a long period of time in order to add to the store of 
knowledge of the spectral variations of Be stars. The intention was 
not fully realized for one reason and another (in particular there was 
a lacuna during the war years), but nevertheless a considerable 
collection of spectrograms was built up. For the benefit of other 
investigators who may be interested in these stars we give in Table I 
the number of spectrograms in our collection year by year. These 
spectrograms were taken with the Hilger one-prism spectrograph — 



Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars 



319 



TABLE I 

Number of Be-STAR Spectrograms Year by Year (1900+) in the D.D.O. 

Collection 

m.w.c.38 39 40 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 



7 


3 


19 




8 


3 


1 


1 


10 


5 


1 


1 


13 


4 


1 


1 


23 


3 


2 


2 


29 




3 


1 


49 


2 


1 


1 


61 


4 






63 


o 
O 




1 


68 


4 






76 




3 


2 


79 


1 


1 


1 


82 


1 


1 


2 


83 




2 




86 








88 


1 


1 




93 








107 


1 






114 




1 


1 


115 


2 






139 




2 


1 


140 




1 




146 




1 




156 




1 




159 




2 




164 




1 




174 






1 


188 




1 


1 


189 






1 


190 




1 




278 


2 


1 




292 


1 


1 




307 




1 


1 


308 




2 




310 




2 




312 




2 


2 


317 


1 


1 




320 






3 


331 


1 


1 




332 




1 





1 1 2 



•J 
































3 












1 


L 1 


1 


1 




1 




1 






1 
2 










4 


1 
2 1 


I 1 


1 
1 


1 
1 




1 
3 


1 


3 
2 






3 


1 


3 




1 


6 


4 ] 


L 1 


1 


1 




1 


2 


1 






1 


1 








2 


1 ] 




2 


1 




1 


2 


1 




1 


2 




1 




1 


9 


1 ] 




2 


1 




1 


1 


1 






2 


1 






1 


2 


1 '. 


I 1 


1 
















1 




1 




1 




1 




1 


2 






1 


1 








1 


1 




1 


1 


1 ] 


L 1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


2 




1 


2 




1 




1 


1 


1 i 


L 1 




2 




1 


1 


1 




1 


4 


1 




1 






1 1 




1 


1 




1 


1 


1 






2 




1 




1 


1 


1 ] 














2 






1 


2 




2 


1 


1 


1 
1 




1 


1 
2 






1 


1 
2 


2 








1 


3 
1 


2 
1 


1 


2 
1 


1 


1 

1 
1 


1 
1 
o 






1 
1 


1 
3 
1 
2 




I 


1 






1 

3 
3 
1 
2 
2 


3 

2 
1 
3 

3 


2 
1 


9 
4 


1 
1 
1 
2 

L 


2 


1 
2 

1 

2 

1 
1 

1 






1 
1 


1 
1 
2 

2 
1 

1 




1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

2 


2 


1 








1 








1 


1 




1 


1 






2 


1 


2 


1 




1 








1 


1 




1 


2 


2 




3 


2 








1 








1 






1 


1 


1 




1 


2 


1 






1 








1 


1 




1 


2 


1 




3 


1 


1 






2 


2 






2 


1 




1 


2 


2 




2 


1 


1 






24 








1 


1 




1 


3 


1 




6 


5 


2 




3 


2 




2 1 




2 


1 




2 


3 


1 




1 


2 


2 




1 


1 








1 






1 


2 


1 




3 










1 








1 


1 




1 


2 


1 




2 


















1 


2 




1 


3 







320 



Publications of the David Dunfap Observatory 
TABLE I — Continued 



44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 



M.W.C 


3839 40 


336 






343 




1 


346 




2 


347 


1 




350 




1 


352 


1 




353 






360 


1 


1 


361 






366 


1 




371 


2 




376 


2 


1 


381 


3 


1 


383 


1 


2 2 


394 


2 


1 


395 


3 




397 






402 


2 


2 3 


407 


5 




409 


2 


1 1 



2 1 










1 


1 ] 




1 ] 


L 1 


2 


1 


2 










1 


2 ] 




1 ] 




2 


1 


2 3 






1 


3 


1 


2 




1 ] 


L 1 


3 


1 


3 1 






1 


1 


1 






i : 




2 


1 


1 1 






1 


1 


1 










2 


1 


2 










1 










1 


1 


1 1 






1 


1 


1 










1 




2 










1 

2 






l ] 


L 1 


2 
2 


1 


2 










1 






l i 


I 1 


2 


1 


2 










1 






l ] 


L 1 


2 


1 


4 4 






3 


4 


1 






i i 


[ 1 


2 


1 


3 3 






4 


3 


1 








L 1 


1 


2 


2 










1 




L 1 2 


i ] 


I 1 


3 


1 


5 3 


1 




1 


2 


1 






i ] 


2 


1 


1 


2 2 


2 




2 


2 


1 






2 - 


I 1 


3 


2 


11 43 


8 


33 


2 


2 






2 1 


1 . 




3 


1 


1 1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


I 1 


1 




3 1 


1 




1 


1 


2 




[ o 2 


1 




3 


2 


1 2 


2 




2 


2 


1 




[ 1 1 


1 


L 1 


2 


1 



most of them at dispersion 33 A. /mm., some, especially of the stars 
fainter than magnitude 8, at dispersion 66 A. /mm. Ha does not show 
on the spectrograms, and little is seen to the violet of X 3900. 

As the spectrograms were being accumulated a card catalogue was 
maintained listing the main spectral variations. In 1961 the other 
writer (J.A.C.) undertook a detailed re-examination of all the spectro- 
grams and a tabulation and correlation of the results. 

In Table II we list the stars according to both M.W.C. and H.D. 
numbers, giving R.A. and Dec. for 1900, the visual magnitude, and 

TABLE II 
Summary of Spectral Features and Variations 

M.W.C. 7, H.D. 2905; h 27<?3, +62°23'; 4-24, cBOea; k Cas 

No emission has been observed, though H/3 absorption is weak; no spectral varia- 
tions were noted. 
M.W.C. 8, H.D. 4180; h 39"?2, +47°44'; 1™7, B4ne(?; o Cas 

In 1938, 1939, 1946 double emission at H/3 appeared faintly with V = R, and 
there was a deep core at H-y. These features were not visible from 1952 on. 



Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars 321 

TABLE II — Continued 

M.W.C. 10, H.D. 6343; h 59-4, +65°26'; 7-10, B5e(3 

H/3 has single emission varying in intensity, particularly strong in 1946, 1958, 
1959, Sept. 1960. Hy shows weak emission when H/3 emission is strongest, but in 
Nov. 1960 Hy showed a distinct absorption core and H/3 no emission. 
M.W.C. 13, H.D. 9105; l h 24-6, +62°51'; 7-46, cB5(e) 

Absorption lines are very sharp; no emission was seen on any of the plates. 
M.W.C. 23, H.D. 12302; l h 55-6, +59°12'; 8-2, B3e 

There are marked and rapid variations in the intensity and the V/R ratio of 
the double emission lines. Emission lines other than hydrogen appear. Shell charac- 
teristics come and go. 
M.W.C. 29, H.D. 13661; 2 h 08-l, +54°04'; 8-6, B(3)ne 

The width and V/R ratios of Hj8 and Hy vary markedly. He I 4471 absorption 
is usually sharp but was broad in 1946 and exceptionally so in 1959. 
M.W.C. 49, H.D. 15472; 2 h 24-4, +70°30'; 8?0, B4ne 

There are marked intensity and V/R changes in the double emission at H/3 and 
Hy, and hydrogen absorption cores and other shell characteristics come and go. The 
relative intensity and sharpness of He I 4471 and Mg II 4481 vary. 
M.W.C. 61, H.D. 19243; 3 h 00-7, +62°00'; 6-5, B2e 

There are marked intensity and V/R changes in the double emission at H/3 and 
Hy. Though the hydrogen emission is broad, the He I absorption is narrow. Weak 
absorption cores of Hy and H5 appeared in 1953. 
M.W.C. 63, H.D. 20017; 3 b 07l>9, +48°19'; 7-9, Bne 

Hydrogen and He I have very broad absorption, and He I is very weak. The 
emission at H/3 and Hy is weak and varies in width. V/R changes are noted, but 
frequently the double emission is difficult to resolve. An absorption core was seen 
at Hy in 1938, 1946, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957. 
M.W.C. 68, H.D. 21650; 3 h 24-6, +41°25'; 7-2, B5ne 

There are marked variations of intensity and V/R ratios of double emission at 
H/3 and Hy. Absorption cores at H/3 and Hy come and go. 
M.W.C. 76, H.D. 23982; 3 h 44-3, +63°11'; 8-1, B3e 

All absorption lines are broad. Weak, narrow, double emission is sometimes seen 
at H/3 and Hy with V = R. In 1960 and 1962 an absorption core was seen at Hy. 
M.W.C. 79, H.D. 24560; 3 h 49^3, +44°38'; 7-8, B(3)ne 

Absorption lines are broad. Emission is usually absent, though suggested by the 
weakness of H/3 absorption, but in 1945 and in 1960 and 1961 there was fairly dis- 
tinct narrow double emission at H/3 with V = R. 
M.W.C. 82, H.D. 26420; 4 h 05-7, +41°52'; 7-6, B3nea 

No emission was seen until 1960 when at H/3 double emission appeared with 
V = R; by 1961 both H/3 and Hy showed R > V and sharp absorption cores. 
M.W.C. 83, H.D. 26906; 4 h 10-l, -f45°58'; 8-6, B(3)ne 

From 1939 to 1951 H/3 showed strong double emission with V = R and an absorp- 
tion core at Hy. On the plate of 1953 the H/3 emission was absent, but seems gradually 
to have re-appeared between 1956 and 1960 when it occurs as narrow emission to 
the red of the centre of both H/3 and Hy, i.e. R 2£> V. 



322 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE II — Continued 

M.W.C. 86, H.D. 28497; 4 h 24™5, -13°17'; 5"?5, B3ne 

There is double emission at H/3 and H7 with variations in the intensity, V/R 
ratio, and in the strength of the absorption cores. 
M.W.C. 88, H.D. 29866; 4 h 37™3, +40°36'; G?l, B4ne 

Emission at H/3 and Hy is weak and sometimes resolved into double, sometimes 
not. There are V/R variations, and H7 at times has an absorption core. 
M.W.C. 93, H.D. 31293; 4 h 49™4, +30°24'; 7<?5 var., AOep; AB Aur 

Most plates show fairly wide emission to the red of centre at H/3, H7 and H5 
with a strong absorption core to the violet. The cores faded in 1950, returned in 
1956, disappeared in 1957 and returned in 1959. The emission strengthened and 
became more nearly central when the cores disappeared. On the 1961 plate H/3 
emission was double with R > V, H7 double with R = V. 
M.W.C. 107, H.D. 34921; 5 h 15»8, +37°55'; 7»4, BOne 

Emission at H/3 and H7 is double and there are well marked variations of V/R. 
M.W.C. 114, H.D. 37115; 5 h 31™0, -5°41'; 8™2, B5ne 

All plates show moderately wide double emission at H/3 with V = R. Since 1940 
there has been a sharp absorption core at H7, and since 1956 there has been double 
emission at H7 with V = R. 
M.W.C. 115, H.D. 37202; 5 h 31™7, +21°05'; 3?0, B3e; < Tau 

This well-known shell star exhibits many changes in the absorption and emission 
lines. The double emission lines at H/3 show marked variations of V/R, and the 
H7 core shows variations in intensity along with the other shell lines. Double emission 
was seen at H7 in 1955 and 1960 with V = R, but in 1961 only the violet component 
was seen. 
M.W.C. 139, H.D. 44637; 6 h 17'.'7, +15°09'; 7™7, B3e 

Hydrogen absorption is very broad; He I absorption is moderately strong and 
sharp. Emission was seen only at H/3, double with V/R varying, but usually with 
V =§= R. Emission was weakest in 1950. 
M.W.C. 140, H.D. 45314; 6 h 21™6, +14°57'; 7-1, B2ne 

All absorption lines are extremely broad and weak. Double emission with varying 
V/R was seen at H/3 and H7 except on the last plate (1962) when no emission at all 
was seen. 
M.W.C. 146, H.D. 45995; 6 h 25™6, +11°19'; 5™8, B2ne 

Absorption lines are broad and diffuse. Double emissions at H/3 and H7 vary as 
to V/R. 
M.W.C. 156, H.D. 50083; 6 h 46:5, +5°13'; 6™8, B2e 

Both H/3 and H7 show double emission with V/R variations. 
M.W.C. 159, H.D. 50209; 6 h 47?l, -0°10'; 8™3, B(5)ne 

Hydrogen absorption is very strong and broad; the relative strength of He I 4471 
to Mg II 4481 varies considerably. Double emissions at H/3, H7 and (since 1949) at 
H5 vary in width, strength and V/R. 
M.W.C. 164, H.D. 52721; 6 h 57«?2, -11°09'; 6-6, B3e 

Hydrogen absorption is wide but He I fairly narrow and variable in strength. In 
1939 H/3 emission was narrow and fairly strong, and in 1950 H/3 emission was weaker 



Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars 323 

TABLE II — Continued 

and H7 had weak double emission with R > V; thereafter emission was apparently 

absent. 

M.W.G. 174, H.D. 57386; 7 h 15™9, -8°15'; 8"?1, B5ne 

Absorption lines are fairly wide and moderately weak. H/3 emission is fairly 
strong, wide and double with variable V/R. H7 emission is weak and probably 
double. 
M.W.C. 188, H.D. 65079; 7 h 51™9, +3°14'; 7»>7, B3ne 

Hydrogen and He I absorptions are very broad. H/3 emission was moderately 
strong and double in 1939; it faded with time and changed slightly as to V/R; it 
was extremely weak in 1962. H7 emission is weak, probably double but not always 
resolved. 
M.W.C. 189, H.D. 65176; 7 h 52™4, -1°20'; 8™1, B(5)ne 

All absorption lines are extremely weak and broad. Weak H/3 emission was seen 
in 1949 and 1952, it was stronger in 1954 and double, with V = R; it was weaker 
in 1960, stronger again in 1962. In 1954 H7 emission was double, with R = V; it 
was weaker in 1960. 
M.W.C. 190, H.D. 65875; 7 h 55 n >8, -2°36'; 6-4, B2e 

Hydrogen absorption lines are fairly wide, He I strong and fairly narrow. H/3 and 
H7 emissions are narrow but probably double with V/R changes. 
M.W.C. 278, H.D. 164284; 17 h 55".<3, +4°22'; 4™8, B5ne 

Hydrogen and He I absorption lines are fairly wide. Weak double H/3 emission 
appeared at H/3 in 1946, was absent in 1951 and 1955, was very strong in 1959 and 

1960. H7 double emission also appeared in 1953, was absent in 1955 and 1956, was 
strong in 1959 and 1960. In all cases V = R. 

M.W.C. 292, H.D. 168957; 18 h 17<?3, +25°01'; 6">9, B5e 

All absorption lines are narrow. In 1938 emissions at H/3, H7, H5, He were strong 
and narrow; emission was replaced in 1946 by absorption cores which faded and in 
1951 were replaced by emission again. Emission was gone again in 1952, re-appearing 
in 1954, missing in 1958, replaced by absorption cores in 1959 which then faded in 

1961. The alternation of hydrogen emission lines and absorption cores was accom- 
panied by numerous changes in the many other absorption lines, e.g. He II 4686 
was quite strong in 1954. 

M.W.C. 307, H.D. 174886; 18 h 47™7, -10°21'; 8™1, B3e 

The hydrogen absorption is moderately wide, He I fairly sharp. Double H/3 and 
H7 emissions vary in V/R, width and intensity — weakening in 1951, strengthening 
then weakening again from 1955 onward. Absorption lines vary considerably in 
strength and sharpness. 
M.W.C. 308, H.D. 175863; 18 h 52">3, +59°53'; 6™9, B4e 

Hydrogen and He I absorption lines are fairly broad. A narrow single H/3 emission 
appeared in 1947, faded, and was gone by 1950. It returned in 1951 but was weak 
or absent later. The 1959 plate seems to show absorption cores at H7 and H5. 
M.W.C. 310, H.D. 177648; 19 h 00 n, 5, +23°11'; 6". 9, B3e 

Hydrogen and He I absorptions are fairly broad. Double H/3 emission comes and 
goes with variable V/R. When H/3 emission is strongest H7 has an absorption core. 



324 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE II — Continued 

M.W.G. 312, H.D. 180398; 19 h ll™3, +12°56'; 7™7, B(3)ne 

Hydrogen and He I absorptions are broad. Double H/3 emission is always weak 
and varies as to intensity and V/R ratio. Absorption core and signs of emission 
borders are seen at Hy when H/3 emission is most distinct. 
M.W.C. 317, H.D. 183143; I^StO, +18°05'; 6*?9, cB9ea 

This is a well-known, strongly reddened supergiant which shows the interstellar 
band at X4430 very strongly. On our plates H/3 absorption is sometimes strong, 
sometimes practically filled in, as though variable emission is present. He I 4387 
fluctuates in character between nebulous and sharp. On a plate of 1953 Sept. 8 a 
strong "absorption" feature appeared at X4447.5; it was gone on 1953 Oct. 16, and 
was seen on no other plate before or since. The feature may be a flaw in the emulsion, 
but it gives every appearance of being a strong absorption line. If the line is real 
the writers can suggest only XII 4447.03 by way of identification. 
M.W.C. 320, B.D. +5°4285; 19 h 41"?3, +5°44'; 8<?5, B5ne 

The absorption lines are extremely wide. H/3 and H7 show double emission with 
strong cyclical variations in V/R. 
M.W.C. 331, H.D. 192044; 20 h 07?8, +26°11'; 5™9, B8ne 

Hydrogen and He II absorption lines are wide, nebulous. The H/3 and H> emission 
lines are double, with variations in intensity and V/R. Cores show with varying 
sharpness at H7, H5, He. 
M.W.C. 332, H.D. 192445; 20 h 09™8, +36°02'; 7*1, B2ne 

Hydrogen and He I absorptions are very wide and weak. Generally the double 
hydrogen emissions are strong, showing as far as He; there are cyclical variations 
in the strength, width and V/R ratios. Other emission lines (e.g. Fe II 4383, He I 
4471) are seen at times. 
M.W.C. 336, H.D. 193009; 20 h 12T"9, -j-32°04'; 7<?0, BOne 

Absorption lines are very wide. Double emission at H/3 and H7 show cyclical 
variations in V/R ratios. Fe II 4383 is often seen in emission. 
M.W.C. 343, H.D. 194335; 20 h 20™0, +37°10'; 5™7, B3ne 

No emission was seen in 1939, but since 1946 double emission at H/3 has displayed 
V/R variations. 
M.W.C. 346, H.D. 195407; 20 h 26™0, +36°39'; 7*7, B3e 

Hydrogen and He I absorption lines are broad and weak except at times when 
shell characteristics appear, producing many sharp absorption cores. Double emis- 
sions at H/3 and H7 vary markedly as to V/R. Other double emissions appeared 
strongly at times (e.g. Fe II 4549 and 4583 in 1954). On several plates since 1952 
a wide absorption appeared at about X4650 (O II?). 
M.W.C. 347, H.D. 195592; 20 h 27™2, +43°59'; 7-2, cBle 

The hydrogen and He absorptions are sharp and strong, and many lines of Si III, 
N III, Si IV, Oil appear. No emission was observed except insofar as H/3 absorption 
varies somewhat in strength. 
M.W.C. 350, H.D. 196712; 20 h 34™0, -2°46'; 6™3, B9e 

The hydrogen absorptions are broad. At times we would classify as B8 or earlier, 
at other times as B9, as the ratio of He I 4471 : Mg 1 1 4481 varies. H/3 shows emission, 



Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars 325 

TABLE II — Continued 

broad and probably double, but never well resolved. Faint H7 emission was present 

in 1960. 

M.W.C. 352, H.D. 198183; 20 h 43™5, +36°07'; 4<?5, B6e; X Cyg 

The absorption lines are narrow and strong. Xo emission was observed and no 
changes. 
M.W.C. 353, H.D. 198478; 20 h 45<?5, +45°45'; 4™9, cB2ea 

This is the supergiant 55 Cyg. No emission was observed and no changes. 
M.W.C. 360, H.D. 200310; 20 h 57™6, +45°46'; 5^2, B3ne 

The hydrogen absorptions are rather narrow, the He I absorptions broad. The 
1946 plates showed double H/3 and H7 emission with V = R. Xo emission was seen 
in 1952 and later. The 1962 plate showed a sharp core at H-y. 
M.W.C. 361, H.D. 200775; 21 h 00'?4, +67°47'; 7™2, B5e 

Hydrogen absorptions are very broad, but He I and Mg II 4481 are fairly sharp. 
Strong double emissions at H/3 and H7 show variations of V/R; "shell" absorption 
cores at H7 and H5 vary in intensity. An unidentified emission feature at X4286 
appeared on the 1955 plate. 
M.W.C. 366, H.D. 203374; 21 h 16™7, +61°25'; 6™6, BOne 

Hydrogen and He I absorptions are broad. Double emissions at H/3 and H7 vary 
slightly as to V/R. 
M.W.C. 371, H.D. 205060; 21 h 27™7, +42°16'; 7-1, B5(n)e 

In 1938 and 1946 hydrogen and He I absorptions were broad with "shell" cores, 
but no emission was seen. Since 1952 double emissions at H/3 and H7 have appeared, 
varying in intensity and V/R ratio. 
M.W.C. 376, H.D. 206773; 21 h 39™3, +57°17'; 7'.0, BOne 

The spectrum of this star is about the most interesting of our list, showing remark- 
able variations. In 1938 there were strong narrow central emissions at H/3, H7, HS 
within broad weak absorptions. By 1940 H/3 and H7 showed wide double emission 
(V<R), and H5 was practically continuous. Thereafter the hydrogen emission 
doubles varied markedly in intensity, width and V/R. In 1951 the emission doubles 
were more like borders to strong absorption cores; He I lines shared this appearance 
with the hydrogen lines as far as they could be seen (to Hf). In 1953 the doublets 
were narrow, and V was barely visible at H7 and H5; in 1957 the V/R ratios were 
reversed; by 1958 the emission doublets were wider again and equal. Similar varia- 
tions continued. 
M.W.C. 381, H.D. 208682; 21 h 52'-9, +64°52'; 5l>8, B3ne 

Hydrogen and He I absorptions are broad and weak. Double hydrogen emissions 
vary in intensity and V/R. Other emissions, e.g. He I 4471, Fe II 4383 are present 
at times. Hydrogen absorption cores vary in strength. 
M.W.C. 383, H.D. 209296; 21 h 57'?2, +56°14'; 8»1, B(5)e 

On early plates hydrogen absorptions were broad and deep, He I weak, Mg II 
4481 stronger than He I 4471; type was then more like B9 than B5. Xo emission 
was seen until 1952 when (and thereafter) double emissions with V = R were 
present at H/3 and H-y. By 1961 He I 4471 was much stronger than Mg II 4481. H/3 
had an absorption core in 1946 which remained until 1956. 



326 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE II — Continued 

M.W.C. 394, H.D. 217050; 22 h 52™7, +48°09'; 5™2, B3ne 

The spectrum is that of a typical shell star with very sharp, strong hydrogen 
cores and many faint metal lines. H# and Hy show double emissions with slight 
variations of V/R. Some other emissions show at times. 
M.W.C. 395, H.D. 217543; 22 h 56<?3, +38°10'; 6™4, B3ne 

The spectrum shows marked variations. On the 1938 plates strong hydrogen 
absorption cores appeared as far as Hf on broad underlying absorptions; He I 
absorptions were broad and strong; the only emission was a suggestion of borders 
at H/3. By 1946 the emission borders at H/3 were stronger, Mg II 4481 was nearly 
as strong as He I 4471, and numerous metal lines were appearing in absorption. In 
1947 emission at H/3 was strong (V = R) and shell characteristics were more marked. 
By 1953 the emission at H/3 was weak or absent and the metal absorptions were 
very weak. In 1954 H/3 emission was stronger with V > R. Thereafter there were 
variations in the hydrogen emissions (intensity and V/R) and in the hydrogen core 
intensities, but the metal lines did not return in strength. 
M.W.C. 397, H.D. 218393; 23 h 02 I ?6, +49°40'; 6™8, Ave 

This well-known star, although classified as A-type, sometimes resembles a late 
B-type. It has a most peculiar spectrum, showing marked variations in both the 
absorption and emission lines. Our plates from 1938 to 1949 were studied in some 
detail by Halliday (1950) who discussed the coming and going of the a Cygni metal 
lines and the rhythmic variations in the radial velocities. The hydrogen absorptions 
are usually sharp, and there are usually double emissions at H/3 and Hy at least. 
The V/R ratios do not show the common pattern of variations; instead, the varia- 
tions are rapid and seemingly erratic, and more often than not the red component 
is much the stronger. It is when the emission doublets are nearly equal in intensity 
that the metal absorptions are the strongest and sharpest; they practically dis- 
appear when R » V. 
M.W.C. 402, H.D. 223501; 23H5-0, +61°39'; 8™2, B3e 

Hydrogen absorptions are very broad, He I somewhat narrower. H/3 and Hy 
were seen as double emissions on most plates with V/R variations. A weak Hy 
absorption core was seen in 1938. 
M.W.C. 407, H.D. 224559; 23 h 53<?8, +45°52'; 6™5, B3ne 

Hydrogen and He I absorptions are very broad. Emission doublets at H/3 and Hy 
are generally narrow, but vary in width and V/R. Hydrogen absorption cores vary 
in strength. 
M.W.C. 409, H.D. 225095; 23 h 58™3, +55°00'; 7"?6, Ble 

Hydrogen absorptions are wide, He I narrow. H/3 emission appears single, but 
Hy and H5 show emission doublets with V/R and intensity variations. He I 4471 
varies in width and strength and an absorption core was seen at Hy in 1960. 



Mount Wilson spectral type. For each star there is a brief summary 
of the more detailed descriptions of the spectrum and spectral varia- 
tions which are on our cards. 



Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars 327 

The V/R Variations 

Approximately 60 per cent of the Be stars in our list showed V/R 
variations. An attempt was made to study these for periodicity as 
follows: For both H/3 and H7, if possible, the V/R was estimated and 
classified according to the following scheme: 

V/R Class 1 V<&R 

2 V <R 

3 V = R 

4 V> R 

5 V»R 

For each suitable line on each spectrogram the V/R classification was 
estimated three times and the mean taken. These classification num- 
bers were then plotted as ordinates against time as abscissae, and the 
points were simply joined by straight lines. 

Those plots which demonstrated clear evidence of periodicity for 
H/3 and/or H7 V/R ratios are shown in figures 1 to 4 which include 
15 of the 60 stars. (The ordinates of the plots are V/R classes as 
defined above.) It is apparent that the variations are not strictly 
periodic, and not every plot lends itself to an estimate of period; but 
an effort was made to assign a period to each star in the following 
manner: First we averaged the intervals between successive crossings 
of V/R class 3 ( V = R) ; we noted that the H/3 periods tend to be 
longer than the H7 periods for those stars for which both are 
available. Using a method of linear regressions, we then assigned to 
each star a period (the "adopted" period) which we believe to be a 
mean period for H/3 and H7 suitably adjusted for the observed ten- 
dency of the H/3 period to be longer than the H7 period. The H/3, 
H7, mean, and "adopted" periods are given in Table III. 

The "adopted" periods range from 875 to 3955 days (2.4 to 10.8 
years). A histogram of these periods, shown in figure 4, demonstrates 
that the most frequent period is of the same order as the average 
period, namely 6.8 years. In assessing the significance of these results, 
however, one must remember that the stars selected are those which 
are in a stage of active V/R variability; by our method we may have 
automatically rejected stars which have slower fluctuations and which, 
over the past 24 years, have shown little variation of V/R. 

A search for a correlation between period and spectral type yielded 
no positive result. 



328 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



V/R 



H£ 



MWC 23 



yv 



~i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i- 



V/R 



a 



Hr 



MWC 23 



* i j i 



H)8 



MWC 29 



M 




MWC 29 



44.a_ 



t — i 1 — i 1 — i 1 — r 



MWC 49 




Hr 



MWC 49 



S, 



r 



..A-A-- 

■K--V--V/- 



-i 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 



H£ 



MWC 310 



fi\ 



N N 



I0 3 JULIAN CAYS 



H/9 



MWC 146 



■-A-i 




-i — i i — i — i i 



M M «i M M 



I0 3 JUUAN DAYS 



Figure 1 



Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars 



329 



V/R 



H/8 



MWC 312 




-i 1 1 r 



V/R 



H0 



MWC 395 




i i r 



H/9 



MWC 320 




-i 1 1 1 r 




MWC 320 



H£ 



MWC 332 






•-Mi- 



-l — i i 



Hr 



MWC 332 




T 1 1 1 - 



Hj9 



MWC 346 



= 5 2 V Vv 



in n *■ 

in io m 

•» » * 



I0 S JULIAN DAYS 



MWC 346 




-1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I— 

= e «> »> 



10* JULIAN CAYS 



Figure 2 



330 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



V/R 



MWC 336 




i i i 



H/9 



MWC 361 




i i i 



MWC 376 




~l I r- 



3 -s 



H£ 



MWC 381 




IO S JULIAN DAYS 



V/R 




MWC 336 



MWC 361 




Hy 



MWC 376 



\ 




-i 1 1 1- 



5 - 


Hr 


MWC 


3 - 


:::::d 


fe^z 


1 ■ 


i 1 i 


— i i — i — i — i 



* «r «r * 



N N 



10' JULIAN DAYS 



Figure 3 



Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars 



331 



V/R 






H£ 



MWC 407 





MWC 407 



10" JULIAN CAYS 



N N 

I0 3 JULIAN DAYS 



DISTRIBUTION 


OF PERIOD OF 


15 


V/R VARIABLES 


10- 






8- 










6- 










o 

z 










§ 4 - 










E 

2- 
























0- 

c 


1000- 
2000- 
3000- 


< 
< 
c 


> 
> 
> 

r 


PERIOD (DAYS) 





Figure 4 



332 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE III 

V/R Periods Obtained for 15 Stars 

Periods in days 



MWC 


w 


Hy 


Mean 


Adopted 


23 


2461 


2296 


2379 


2360 


29 


2850 


2720 


2785 


2798 


49 


3097 


2291 


2694 


2702 


146 


2160 






1980 


310 


1052 






875 


312 


2425 






2250 


320 


3890 






3720 


332 


2580 


1790 


2185 


2145 


336 


3805 


3830 


3818 


3955 


346 


2813 


1950 


2382 


2360 


361 




2090 




2340 


376 


2440 


2540 


2490 


2472 


381 




2155 




2390 


395 


1500 






1325 


407 




3660 




3610 



There does appear to be a tendency for the Hy V/R amplitudes to 
be greater than the HjS amplitudes: of the 11 stars for which the data 
are sufficient, seven show Hy amplitudes to be the greater, one shows 
H/3 amplitude the greater, and three show equal amplitudes. In a 
qualitative way this tendency might find an explanation on the 
rotating-pulsating model: the H7 central absorption, being formed at 
a lower level in the envelope might be expected to be subjected to 
wider velocity oscillations and so give rise to more notable V/R 
variations in the emission doublets. 

For four out of the 15 stars, the phase wherein V ^> R is definitely 
longer than that for R ^> V, whereas for the other 1 1 stars there is 
no noticeable asymmetry of this sort. On the rotating-pulsating model 
V^>R corresponds to the contracting phase of the shell; it would 
thus appear that in some stars this phase lasts longer than the ex- 
panding phase. 

Stars with Shell Characteristics 

For practically all the stars which show definite V/R variations we 
have noted variations in the intensities of the hydrogen absorption 
cores (shell characteristics). Eye estimates of these core intensities 



Spectroscopic Studies of 60 Be Stars 333 

were made and plotted alongside the V/R curves. No exact correla- 
tion was apparent, but, generally speaking, the strongest core intensity 
very frequently coincided with the V » R phase or followed it by an 
interval of less than one quarter of the V/R period. 

Taking account of all 60 of the stars investigated, 29 were noted 
as showing shell characteristics (in the hydrogen lines at least) at 
some time during the period of observation. These stars are M.W.C. 
8, 10, 23, 49, 63, 68, 76, 82, 88, 93, 114, 115, 159, 292, 310, 312, 331, 
346, 352, 360, 361, 371, 376, 381, 383, 394, 395, 397, 407. All but four 
of these stars are of Mount Wilson spectral types B3, B4 or B5; the 
exceptions are: AI.W.C. 93 (A0), M.W.C. 331 (B8), M.W.C. 352 (B6), 
M.W.C. 397 (A). This clustering of shell spectra about B3-B5 types 
confirms an observation by Struve (1942). We further noted, by 
simple averaging of spectral types, that the shell Be stars in our 
sample are very close to B4, whereas the non-shell Be stars are close 
to B3. The difference, we believe, is significant, indicating therefore a 
tendency for the shell characteristic to be somewhat rarer in the 
earlier-type Be stars. 

Conclusions 

Our conclusions from a sample of 60 Be stars chosen without 
reference to known spectral characteristics and observed over a period 
of 24 years may be summarized as follows: 

Fifty-four of the stars have shown emission at H/3. Of the remaining 
six, five are supergiants. 

Of the 54 stars showing emission at H/3, 36, that is, 67 per cent, 
have been classed as V/R variables. 

Periods have been determined for 15 of the V R variables. The 
mean period is 6.8 years. 

Twenty-nine of the stars showed, at some time or other, shell 
characteristics. These were nearly all of spectral types B3 to B5, and 
on the average were a little later than the Be stars which did not 
show shell characteristics. Fifteen of the shell stars are V/R periodic 
variables; among most of these stars maximum absorption core intensity 
tends to coincide with the phase V ^> R, or follow it by a small fraction 
of the period. 

ACKNOWLEDGMl \ I- 

This investigation was supported by the National Research Council of Canada 
by research grants for obtaining the spectrograms and for financial aid to one of 



334 Publications of the David Diinlap Observatory 

us (J.A.C.) as a graduate student in a Master's programme at the University of 
Toronto. 

We thank Mr. Michael Copeland for his help in preparing the diagrams. 

References 

Halliday, I. 1950, Jour. R.A.S.C, vol. 44, p. 149. 

McLaughlin, D. B. 1961, Jour. R.A.S.C, vol. 55, p. 73. 

Merrill, P. W. and Burwell, C. G. 1933, Ap. J., vol. 78, p. 87; 1943, Ap. J., vol. 

98, p. 153; 1949, Ap. J., vol. 110, p. 387. 
Struve, O. 1931, Ap. J., vol. 73, p. 94; 1942, Ap. J., vol. 95, p. 134. 
Underhill, A. 1959, Jour. R.A.S.C, vol. 53, p. 170. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
January 15, 1963 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 12 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 
INDIVIDUAL GLOBULAR CLUSTERS 

FIRST SUPPLEMENT 



HELEN B. SAWYER HOGG 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS, 1963 



Copyright Canada, 1963, by 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 
Printed in Canada 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF INDIVIDUAL GLOBULAR 
CLUSTERS 

FIRST SUPPLEMENT 
By Helen B. Sawyer Hogg 



I. Purpose 

The first bibliography of individual globular clusters was published 
by the writer in 1947 as volume 1, no. 20, of the Publications of the 
David Dunlap Observatory. Until that time, the extensive biblio- 
graphical material on globular clusters had been in an unwieldy state, 
so that a worker who wished to determine what had been done on any 
given cluster could do so only by a vast amount of searching of irrele- 
vant material. That such a compilation was needed has been proved 
by the number of requests the Observatory has had for it. 

Since that time, the card catalogue which formed the basis of that 
publication has been maintained continuously by the writer, who 
looks over all the astronomical literature of the world as it is received 
at the David Dunlap Observatory. From this catalogue this first 
supplement has been compiled, to include the literature from 1948 
through 1962, as well as earlier references brought to the writer's 
attention since the publication of the first bibliography. Of course, the 
Astronomischer Jahresbericht and the Bulletin Signaletique of the 
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique are a great help in pro- 
viding information. In the future it is definitely planned to issue 
supplements at shorter intervals of time. 

The literature on all clusters, both globular and galactic, is in a 
much better state of co-ordination than it was at the time of the 
original bibliography. This has been achieved through the efforts of 
G. Alter, J. Ruprecht and V. Vanysek of Prague in their publication 
of the "Catalogue of Star Clusters and Associations," 1957. In this 
monumental work, all references are indexed on cards 148 by 208 
millimetres under the individual clusters. Five annual supplements 
have already appeared, each as an Appendix to the Bulletin of the 
Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia, and a sixth is in prepara- 
tion. The writer is a co-author in these supplements. References to the 
original work in 1957 are indexed under individual clusters in this 

337 



338 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

David Dunlap bibliography, but the supplements are only listed by 
title in Section B because the references they contain are included in 
this present work. 

Despite this other bibliography, the writer considers that there is 
still a need for the present publication. The formats of the Czech and 
Canadian bibliographies are quite different, and each has its own area 
of usefulness. The Czech bibliography, for lack of space on the cards, 
does not give the title of the paper or the initials of the author, or the 
name of more than one author. The abbreviation of references has to 
be truncated, and the arrangement is not fully chronological or 
alphabetical. The David Dunlap Observatory bibliography attempts 
to avoid all of these difficulties. 

II. Use of the Bibliography 

The form of this supplement is essentially the same as that of the 
original bibliography. The plan for listing is as follows. A paper which 
deals principally with one, or a few, clusters is listed by author and 
title under each cluster in Section A. If a paper whose title is listed 
under one cluster (with which it is chiefly concerned) refers briefly to 
other clusters, this is noted under each of them by a "See also" direc- 
tion. On the other hand, a paper which is concerned with lists of many 
clusters, or one on a general subject which makes brief reference to a 
specific cluster, is listed under the cluster by date and author only. 
The title and complete reference will be found in Section B, which is 
arranged chronologically by year, and alphabetically by author within 
each year. When an author in this section has more than one paper in a 
year, a Roman numeral following the date distinguishes the paper. As 
a guide for the reader, many of these longer and more important 
references have been broken down into sub-sections, so that a perusal 
of Section B will show the sort of information the longer papers contain. 
We wish to interject a note of caution here, that some important papers 
on globular clusters are not included in this supplement because there 
is no mention of a specific cluster. 

The actual abbreviations for references have been carried on as in 
the first bibliography. In general the name of the place appears first, 
and the type of publication second. The word observatory is frequently 
taken for granted. Because of the fact that the bibliography is built up 
piece by piece over a long period of time, it is hard to achieve a complete 
uniformity in it. When useful plates or photographs accompany an 
article, this is usually, but not always, noted. Symposia are usually 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 339 

indexed under the year of publication which is frequently later than 
the year of presentation. An attempt has been made to include, as 
well as periodicals, astronomical books which contribute pertinent 
information. In general, material mentioned by directors in their 
observatory reports is not indexed because its usefulness is ultimately 
supplanted by the full publication of the research. In special instances, 
however, an observatory report has been included. 

It is inevitable that in a work of this magnitude errors and omissions 
will occur, though even - effort is made to keep these to a minimum. It 
has not been possible to include references from a few semi-popular 
periodicals in some foreign languages which are little understood in the 
English-speaking world, and hard to obtain in North America. Most 
of these accounts are popular interpretations of scientific papers pub- 
lished in regular journals and their omission is probably not serious. 

Because the study of variable stars in globular clusters constitutes 
an active branch of this field, we wish to note that references which 
give information on specific variables in globular clusters have been 
published by the writer in the two catalogues of variables in globular 
clusters, Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory, volume 1, 
no. 4, 1939, and volume 2, no. 2, 1955. Recently an article by Richard 
Stothers, A. J., v. 68, p. 242, 1963 (which is beyond the chronological 
scope of this bibliography) gives an extensive reference list for slow 
variables in globular clusters. 

III. Clusters included in this Bibliography 

In this supplement are included all clusters belonging to our galaxy 
which are currently classified as globular. Also included are several of 
the more recently discovered globular clusters, such as those from the 
Palomar list of Abell, which are well beyond the recognized limits of 
our own galaxy, but bear no obvious relation to any other. Not included 
in this bibliography are clusters which are considered members of the 
Magellanic Clouds or of any other external galaxies. 

With the above restrictions, 119 globular clusters are included. 
Figure 1 shows the distribution of these clusters in the new galactic 
co-ordinates, l 11 and b 11 . 

Table I is a catalogue of 119 globular clusters with some of the current 
data about them. The table is arranged in order of NGC number, and 
therefore not always in order of current right ascension. If there is no 
NGC number, the arrangement is by right ascension. New clusters are 
named for the observatory at which they were announced. 






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A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 347 

Columns 2 and 3 give the right ascension and declination for the 
epoch of 1960. (This is to provide a usable position for telescopes at 
present. Positions for the epoch of 1950 can be found in Section A.) 
Columns 4 and 5 are the galactic longitude and latitude on the new 
standards. Successive columns then give concentration class, apparent 
diameter, integrated magnitude, spectral type, colour, radial velocity, 
number of variable stars, magnitude of the 25 brightest stars, apparent 
modulus, and the distance in kiloparsecs. 

The footnotes to the table list certain clusters which have been 
dropped from the list of globular clusters, with references which give 
the reason for this. They also list references from which most of the 
material in the catalogue is derived. In the case of some clusters, 
however, the reader can obtain values from the material indexed in 
Section A. 

IV. Acknowledgments 

The reference sources for this publication were practically all avail- 
able in the libraries of the David Dunlap Observatory and the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. A few items, however, were obtained from the 
libraries of the Dominion Observatory, the Dominion Astrophysical 
Observatory and the National Research Council at Ottawa. It is a 
pleasure to acknowledge my debt to the librarians of these institutions 
for their help in locating references, especially to Mrs. Nancy McKenzie 
and Mrs. Jean Lehmann of the David Dunlap Observatory, and to 
Mrs. Joan Topley for preparing the final copy for the printer. 

I wish also to thank W. H. Clarke, Jr., and W. Greig for computa- 
tions of the new galactic co-ordinates; Dr. Herbert Wilkens of La 
Plata for supplying some corrections; Dr. Owen Gingerich of Harvard 
for early references; and Richard Stothers of NASA for previously 
overlooked references. And I thank especially Dr. George Alter of 
Prague for his information and encouragement. 

Richmond Hill, Ontario 
August 15, 1963 



SECTION A 

References for Individual Clusters 

a and 8 for 1950 



NGC 104 (47 Tucanae) a 00 h 21«? 9, 5 - 72° 21' /» 305°.89, 6 n -44°.90 

1908 Leavitt, H. S. 1777 variables in the Magellanic Clouds. Harv. Ann., v. 60, 

no. 4. (Announcement of HV 810, 811, 812, 813, 814). 
1951 McKibben-Nail, V. Variables in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Harv. Bull., 

no. 920. 

1957 Gascoigne, S. C. B., and Burr, E. J. Surface photometry of the globular 
clusters 47 Tucanae and Omega Centauri. M. N., v. 116, pp. 570-582. 

1958 Thackeray, A. D. 47 Tucanae — an interim report. Radcliffe Repr., no. 11, 
from "Semaine d'Etude sur le Probleme des Populations Stellaires," V Acad. 
Pontij. Set., no. 16; Ric. Astr. Vaticano, v. 5, pp. 69-73. 

1959 Gaposchkin, S. I. On two brightest globular clusters. A. J., v. 64, p. 331. 

1960 Feast, M. W., Thackeray, A. D., and Wesselink, A. J. 47 Tucanae: the member- 
ship of two RR Lyrae variables. M. N., v. 120, p. 64. First reference, T. D. 
Kinman, M. N., v. 119, p. 575, 1959. 

1960 Feast, M. W., and Thackeray, A. D. 47 Tucanae: radial velocities and spectral 
types of individual stars. M. N., v. 120, no. 5, pp. 463-482, with plates. 

1961 Crampin, J., and Hoyle, F. On the change with time of the integrated colour 
and luminosity of an M 67-type star group. M. N., v. 122, pp. 27-33; Summ., 
Quarterly Jour., v. 2, no. 3, p. 213. 

1961 Eggen, O. J. Three colour photometry of red variables. Roy. Obs. Bull., 

no. 29. 
1961 Hogg, A. R. Galactic clusters. Australian Scientist, v. 1, no. 4, pp. 217-224, 

with photo. 
1961 Kron, G. E. The unusual colors of two globular clusters of the Magellanic 

Clouds. A. S. P. Pub., v. 73, pp. 202-205. 
1961 Wildey, R. L. The color-magnitude diagram of 47 Tuc. Ap. J., v. 133, pp. 

430-437, with plate. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1928 Shapley, 1935 Walters, 1947a6d Sawyer, \9Mabde Paren- 
ago, Kukarkin, Florja, l9A9cefh Shapley, 19506 Becker, 1951ae Payne-Gaposchkin, 
1952Iabcd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953dt Rosino, 1954 Cimino, 
1954a Payne-Gaposchkin, 19546 Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, I95511bcd Sawyer, 19557a, 
lid Struve, 1956c Baum, 1956a Schmidt, 1956 Woolley, 1957 Stohl, 1957 Woolley 
and Robertson, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 19587, II Kinman, 
19586 Ledoux and Walraven, 19587c, II Sawyer Hogg, 1959 lad, Ilabei, III Kinman, 
19596 Larsson-Leander, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Ibeiktnop, lied, III Sawyer 
Hogg, 1959a6 Thackeray, 1960 Feast, Thackeray, Wesselink, 1960 Gingerich, 1960 
Sandage and Wallerstein, 19606ceg Wilkens, 1961a Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961 
Lohmann, 1961 Kurochkin, 1961 Michie, 1961 Poveda, 19617, lib, III Sawyer Hogg, 
1961 Woolley, 19617, 77 Woolley and Dickens, 1962 Aller, 1962776 Arp, 1962 van 
den Bergh, 1962 Fernie, 1962 King, 1962 Kinman, 1962 Michie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 7078 1961 King, 6838 1961 Stephenson, 104 1961 Wildey, 5139 1962 
Fehrenbach and Duflot, 6712 1962 Smith and Sandage. 

348 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 349 

NGC 288 a 00 h 50^2, 5 - 26° 52' Z"149°.66, b 11 - 89°.40 

1921/7 Gregory, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949a6cde Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 1952/oW Lohmann, 1953 Drever, 1953d Rosino, 1954 Cuffey, 
1954/ Zagar, \955IIbcd Sawyer, 1955//c Struve, 1956c Baum, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 
Shapley, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 195S/, // Kinman, 1959 Johnson, 1959/ad, 
Ila Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 1960ocg Wilkens, 1961 
Henon, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 362 a01 h 00™6, 5 - 71° 07' / n 301°.64, b 11 - 46°.25 

1935 Walters, 1947a6d Sawyer, \949abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce 
Shapley, 1952Iabcd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953d Rosino, 1954 
Cimino, 1954/ Zagar, \955IIbcd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956a 
Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 
1958/Sandage, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959/ad, Ilbi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami 
et al., \959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 19606cg Wilkens, 1961 Kurochkin, 1961 Pavne-Gaposch- 
kin, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Alter, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg.' 

NGC 1261 a03 h 10™9, 8 - 55° 25' / n 270°.56, b 11 - 52M2 

1947a6d Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949cc Shapley, 1952/afrc 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953d Rosino, 1954 Cuffev, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 
1956c Baum, 1957 Shapley, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 
1959/acd, Ilci Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al, \959Ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960W Wilkens, 
1962 Fernie. 

Palomar 1 « 03 h 25^7, 5 + 79° 28' / n 130°.02, 6 11 + 19°.06 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 
National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 67, pp. 258-261. (Discovery by Abell). 

1962 Kinman, T. D., and Rosino, L. Notes on faint star clusters. ^4.5. P. Pub., 
v. 74, pp. 499-506. 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 van den Bergh, 1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 
1958 Heckmann, 1959//) Sawyer Hogg, 1961/// Sawyer Hogg, 1962/ Rosino. 

Palomar 2 a 04 h 43T1, 8 + 31° 23' / n 170°.49, b 11 - 08°.98 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 
National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. A . S. P. Pub., 
v. 67, pp. 258-261. (Discovery by A. G. Wilson). 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 1959 Ip Sawyer Hogg, 1962/ 
Rosino. 

NGC 1841 a 04 b 52^5, 8 - 84° 05' / n 297°.02, b 11 - 30°.15 

1947a fed Sawyer, 19496 Shapley, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 1956c 
Baum, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Ip Sawyer Hogg, 19606d Wilkens. 

NGC 1851 a05 h 12?4, 5 - 40° 05' / II 244°.49, 6 11 - 35°.05 

1912 Knox Shaw, 1928a Ludendorff, 1947 Parenago, 1947aid Sawyer, 19486 Perek, 
1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, \952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1953d Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \955IIbd Sawyer, 1956c 
Baum, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1959 
Dzigvashvili, 1959/aid, Ilbi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Iip, III Sawyer 
Hogg, 1960 Kurth, 1960M Wilkens, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 



350 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 1904 (Messier 79) a 05 h 22»2, 5 - 24° 34' / II 227°.23, 6" - 29°.33 

1952 Rosino, L. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari VIII. Stelle variabili e distanza 
dell' ammasso globulare NGC 1904 = M 79. Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. V, 
no. 20; Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 23, pp. 101-107. 

1947 Parenago, 19i7abcd Sawyer, 19486 Perek, 1949abde Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 1953*' Rosino, 1954 
Gingerich, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \955IIbcd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 
van den Bergh, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
19587, II Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dzigvash- 
vili, 1959/<z6d, Ilbi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et at., \959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 1960 
Kurth, 19606 Roberts, 19606cg Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 
Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 2298 «06 h 47T2, S - 35° 57' J»245°.63, b 11 - 16°.01 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 19486 Perek, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, \952Iabd, II Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 
1955IIbd Sawyer, 19566 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 
1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/d, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et at., 1959/x> Sawyer 
Hogg, 1960 Kurth, 19606d Wilkens, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 2419 a 07 h 34™8, 8 + 39° 00' /»180°.37, 6" + 25°.25 

1959 de Vaucouleurs, G. Magnitudes and colors of galaxies in the UBV system. 
Lowell Bull., v. 4, no. 97, p. 105. 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 1949a6de Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 19±9bcde Shapley, I9521abd, IIIc Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 
Lohmann, 1953cd Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955IIbcd Sawyer, 1956c 
Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Stohl, 1958 
Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958 Naprstkova, 1958/6 Sawyer 
Hogg, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/d, Hi, III Kinman, 1959 Matsunami 
et at., \959Ibdip, He Sawyer Hogg, 19<50acfhikl Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 
19606 Roberts, 1960ace/ Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1961 Kurochkin, 1961/, lib Sawyer 
Hogg, 1961 Sharov and Pavlovskaya, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Kinman, 1962 Rosino and 
Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 7006 1954 Sandage. 

NGC 2808 a 09 h 10^9, 5 - 64° 39' / n 282°.18, 6 11 - 11°.26 

I947abd Sawyer, 19±9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, \955IIbd Sawver, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1959 lad, Ilbei Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Iip 
Sawyer Hogg, 19606cg Wilkens, 1962 Aller, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

Palomar 3 a 10 h 03-0, S + 00° 18' / II 240°.16, 6 11 + 41°.86 

1955 Wilson, A. G. Sculptor-type systems in the local group of galaxies. A. S. P. 

Pub., v. 67, pp. 27-29. (Discovery by Baade and Wilson independently). 
1958 Burbidge, E. M., and Sandage, A. Properties of two intergalactic globular 

clusters. Ap. J., v. 127, pp. 527-538, with plate. Ref., E. Opik, Irish A. J., 

v. 5, p. 118, 1958. 

1955 Abell, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958c Burbidge and Burbidge, 1958 
Heckmann, 1958/6 Sawyer Hogg, 1959/a>, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1961/// Sawyer 
Hogg, 1962 Kinman, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: Pal 1 1962 Kinman and Rosino. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 351 

NGC 3201 a 10 h 15™5, 5 - 46° 09' /» 277°.21, b 11 + 08°.64 

1953 Kholopov, P. N. Space distribution of RR Lyrae variables in the globular 
clusters M 5 and NGC 3201. Var. Stars. (Russ.), v. 9, pp. 371-378. Ref. Ast. 
News Letter no. 82, 1956. 

1956 Kreiken, E. A. A statistical study of pulsating stars. V. The variable stars 
in M 53 and NGC 3201. Fac. Sci. Univ. Ankara Cotnm., v. 8, p. 67; Dept. 
Astron. Ankara Comtn., no. 12. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948/ Sawyer, \949abde Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1952/aW Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//kd Sawyer, 1955//a 
Struve, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Kourganoff, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 

1957 Kholopov, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Kholopov, 1958/, // Kinman, 
1958/ Sandage, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 lad, Had, 
III Kinman, 1959 Kurochkin, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959 Preston, I9591ip Sawyer 
Hogg, 1960 Pavlovskaya, 1960ar/ Wilkens, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961/, /// 
Sawyer Hogg, 1961 Sharov and Pavlovskaya, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5272 1955 Kholopov. 

Bjurakan Object 10 h 52™0, +44° 44' l n 176°.39, b 11 + 62°.53 

1957 Shakhbazian, R. K. On a star cluster in the Big Dipper. Ast. Circ, (Russ.), 
no. 177, pp. 11-12. 

1961 Rosino, L. Notizie su un debole ammasso stellare e su un remotissimo 
ammasso di galassie. Padova Comm., no. 22; Accad. Patavina SS LL AA CI. 
Sci. Mat. Nat. Mem., v. 73, 1960-61. 

1962 Kinman, T. D., and Rosino, L. Notes on faint star clusters. A.S.P. Pub., 
v. 74, pp. 499-506. Not a globular cluster. 

1958 Heckmann, 1958/6 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Idp Sawyer Hogg, 1961/// Sawyer 
Hogg, 1962/ Rosino. 

Palomar 4 a ll h 26»6, 5 + 29° 15' / II 202°.31, b 11 + 71°.80 

1955 Wilson, A. G. Sculptor-type systems in the local group of galaxies. A. S. P. 
Pub., v. 67, pp. 27-29. (Discovery by Hubble and Wilson independently). 

1956 van den Bergh, S. Note on the globular cluster Abell No. 4. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 68, pp. 449-450. Summ., Sky and Tel., v. 16, p. 176, 1957. 

1957 Rosino, L. Sopra due ammassi globulari del catalogo di Abell. (No. 4 e No. 13). 
Asiago Cont., no. 85, with plate. 

1958 Burbidge, E. M., and Sandage, A. Properties of two intergalactic globular 
clusters. Ap. J., v. 127, pp. 527-538, with plate. Ref., E. Opik, Irish A. J., 
v. 5, p. 118, 1958. 

1955 Abell, 1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 van den Bergh, 
1958c Burbidge and Burbidge, 1958 Heckmann, 1958/6, // Sawver Hogg, \959Idp, 
He, ///Sawyer Hogg, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Kinman, 1962/ Rosino, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: Bjurakan 1957 Shakhbazian. 

NGC 4147 a 12»»07-6, 5 + 18° 49' / n 252°.89, b 11 + 77°.19 

1955 Sandage, A. R., and Walker, M. F. The globular cluster NGC 4147. A. J., 

v. 60, pp. 230-236. 
1957 Newburn, R. L. Jr. The RR Lyrae stars in NGC 4147. A. J., v. 62, pp. 197- 

203. 



352 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 4147 (cont'd) 

1958 Mannino, G. Periodi e curve di luce di sei variabili dell' ammasso globulare 
NGC 4147. Nota I and Nota II. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 29, no. 1, pp. 139-143; 
Asiago Cont., no. 87. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach, 
1948 Gamalej, 19486 Perek, 19±9abcde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 
1952/a6cd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953d Rosino, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Cuffey, 1954/ 
Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \9bbIIbd Sawyer, 1956ac Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 
19566 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Shapley, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
19586k Arp, 19586c Burbidge and Burbidge, 19587, // Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 
1958/ Sandage, 1958/e, // Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959c Arp, 

1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/d, Ilaji Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \9b9Ibdfip, He, 
III Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Eggen, 1960/// Hodge, 1960acfgijk Kron and Mayall, 1960 
Kurth, 1960/t Roberts, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960acf Wilkens, 19616 
Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1962/ Arp, 1962 Fernie, 1962 
Kinman, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5272 1956 Baker and Baker; 5272 1956 Johnson and Sandage. 

NGC 4372 a 12 h 23-0, 5 - 72° 24' J"301°.01, 6 11 - 09°.90 

1947a6d Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 19516 Bok (photo), 1951 
Thackeray, I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, \9bbIIbd Sawyer, 1956a 
Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Kinman, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 
1959/00", Ila Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 19606d Wilkens, 
1961a Haffner, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGG 4590 (Messier 68) a 12 h 36?8, 5 - 26° 29' / n 299°.62, 6 11 + 36°.04 

1938 Luyten, W. J. Bruce proper motion survey. II. A catalogue of 2350 variable 

stars found with the blink microscope. 065. Univ. Minnesota Pub., v. II, no. 

6. (HV 8460 - FI Hya). 
1948 Long period variable and M 68. B. A. A. Jour., v. 58, p. 196. 

1953 Rosino, L., Pietra, S. Periodi e curve di luce di stelle variabili nell' ammasso 
globulare NGC 4590 = M 68. Nota 1. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. XXIV, no. 4. 

1954 Rosino, L., Pietra, S. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari X. Periodi e curve di 
luce di 24 stelle variabili nell' ammasso globulare NGC 4590 = M 68. Univ. 
Bologna Oss. Pub., v. VI, no. 5. 

1959 van Agt, S. L. Th., and Oosterhoff, P. Th. Observations of variable stars in 
the globular clusters NGC 4590 (M 68) and NGC 6266 (M 62). Leiden Ann. 
v. XXI, 4th pt., pp. 253-290, with plates. 
1912 Knox Shaw, 1928a Ludendorff, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 19486 
Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949adc Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949cde Shapley, 1951 
Thackeray, \9b2Iabd, II Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 
1954 Perek, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \9bbIIbcd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 
van den Bergh, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
1958/, Hi Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 
1959/d, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al, \9o9Ifip Sawver Hogg, 1960acfik Kron 
and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961 Kurochkin, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 
1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 
See also: 6838 1956 Artjuchina. 

NGC 4833 a 12 h 56?0, 8 - 70° 36' l u 303°.b9, 6" - 08°.01 

19286 Ludendorff, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, 

Florja, 1952/a6cd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, \9bbIIbcd Sawyer, 1956 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 353 

NGC 4833 (cont'd) 

van den Bergh, 1956 Kreiken, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, 
Ruprecht, Yanysek, 19587, II Kinman, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959/ad, Ha 
Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., I9591ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960ftcg Wilkens, 1961/ 
Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 5024 (Messier 53) a 13 h 10^5, 5 + 18° 26' /"333°.00, ft 11 + 79°.76 

1956 Kreiken, E. A. A statistical study of pulsating stars. V. The variable stars in 
M 53 and NGC 3201. Fac. Sci. Univ. Ankara Comm., v. 8, p. 67; Dept. 
Astron. Ankara Comm., no. 12. 

1957 Cuffey, J. Color-magnitude relations in Messier 53 and XGC 7492. A. J., v. 
62, p. 91. 

1958 Cuffey, J. Color indices in M 53. Ap. J., v. 128, pp. 219-227; Goethe Link 
Pub., no. 24. 

1962 Cuffey, J. Variable star search in M 53. A. J., v. 67, p. 574. 

1928aft Ludendorff, 1938a Payne-Gaposchkin and Gaposchkin, 1946 Miczaika, 

1947 Parenago, 1947aftcd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach, 1948 Gamalej, 
1948ft Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949oftcde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949cef Shapley, 
1950^ Becker, 1952/050" Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Gingerich, 1953 Kholopov, 
1953 Lohmann, 1953a<ra*ei Rosino, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Cuffey, 1954 Gingerich, 19546 
Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955/Zftca* Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 van 
den Bergh, 1956c Morgan, 1956ft Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Shapley, 1958 
Alter, Ruprecht, Yanysek, 1958ftc- Arp, 1958 Heckmann, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958/ 
Sandage, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 
1959/0*, Hat Kinman, 1959 Kurochkin, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959ft Morgan, 1959 
Preston, \9o9Iikp, III Sawver Hogg, 1960aftcd/i£ Kron and Mavall, 1960 Kurth, 
1960ft/* Roberts, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960ac/ Wilkens] 1961aft Haffner, 

1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961/, /// Sawver Hogg, 
1962/ Arp, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962/7 Rosino, 1962 Sawyer 
Hogg. 

NGC 5053 a 13 h 13t9, 5 + 17° 57' / II 335°.55, ft" + 78°.95 

1949 Rosino, L. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari. II. Sui periodi e curve di luce 
di 10 stelle variabili appartenenti all'ammasso globulare XGC 5053. Univ. 
Bologna Oss. Pub., v. Y, no. 10 (photo). 

1947afta' Sawyer, 1948/, // Sawyer, \9A9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce 
Shapley, 19o'2Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953a> Rosino, 1954 Cuffey, 1954 
Markarian, 1954a Payne-Gaposchkin, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//ftd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 
1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Kreiken, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Shapley, 
1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Yanysek, 1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958/ Kinman, 1958 
Maffei (photo), 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959//a Kinman, 1959 Matsunami 
et al, \9o9Iip Sawver Hogg, 1960 Bowen, 1960 Ikhsanov, \9Q0acfik Kron and Mavall, 
1960 Sandage and \Yaller~stein, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961a Haffner, 1961/ Sawver Hogg, 

1962 Fernie, 1962 King, 1962 Sawver Hogg. 

See also: Pal 5 1951 Rosino, 6779 1951 Rosino, 5024 1958 Cuffey, 7492 1961 Cuffey. 

NGC 5139 (Omega Centauri) a 13 h 23l>8, 5 - 47° 13' / n 309 o .10, ft 11 + 14°.97 

1948 van Gent, H., Oosterhoff, P. Th. Provisional elements and light-curves of the 
variables 133 and 159 in w Cen. B. A. N., v. 10, pp. 377-382. 

1952 Kholopov, P. X. The ellipticity of globular clusters. A. J. UdSSR, v. 29, 
no. 6, pp. 671-681. 



354 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGG 5139 (cont'd) 

1953 Kholopov, P. N. Die raumliche Verteilung der RR Lyrae-Sterne im kugel- 
formigen Sternhaufen « Centauri. A. J. UdSSR, v. 30, no. 4, pp. 426-441. 

1955 FitzGerald, A. P. Note on globular cluster Omega Centauri. Irish A. J., v. 
3, p. 204; Armagh Leaflet, no. 38. (Plate 17, photo of cluster showing nebulosity). 

1956 Ege, D. A statistical study of pulsating stars. 14th paper. Irregular variables 
in a) Centauri. Fac. Sci. Ankara Comm., v. 8, no. 1; Dept. Astron. Ankara 
Univ. Comm., no. 21. 

1956 Kreiken, E. A. A statistical study of pulsating stars. 1st paper. The variable 
stars in w Centauri. Fac. Sci. Ankara Comm., v. 8, p. 40; Dept. Astron. Ankara 
Comm., no. 8. 

1956 Lindsay, E. M. The dimensions of Omega Centauri. Armagh Cont. no. 20; 
repr. from Vistas in Astronomy, A. Beer, ed., vol. 2 (two photos). 

1957 Gascoigne, S. C. B., and Burr, E. J. Surface photometry of the globular 
clusters 47 Tucanae and Omega Centauri. M. N., v. 116, pp. 570-582. 

1958 Arp, H. C. Southern hemisphere photometry. II. Photoelectric measures of 
bright stars. A. J., v. 63, p. 118, with plate. 

1959 Belserene, E. P. Magnitudes and colors in w Centauri. A. J., v. 64, pp. 58-64. 
1959 Gaposchkin, S. I. On two brightest globular clusters. A. J., v. 64, p. 331. 

1959 Kinman, T. D. A note on the RR Lyrae variables. M. N., v. 119, p. 134. 

1960 Thackeray, A. D. AW Vir variable in Omega Centauri. Obs., v. 80, pp. 
226-227. 

1961 Belserene, E. Pisani. Changes in the periods of RR Lyrae stars in Omega 
Centauri. A. J., v. 66, p. 38; Ref., Urania, Krakow, v. 32, pp. 310-311. 

1961 Eggen, O. J. Three colour photometry of red variables. Roy. Obs. Bull., 

no. 29. 
1961 Harding, G. A. A CH star in « Centauri. Obs., v. 82, no. 930, pp. 205-207, 

with plate. 
1961 King, I. The shape of a rotating star cluster. A. J., v. 66, pp. 68-70. 

1961 Ponsen, J. On the absence of 5 Scuti-type variables in u Centauri. B. A. N., 
v. 15, p. 326. 

1962 Fehrenbach, C, and Duflot, M. Deux etoiles a grande vitesse decouvertes dans 
le ciel austral. European Southern Obs. Comm., no. 2. 

192Sa Ludendorff , 1935 Walters, 1938abd Payne-Gaposchkin and Gaposchkin, 1940 
Shapley and Paraskevopoulos, 1943 Payne-Gaposchkin, Brenton, Gaposchkin, 1946 
Miczaika, 1947a6 (error in Dec.) d Sawyer, 19487 Sawyer, 1949 Gialanella, 1949 Joy, 
1949 Kholopov, \94Qabde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, \94Qcefgh Shapley, I950bceg 
Becker, 1950 Shapley, 1951a Bok (photo), 195labd Payne-Gaposchkin, 1952 
Kholopov, \952Iabd. Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, I953adegi Rosino, 1953 
Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Belserene, 1954a6 Payne-Gaposchkin, 19546 Rosino, 

1954 Woolley, 1954/ Zagar, 1955/ Arp, 19557, Ilbcd Sawyer, 1955/a, lid Struve, 
1956 Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Kourganoff, 1956c Morgan, 1956a Schmidt, 
1956 Woolley and Robertson, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957/7 von Hoerner, 1957 Kholo- 
pov, 1957 Poveda, 1957 Rosino, 1957 Stohl, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958e& 
Arp, 1958 Heckmann, 1958 Kholopov, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958a Ledoux and 
Walraven, 1958 Naprstkova, 1958/ Sandage, 1958//j, // Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt 
and Oosterhoff, I9591abd, Ilaci Kinman, 1959 Kurochkin, 1959 Matsunami et al., 
19596 Morgan, 1959 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1959 Preston, 1959 Sandage, \959Iabceimop 
(error in Dec.) Ilacd, III Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Eggen, 1960 Gingerich, 1960 Pavlov- 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 355 

NGC 5139 (cont'd) 

skaya, 1960a Roberts, 1960acf Wilkens, 1961 van den Bergh. 1961a Haffner, 1961 
Henon, 1961 Kurochkin, 1961 Lohmann, 1961 Michie, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961 
/, ///Sawyer Hogg, 1961 Woolley, 19617/ Woolley and Dickens, 1962 Aller, 1962//6c 
Arp, 1962 Fernie, 1962 King, 1962 Kinman, 1962// Rosino, 1962/ Sandage, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5053 1949 Rosino, 7078 1955 Kholopov, 3201 1956 Kreiken, 5272 1956 
Kreiken, 5904 1956 Kreiken, 707S 1959 Bronkalla, 5272 1959 Oort and van Kerk, 
7078 1961 King. 

NGC 5272 (Messier 3) a 13 h 39™9, 8 + 28° 38' / n 42°.24, b 11 + 78°.70 

1922 Graff, K. Ueber sekundare Wellen in den Lichtkurven der Sterne vom 5 

Cephei-typus. A. N., v. 217, p. 310. 
1922 Lindblad, B. Spectrophotometric methods for determining stellar luminosity. 

Ap. J., v. 55, pp. 85-118; Mt. W. Cont., no. 228. 
1927 Schilt, J. The short-period variable star RV Canum Venaticorum. Ap.J.,\. 

65, p. 124; Mt. W. Cont., no. 330. 
1947 Kholopov, P. N. The relative masses of the stars in the globular cluster M3. 

A.J. UdSSR, v. 24, p. 45. 
1947 Lohmann, W. Die Masse der kugelformigen Sternhaufen M 3 und M 13. 

Z.f. Naturforschung, v. 2a, p. 477; Stern. Konigstuhl-Heidelberg Mitt., no. 49. 
1950 Vandekerkhove, E. Etude d'amas resultants. Obs. Roy. Belgique Comm., no. 

18, pp. 23-26. 
1952 Arp, H. C, Baum, W. A., and Sandage, A. R. The H-R diagrams for the 

globular clusters M 92 and M 3. A. J., v. 57, pp. 4-5. 
1952 Belserene, E. Pisani. Period changes of variable stars in Messier 3. A. J., v. 

57, pp. 237-247. 
1952 Kholopov, P. N. The ellipticity of globular clusters. A. J. UdSSR, v. 29, 

no. 6, pp. 671-681. 

1952 Schopp, J., and Schwarzschild, M. Note on the color-magnitude diagram of 
Messier 3. A. J., v. 57, pp. 61-63. 

1953 Kholopov, P. N. La repartition spatiale des etoiles de types divers dans 
l'amas globulaire M3. A. J. UdSSR, v. 30, pp. 517-531. 

1953 Rabe, W. Astronomisches Tagebuch. Sternenwelt, v. 5, p. 65. (200-inch photo 

of outer region). 
1953 Sandage, A. R. Interpretation of color-magnitude arrays in globular clusters. 

Symposium on Astrophysics, University of Michigan. 

1953 Sandage, A. The color-magnitude diagram for the globular cluster M 3. 
A. J., v. 58, pp. 61-75. Ref., Sky and Tel., v. 13, p. 53, 1953. 

1954 Roberts, M., and Sandage, A. Group characteristics of the RR Lyrae stars in 
M 3. A. J., v. 59, p. 190. Sumra., Sky and Tel., v. 13, p. 220, 1954. 

1954 Sandage, A. R. The luminosity function for the globular cluster M 3. A. J., 
v. 59, pp. 162-168. 

1954 Undersokningar av de klotformiga stjarnhoparna M 3 och M 92. Pop. A. 
Tids., v. 35, pp. 76-78. 

1955 Arp, H. C. Cepheids of periods greater than one day in globular clusters. A. J., 
v. 60, pp. 1-17. 



356 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5272 (cont'd) 

1955 Kholopov, P. N. The structure of the system of bright stars contained in the 

globular cluster M 3. A. J. UdSSR, v. 32, pp. 309-313. 
1955 Pismis, P. On the period-luminosity relation in cluster-type Cepheids. A.S.P. 

Pub., v. 67, p. 253. 
1955 Roberts, M., and Sandage, A. The region of instability for RR Lyrae stars 

in the color-magnitude diagram for M 3. A. J., v. 60, p. 185. 
1955 Walker, M. F. A search for variable stars of small amplitude in M 3 and M 92. 

A. J., v. 60, pp. 197-202. 

1955 Zbijenojato. M 3 u Lovackim Psima. Vasiona, v. 3, p. 68 (Serbian). (Report 
on Sandage's work.) 

1956 Baker, R. H., and Baker, H. V. Ultraviolet light-curves of selected variable 
stars in M 3. A. J., v. 61, pp. 283-289. 

1956 Burbidge, G. R. On cluster-type variables and magnetic fields. Ap, J., v. 

124, pp. 412-415. 
1956 Johnson, H. L., and Sandage, A. R. Three-color photometry in the globular 

cluster M 3. Ap. J., v. 124, pp. 379-389. 
1956 Kreiken, E. A. A statistical study of pulsating stars. 4th paper. The variables 

in Messier 3. Fac. Sci. Univ. Ankara Comm., v. VIII, no. 1; Dept. Astron. 

Ankara Univ. Comm., no. 11. 

1956 Vandekerkhove, E. L'effet d'une population de type II sur le rougissement 
d'une nebuleuse extragalactique. Acad. Roy. Belgique. CI. Sci. Bull., (5) v. 42, 
pp. 185-200; Obs. Roy. Belgique Comm., no. 94. 

1957 Johnson, H. L. The relation between U-B and absolute magnitude of F-type 
stars. A. S. P. Pub., v. 69, pp. 404-408. 

1957 Osvath, I. Ueber die Periodanderungen der Veranderlichen im Kugelstern- 
haufen M 3. Konferenz iiber Veranderliche Sterne, Budapest, 1956; Stern. 
Ungar. Akad. Wiss. Mitt., no. 42. 

1957 Sandage, A. Observational approach to evolution. III. Semi-empirical evolu- 
tion tracks for M 67 and M 3. Ap. J., v. 126, pp. 326-340. 

1958 Reddish, V. C. Correlations in the deviations of magnitudes of stars in clusters. 
Obs., v. 78, pp. 247-249. 

1959 Eggen, O. J., and Sandage, A. R. Stellar groups. IV. The Groombridge 1830 
group of high velocity stars and its relation to the globular clusters. M. N., 
v. 119, pp. 255-277. 

1959 Kinman, T. D. A note on the RR Lyrae variables. M. N., v. 119, p. 134. 

1959 Kukarkin, B. V., and Kukarkina, N. P. An investigation of variable stars in 
the globular cluster M 3 = NGC 5272. I, A catalogue of photographic mag- 
nitudes of 81 stars in the outer regions of the cluster. Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 
12, no. 4, pp. 291-292. 

1959 Kurochkin, N. Variable stars in large vicinities of the M 3 cluster. Ast. Circ. 
(Russ.), no. 205, pp. 14-16. 

1959 Lamia, E. Ueber die spektrale Intensitatsverteilung und die Leuchtkraftver- 
teilung von Sternsystemen. Astrophys. Obs. Potsdam Mitt., no. 74; A. N. v. 
285, no. 1, pp. 33-48. 

1959 Oort, J. H., and van Kerk, G. Structure and dynamics of Messier 3. B. A. N., 
v. 14, no. 491, pp. 299-321. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 357 

NGC 5272 (cont'd) 

1959 Roberts, M. S. A search for neutral atomic hydrogen in globular clusters. 
Nature, v. 184, Supp. 20, pp. 1555-1556. 

1959 Sandage, A. On the intrinsic colors of RR Lyrae stars in M 3. Ap. J., v. 129, 
pp. 596-599. 

1960 Kurochkin, N. E. New variable stars in the remote neighborhood of M 3. 
Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 13, no. 2, pp. 84-100. 

1960 Kukarkin, B. V. Identification of two variables in globular cluster M 3. 

Ast. Circ. (Russ.), no. 216, p. 29. 
1960 Oort, J. H., and van Kerk, G. Internal motions and density distribution in a 

globular cluster. Ann. d'Ap., v. 23, no. 3, pp. 375-378. 

1960 VVhitford, A. E. Lick Observatory report. Globular clusters. A. J., v. 65, 
p. 534. Star von Zeipel 1128, spectrum and radial velocity. 

1961 Hoag, A. A. Cooled-emulsion experiments. A. S. P. Pub., \ . 73, pp. 301-308, 
photos. 

1961 Kron, G. E. The unusual colors of two globular clusters of the Magellanic 

Clouds. A. S. P. Pub., v. 73, pp. 202-205. 
1961 Kukarkin, B. V., Kukarkina, N. P. A study of variable stars in the globular 

cluster M 3 = NGC 5272. Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 13, no. 4, pp. 239-247. 
1961 Kukarkina, N. P., and Kukarkin, B. V. Variable stars with a Blazhko effect 

in the globular cluster M 3. Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 13, no. 5, pp. 309-316. 
1961 Kurochkin, N. E. Investigation of stars in the neighbourhood of the globular 

cluster M 3. Astr. Circ. (Russ.), no. 219, pp. 26-29. 
1961 Meinel, A. B. New frontiers of astronomical technology. Science, v. 134, 

p. 1165. (Cover, image orthicon of M 3). 
1961 Preston, G. W. The calculation of pulsation constants for the RR Lyrae 

stars in M 3. Ap. J., v. 133, pp. 29-38. 
1961 Sandage, A. R. The ages of the open cluster NGC 188 and the globular clusters 

M 3, M 5, and M 13 compared with the Hubble time. A. J., v. 66, p. 53. 
1961 Smak, J. On the P-(B-V) relation for RR Lyrae stars in M 3. Acta Astr., v. 

11, no. 2, p. 123; Warsaw Univ. Obs. Repr., no. 111. 

1961 Woolf, N. J. The distribution of horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster 
M 3. A. S. P. Pub., v. 73, p. 339. 

1962 Sandage, A. The ages of M 67, NGC 188, M 3, M 5, and M 13 according to 
Hoyle's 1959 models. Ap. J., v. 135, pp. 349-365. 

1962 Woolf, N.J. A fuel supply limit to the age of the globular cluster M 3. Ap.J., 

v. 135, pp. 644-646; Lick Cont., no. 126. 
1962 Woolf, N. J. Age of Messier 3. A. J., v. 67, no. 5, p. 286. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1935 Walters, 1936 Kuiper, 1938ac Payne-Gaposchkin and 
Gaposchkin, 1940 Oort, 1946 Miczaika, 1946 Vogt, 1947 Parenago, 19A7abcd Sawyer, 
1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach, 1948 Gamalej, 1948 Maitre, 19486 Perek, 194S7, 77 
Sawyer, 1949 Gialanella, 1949 Joy, 1949abcde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, \M9acdef 
Shapley, WoOcdfg Becker, 1950 Kurth, 19517, 77 Kurth, 1951acd Payne-Gaposchkin, 

1952 Baade, 1952 Camm, 1952 Kholopov, 1952/aW, Ilia Lohmann, 1953a Deutsch, 

1953 Kholopov, 1953 Lohmann, \95tiadehij Rosino, 1953 Shapley and McKibben, 

1954 Belserene, 1954 Bidelman, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Cimino, 1954 Cuffey, 1954 
Gingerich, 1954a6 Payne-Gaposchkin, 195-iab Rosino, 1954a6c Sandage, 1954 
Schwarzschild, 1954/ Zagar, 19557, 77 Arp, 1955 Baum, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955 
Hoyle and Schwarzschild, 19557, 77 Reddish, 19557, Ilbcd Sawyer, 1956aed Baum, 



358 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5272 (cont'd) 

1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Haselgrove and Hoyle, 1956 Kourganoff, 1956cd Morgan, 
1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Ferrari d'Occhieppo, 19577, 77 von 
Hoerner, 1957 Kholopov, 1957 Rosino, 19577, II Sandage, 1957 Seljach, 1957 Stohl, 
1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, I958abcdefghijkl Arp, \9oSabc Burbidgeand Burbidge, 

1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958 Heckmann, 1958 Kholopov, 19587, 77 Kinman, 
1958c Ledoux and Walraven, 1958 Maffei (photo), 19587, 77 Sandage, 1958 Saurer, 
1958Idefh, II Sawyer Hogg, 1958 Vandekerkhove, 1958 Wallerstein, 1959 van Agt 
and Oosterhoff, I959abcd Arp, 1959 Baum, 1959 Dzigvashvili, \959Id, Ilaghij 
Kinman, 1959 Kraft, Camp, Hughes, 1959 Kurochkin, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959bd 
Morgan, 1959 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1959 Preston, 1959 Preston and Spinrad, 1959 
Sandage, 1959 1 efg'hiklmnp, Ilac, III Sawver Hogg, 1959 Spinrad, 1959 Struve, 1959 
Wallerstein, 1959 Wilson, \9<69abcd Burbidge, 1960 Eggen, 196077, 777 Hodge, 1960 
Johnson, I9fflabcdfgijk Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960 Pavlovskaya, 1960bfgh 
Roberts, 1960 Sandage and Eggen, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960acef Wilkens, 
1961 van den Bergh, 19616 Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961 Kurochkin, 1961 Lohmann, 

1961 Michie, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961 Poveda, 1961 Preston, 19617, 776, 777 
Sawyer Hogg, 1961 Stothers and Schwarzschild, 1961 Woolley, 19617 Woolley and 
Dickens, 19627, 77ac Arp, 1962 van den Bergh and Henrv, 1962 Eggen and Sandage, 

1962 Fernie, 1962 King, 1962 Kumar, 196277 Rosino, 19627, 77 Sandage, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Struve. 

See also: 5053 1949 Rosino, 6341 1953 Arp, Baum, Sandage, 6205 1954 Baum, 
6838 1954 Becker, 6205 1954 Savedoff, 6341 1954 Tavler, 6205 1955 Brown, 7078 
1955 Kholopov, 4147 1955 Sandage and Walker, 6838 1956 Artjuchina, Pal 4 1956 
van den Bergh, 6121 1956 Kholopov, 3201 1956 Kreiken, 6205 1956 Savedoff, 5024 

1957 Cuffev, 7078 1957 Izsak, 5024 1958 Cuffev, 104 1958 Thackeray, 5904 1958 
Wallerstein, 6656 1959 Arp and Melbourne, 7078 1959 Bronkalla, 5139 1959 Belserene, 
5904 1959 Wallerstein, 5904 1960 Epstein, 104 1960 Feast and Thackeray, 7492 1961 
Cuffev, 6121 1961 Idlis, 6838 1961 Stephenson, 104 1961 Wildey, 6205 1962 King, 
6356 1962 Wallerstein. 

NGC 5286 a 13 h 43™0, S -51° 07' l n 3U°.57, b 11 + 10°.58 

19i7abd Sawver, l9A9ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 19547 Zagar, 19557, Ilbd Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 19597ad, Ilbi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Iip 
Sawyer Hogg, 1960ad Wilkens, 19617 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 5466 a 14 h 03r2, S + 28° 46' / n 42°.13, b 11 + 73°.59 

1959 Kukarkin, B. V. On five variable stars near globular cluster NGC 5466. Var. 
Stars (Russ.), v. 12, no. 1, pp. 50-52. 

1961 Cuffey.J. NGC 5466. A. J., v. 66, 71-82 ;GoetheLink Pub. no. 43, with charts. 

1961 Kurochkin, N. E. New variable stars at high galactic latitudes. Var. Stars 
(Russ.), v. 13, no. 5, pp. 331-339. 

1928a6 Ludendorff, 1947a6d Sawver, 19487 Sawyer, 19A9abcde Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 19527a6d Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953 
Lohmann, 1953d Rosino, 1954 Cuffey, 1954 Huang, 19547 Zagar, \955IIbd Sawyer, 
1956c Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Kreiken, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 van den 
Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1959 
van Agt and Oosterhoff, 195977a Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Icip (photo) 
Sawver Hogg, 1960ac/t& Kron and Mayall, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960ace/ 
Wilkens, 1961a Haffner, 1961 Kurochkin, 19617, 77a, 777 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 

1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: Pal 5 1951 Rosino, 5024 1958 Cuffev, 7492 1961 Cuffey. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 359 

NGC 5634 a 14 h 27?0, 5 - 05° 45' / II 342°.22, b 11 + 49°.26 

1915 Knox Shaw, 1915 Stone, 1921/ Gregory, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 
1948 Becker, 194S Fehrenbach, 1948 Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, I9521abcd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 
1953d Rosino, 1954 Blamont, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955//6d Sawyer, 
1956c Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 Shapley, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 
1959/d, //* Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \9b9Iip Sawver Hogg, IQQOacfhik Kron 
and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960acf Wilkens, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 5694 a 14 h 36?7, S - 26° 19' / n 331°.06, b u + 30°.37 

1915 Stone, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 1948a Perek, 1949acde 
Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, \952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 
1953d Rosino, 1954 Perek, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955/, Ilbd Sawver, 1956c 
Baum, 19566 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1959 
Dzigvashvili, 1959/d, Hi, III Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \9o9Iip Sawyer 
Hogg, 19Wacfik Kron and Mayall, 1960or/ Wilkens, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 
Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

IC 4499 a 14 h 52 I ?7, 5 - 82° 02' / II 307°.36, b 11 - 20°.50 

1947a6d Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 19496 Shapley, 1952/a6d 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawver, 1956c Baum, 1958 Alter, 
Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Ip Sawyer Hogg, 19606d Wilkens. 

NGC 5824 a 15 h 00™9, 5 - 32° 53' / u 332 .55, b 11 + 22°.06 

1961 Rosino, L. New variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 5824. A. S. P. 
Pub., v. 73, pp. 309-313, with plates; Asiago Cont., no. 129. 

1947 Parenago, \9i7abd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 1949ade Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/a6d Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 
1955//a Sawver, 1956c Baum, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959/d, Hi Kinman, 1959 
Matsunami et al., 1959/p Sawver Hogg, 1960acfik Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 
1960ad Wilkens, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

Palomar 5 a 15 h 13™5, S + 00° 05' / n 00°.86, 6 n + 45°.87 

1951 Rosino, L. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari. VI. L'ammasso globulare d 

Baade in A.R. 15 h 13 m 30 s , E.D. 4-0° 4' (1950.0). Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub. 

v. V, no. 15. 

1955 Wilson, A. G. Sculptor-type systems in the local group of galaxies. A. S. P 
Pub., v. 67, pp. 27-29. (Discovery). 

1956 Pietra, S. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari. XIII. Periodi e curve di luce d 
stelle variabili neH'ammasso globulari di Baade in AR 15 h 13 m 30 8 ; D +0° 4 
(1950.0). Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. VI, no. 16. 

1956 Mannino, G. Sul periodo di due stelle variabili nell'ammasso globulare di 
Baade in AR 15 h 13 m 30 9 , D 4- 0° 4' (1950.0). Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem. (NS) 
v. 27, pp. 415-416; Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. 6, no. 17. 

1962 Kinman, T. D., and Rosino, L. Notes on faint star clusters. A. S. P. Pub. 
v. 74, pp. 499-506. 

1953e/ Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 Abell (No. 5), 1956 van den Bergh, 1957 Rosino 
1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19.59/r> Sawyer Hogg, 1960ad Wilkens, 1961/ 
Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Kinman, 1962/ Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 



360 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 5897 a 15 h 14t5, 5 - 20° 50' J II 342°.94 b n + 30°.29 

1915 Knox Shaw, I9£7abd Sawyer, I9i9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce 
Shapley, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953d Rosino, 1953 Sawyer, 1954 Blamont, 
1954/ Zagar, 1955IIbd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956a Schmidt, 
1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958 Heckmann, 
19587, 77 Kinman, 195977a Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 
1960acfhik Kron and Mayall, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961 
Henon, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 5904 (Messier 5) a 15 h loT'O, S + 02° 16' /"03°.86, 6" + 46°.80 

1949 Sawyer, H. B. The early discovery of four globular clusters. R. A. S. C. Jour., 

v. 43, p. 45. 
1953 Kholopov, P. N. Space distribution of RR Lyrae variables in the globular 

clusters M 5 and NGC 3201. Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 9, pp. 371-378; Ast. News 

Letter, no. 82, 1956. 

1955 Arp, H. C. Cepheids of period greater than one day in globular clusters. 
A. J., v. 60, pp. 1-17. 

1956 Kreiken, E. A. A statistical study of pulsating stars. 3rd paper. The variable 
stars in Messier 5. Fac. Sci. Univ. Ankara Comm., v. 8, no. 1; Dept. Astr. 
Ankara Comm., no. 10. 

1957 Arp, H. C. Three color photometry of Cepheids W Virginis, M 5 Nos. 42 and 
84, and M 10 Nos. 2 and 3. A. J., v. 62, pp. 129-136. 

1958 Reddish, V. C. Correlations in the deviations of magnitudes of stars in clusters. 
Obs., v. 78, pp. 247-249. 

1958 Wallerstein, G. Radial velocities and spectral characteristics of the population 
II Cepheids M 5 no. 42, M 5 no. 84 and TW Capricorni. Ap. J., v. 127, pp. 
583-590. (Plates of spectra). 

1959 Wallerstein, G. Effective temperatures, radii, masses and pulsation properties 
of the population II Cepheids M 5 no. 42 and W Virginis. Ap. J., v. 129, 
pp. 356-361. 

1959 Wallerstein, G. The shock-wave model for the population 1 1 Cepheids. Ap. J., 
v. 130, pp. 560-569. (No. 42 in M 5, with print of spectra). 

1960 Epstein, E. E. Test for variability of stars near the RR Lyrae gap in M 5. 
Ap. J., v. 131, pp. 517-518; Harv. Repr., no. 550. 

1961 Preston, G. W. Low-dispersion spectra of RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters. 
Ap. J., v. 134, no. 2, pp. 651-652; Lick Cont., no. 119. 

1961 Sandage, A. R. The ages of the open cluster NGC 188 and the globular clusters 
M 3, M 5, and M 13 compared with the Hubble time. A. J., v. 66, p. 53. 

1962 Arp, H. The globular cluster M 5. Ap. J., v. 135, pp. 311-332, with plates. 
1962 Sandage, A. The ages of M 67, NGC 188, M 3, M 5, and M 13 according to 

Hoyle's 1959 models. Ap. J., v. 135, pp. 349-365. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1935 Walters, 1938abc Payne-Gaposchkin and Gaposchkin, 1946 
Miczaika, 1947 Parenago, 1947abcd Sawyer, 1948 BAAJ, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehren- 
bach (error in no.), 1948 Gamalej, 19486 Perek, 19487, 77 Sawyer, 1949 Joy, I949abcde 
Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949acdef Shapley, I9o0cdefg Becker, 1950 Kurth, 
19517, 77 Kurth, 1952 Camm, 19527afcd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 
1953 Lohmann, 1953di Rosino, 1953 Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Belserene, 1954 
Bidelman, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 1954a Payne-Gaposchkin, 1954& Rosino, 






A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 361 

NGC 5904 (cont'd) 

1954a Sandage, 1954/ Zagar, 19557, 77 Arp, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955/7 Reddish, 
19557, Ilbcd Sawyer, 1956ac Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Kourganoff, 1956c 
Morgan, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Ferrari d'Occhieppo, 1957 
Kholopov, 1957 Roman, 1957 Rosino, 1957 Stohl, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
1958abdej Arp, 1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958 Kholopov, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958 
Maffei (photo), 1958/ Sandage, 1958Ieh, II Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Ooster- 
hoff, I959abcd Arp, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959Iabd, Ilafhij Kinman, 
1959 Kraft, Camp and Hughes, 1959 Kurochkin, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596 
Morgan, 1959 Preston, 1959 Sandage, 1959 Iafikop, Ha, III Sawyer Hogg, 1960 
abcdjgijkl Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960 Pavlovskaya, 19606A Roberts, 1960 
Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1960 Wallerstein and Carlson, 1961 van 
den Bergh, 1961a6 Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961/, lib. Ill Sawyer 
Hogg, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961 Stothers and Schwarzschild, 1962/, Ilabcd Arp, 
1962 Banner, Hiltner and Kraft, 1962 van den Bergh, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Kumar, 
1962// Rosino, 1962/, // Sandage, 1962 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Struve. 

See also: 5053 1949 Rosino, 7099 1949 Rosino, 6205 1954 Baum, 5272 1955 Kholopov, 
7078 1955 Kholopov, 5272 1955 Roberts and Sandage, 3201 1956 Kreiken, 5272 
1956 Kreiken, 104 1957 Gascoigne and Burr, 7078 1957 Izsak, 6656 1959 Arp and 
Melbourne, 7078 1959 Bronkalla, 5272 1959 Oort and van Kerk, 5272 1961 Smak, 
6397 1961 Woolley et al. 

NGC 5927 a 15 h 24™4, 5 - 50° 29' /"326°.63, b u + 04°.86 

1947aia' Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 195577a Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 19587, II Kinman, 1959/cd, Ilci Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959/p 
Sawyer Hogg, 1960ad Wilkens, 1962 Fernie. 

NGC 5946 a 15 h 31^8, 5 - 50° 30' / II 327°.58, 6" + 04°.19 

1947a6d Sawver, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Mat- 
sunami et al., 1959Idp Sawyer Hogg, 1960ad Wilkens. 

NGC 5986 a 15 h 42<?8, 8 - 37° 37' / n 337°.04, 6 11 + 13°.28 

1962 Rosino, L. Ricerche neU'emisfero australe. III. Stelle variabili negli ammassi 
globulari NGC 5986, 6304, 6558, 6569, 6637 (M 69), 6681 (M 70) e zone attigue. 
Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. XXXIII, no. 4; Asiago Cont., no. 132. 

1935 Walters, 1947 Parenago, 1947a bd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 194S6 Perek, 1949adc 
Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/a6d Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1954 
Cimino, 19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955IIbd Sawyer, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 
Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 
1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/d, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19597x> Sawyer 
Hogg, 1960ar/Y£ Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960ad Wilkens, 1961 /// Sawyer 
Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

Palomar 14 « 16 h 08™8, 5 + 15° 05' / n 28°.77, b n + 42M5 

1959 Arp, H. C. The absolute magnitudes, colors, and metal abundances of stars 
in globular clusters. A. J., v. 64, pp. 441-447. (Page 446, position of new 
globular cluster discovered by van den Bergh.) 

1960 Arp, H., and van den Bergh, S. A new faint globular cluster. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 72, p. 48, with print. 

19616 Haffner. 



362 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6093 (Messier 80) a 16 h Hffl, 5 - 22° 52' / n 352°.67, b u + 19°.45 

1961 Eggen, O. J. Three colour photometry of red variables. Roy. Obs. Bull., no. 29. 
19286 Ludendorff, 1941 Merrill, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 Becker. 
19486 Perek, 19487, 77 Sawyer, 1949 Joy, 1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 
1950eg Becker, 19516 Payne-Gaposchkin, 19527a6cd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 
Lohmann, 1953i Rosino, 1953 Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Bidelman, 1954 Blamont, 
1954 Gingerich, 19546 Payne-Gaposchkin, 19546 Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von 
Hoerner, 1955776a/ Sawyer, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Kreiken, 1956a6 Schmidt, 
1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 
195877 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 19597d, 77a*' Kinman, 1959 Matsunami 
el al., I9591ip, lid Sawyer Hogg, 1960acfik Kron and Mayall, 1960acf Wilkens, 

1961 Henon, 19617, 777 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 

1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6101 a 16 h 2(M), 5 - 72° 06' / n 317°.73, 6 11 - 15°.83 

1947a6d Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, \9b'2Iabd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 19547 Zagar, 195577a Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1959 Matsunami el al., 19597/? Sawyer Hogg, 19606d 
Wilkens, 1962 Fernie. 

NGC 6121 (Messier 4) a 16 h 20™6, 5 - 26° 24' / n 350°.99, 6" + 15°.97 

1949 Sawyer, H. B. The early discovery of four globular clusters. R. A. S. C. Jour., 
v. 43, p. 45. 

1956 Kholopov, P. N. Spatial distribution of stars of various types in the globular 
cluster M 4. A.J. UdSSR, v. 33, p. 46. 

1959 Idlis, G. M., and Nikol'skii, G. M. The diffuse medium in globular clusters. 

A. J. UdSSR, v. 36, no. 4, p. 668; Soviet Astronomy, AJ, v. 3, no. 4, p. 652, 1960. 
1961 Idlis, G. M. A confirmation of the presence of a diffuse medium in globular 

stellar clusters. A. J. UdSSR, v. 38, p. 184; Soviet Astronomy AJ, v. 5, no. 1, 

pp. 135-136. 

1963 Hoffmeister, C. Veranderliche Sterne am Sudhimmel. Sonneberg Verqff.,v. 6, 
no. 1, p. 7. 

1943 Payne-Gaposchkin, Brenton, Gaposchkin, 1946 Miczaika, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 
1948 King, 1948 Maitre, 19487 Sawyer, 1949 Gialanella, 1949 Jov, 1949a6de Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 1949<//g Shapley, 1950d/g Becker, 1950 Kurth, 19517, 77 Kurth, 
19527a6cd, 777c Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953 Lohmann, 1953y 
Rosino, 1953 Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 1954a Payne- 
Gaposchkin, 1954a Rosino, 19547 Zagar, 1955776cd Sawyer, 19566 Baum, 1956 van 
den Bergh, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 195777 von Hoerner, 1957 Kholopov, 

1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958e Arp, 1958 Heckmann, 1958 
Kholopov, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 19587 Sandage, 195877 Sawyer 
Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 19597a6d, 77ad Kinman, 1959 Kurochkin, 1959 
Matsunami et al., 1959 Preston, 1959Idkip Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Gingerich, \9G0acfik 
Kron and Mayall, 1960a Roberts, 1960ar/ Wilkens, 1961 van den Bergh, 19616 
Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961 I, III Sawyer Hogg, 1962 
Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5272 1953 Sandage, 5272 1955 Kholopov, 7078 1955 Kholopov. 

NGC 6139 a 16 h 24°?3, 5 - 38° 44' / II 342°.37, 6 11 + 06°.94 

192177 Gregory, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1949adc Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 19527a6d 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 19547 Zagar, 195577a Sawyer, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 19597acd, 77ci Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19597/> 
Sawyer Hogg, 1960ad Wilkens, 1962 Fernie. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 363 

NGC 6144 a 16 h 24™2, 8 - 25° 56' /"351°.92, 6" + 15°.68 

I947abd Sawyer, 19A9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, I95'21abd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1953/ Rosino, 1953 Sawyer, 1954/ Zagar, \9o5IIbd Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 
1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Yanvsek, 1958 Maffei (photo), 1959 Matsunami et al., \9o9Iip 
Sawyer Hogg, 1960ar/i'fc Kron and Mayall, 19Wad Wilkens, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6171 (Messier 107) a 16 h 29?7, 5 - 12° 57' / n 03°.37, b 11 + 23°.02 

1948 Sawyer, H. B. Mechain's additions to Messier's catalogue. A. J., v. 53, p. 117. 

1960 Kukarkin, B. V. Preliminary results of investigation of variables in the globular 
cluster NGC 6171. Astr. Circ. (Russ.), no. 216, p. 17. 

1961 van Agt, S. L. Th. Pseudo-colour-magnitude diagram of the globular cluster 
NGC 6171. B. A. N., v. 15, no. 508, pp. 327-329, with plate. 

1961 Kukarkin, B. V. A study of variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 6171. 

Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 13, no. 6, pp. 384-389. 
1961 Mannino, G. Periodi e curve di luce di 10 stelle variabili deH'ammasso globu- 

lare NGC 6171. Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. 7, no. 18. 

1947 Parenago, \9A7abcd Sawyer, 1948 BAAJ, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach, 
19486 Perek. 1948/ Sawyer, \9±9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, \9b2Iabd Loh- 
mann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 1954 Gingerich, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 
I95511bcd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956ab Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
1958/, // Kinman, 1959/rf, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \9o9Idip, III 
Sawyer Hogg, 19G0acdefik Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, \9Wbd Roberts, 1960ace/ 
Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6205 (Messier 13) a 16 h 39T9, 5 + 36° 33' / n 59°.00, 6" + 40°.91 

1922 Lindblad, B. Spectrophotometric methods for determining stellar luminosity. 

Ap. J., v. 55, pp. 85-118; Mt. W. Cont., no. 228. 
1947 Lohmann, W. Die Masse der kugelformigen Sternhaufen M 3 und M 13. 

Z.f. Naturjorschung, v. 2a, p. 477; Kbnigstuhl-Heidelberg Mitt., no. 49. 
1950 Vandekerkhove, E. Etude d'amas resultants. Obs. Roy. Belgique Comm., 

no. 18, pp. 23-26. 
1952 Fatchikin, N. V. Determination of the proper motion of the globular cluster 

M 13. Pulkova Bull., v. 19, pp. 150-154. 
1952 Hoag, A. A. Photoelectric photometry of M 13. A. J., v. 57, p. 13. 
1954 Baum, W. A. Globular clusters. II. The tentative identification of the main 

sequence of population II from photoelectric observations in M 13. A. J., 

v. 59, pp. 422-432. 

1954 Savedoff, M. P. Color magnitude array of M 13. A. J., v. 59, p. 192. 

1955 Arp, H. C. Cepheids of period greater than one day in globular clusters. 
A. J., v. 60, pp. 1-17. 

1955 Arp, H. C, and Johnson, H. L. The globular cluster M 13. Ap. J., v. 122, 

pp. 171-176. 
1955 Baum, W. A. Counting photons one by one. Sky and Tel., v. 14, p. 334. 

(Photo and key to sequence for M 13). 
1955 Brown, A. Color-magnitude array for stars in the globular cluster M 13. 

Ap. J., v. 122, pp. 146-170; McDonald Cont., no. 256. 



364 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6205 (cont'd) 

1957 Kron, G. E. Star clusters, in and out of the galaxy. A. S. P. Leaflet, no. 339, 

with photo. 
1959 Baum, W. A., Hiltner, W. A., Johnson, H. L., and Sandage, A. The main 

sequence of the globular cluster M 13. Ap. J., v. 130, pp. 749-763 with plate. 
1959 Eggen, O. J., and Sandage, A. R. Stellar groups. IV. The Groombridge 1830 

group of high velocity stars and its relation to the globular clusters. M. N., 

v. 119, pp. 255-277. 
1959 Henon, M. L'amas isochrone. II. Calcul des orbites. Ann. d'Ap., v. 22, no. 5, 

pp. 492-498. 
1959 Iriarte, B. Photoelectric photometry of faint blue stars. Lowell Bull., no. 101, 

v. 4, pp. 130-135. 
1959 Roberts, M. S. A search for neutral atomic hydrogen in globular clusters. 

Nature, v. 184, Supp. 20, pp. 1555-1556. 

1961 Sandage, A. R. The ages of the open cluster NGC 188 and the globular 
clusters M 3, M 5, and M 13 compared with the Hubble time. A. J., v. 66, 
p. 53. 

1962 King, I. The distribution of blue stars in M 13. A p. J., v. 136, pp. 784-787. 
1962 Sandage, A. The ages of M 67, NGC 188, M 3, M 5, and M 13 according to 

Hoyle's 1959 models. Ap. J., v. 135, pp. 349-365. 

1789 Wollaston, 1928a Ludendorff, 1935 Walters, 1936 Kuiper, 1947 Fricke, 1947 
Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 BAAJ, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach, 1948 
Gamalej, 1948 King, 1948 Maitre, 19486 Perek, 19487, 77 Sawyer, 1949 Joy, 1949 
abode Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, \9A9acdeg Shapley, 1950a (photo) cdef Becker, 
1950 Kurth, 1950 Stebbins, 19517, 77 Kurth, 19516 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1952 Baade, 
1952 Camm, 19527a6cd, Illab Lohmann, 1953a Deutsch, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Gingerich 
(plate), 1953 Kholopov, 1953 Lohmann, I953adefhi Rosino, 1953 Shapley and 
McKibben, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Cimino, 1954 Gingerich, 19546 Payne-Gaposchkin, 
19546 Rosino, 1954a Sandage, 19547, 77 Zagar, 19557, 77 Arp, 1955 Baum, 1955 von 
Hoerner, 19557, 77 Reddish, 1955776cd Sawyer, 195576 Struve, 1956acd Baum, 1956 
van den Bergh, 1956 Kourganoff, 1956 Kreiken, 1956c Morgan, 1956 Roberts, 1956a6 
Schmidt, 1957 Ferrari d'Occhieppo, 1957 Roman, 1957 Rosino, 1957 Seljach, 1957 
Stohl, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 195Sabcefghijk Arp, 1958 Burbidge and 
Sandage, 1958 Heckmann, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 1958 Naprstkova, 
19587, 77 Sandage, 1958 Saurer (photo), 19587et, 77 Sawyer Hogg, 1958 Vandekerk- 
hove, 1958 Wallerstein, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959a6cd Arp, 1959 Baum, 
1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 19597d, Ilafghij Kinman, 1959 Kraft, Camp and 
Hughes, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596d Morgan, 1959 Sandage, \959Iabefhijklp, III 
Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Struve, 1959 Wallerstein, 1960c Burbidge, 1960 Chalonge, 1960 
Eggen, 1960 Johnson, 1960 Kron, I9<60abcdjgijkl Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960 
Markarian, I960abcdefh Roberts, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960 Wallerstein 
and Carlson, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961 van den Bergh, 1961a6 Haffner, 1961 Henon, 
1961 Kurochkin, 1961 Lohmann, 19617, 776, 777 Sawyer Hogg, 1961 Slettebak, 
Bahner and Stock, 1961 Stothers and Schwarzschild, 19627, 77a6cd Arp, 1962 van 
den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Eggen and Sandage, 1962 Fernie, 1962 King, 196277 
Rosino, 19627, 77 Sandage, 1962 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Struve. 

See also: 5273 1953 Sandage and Wallerstein, 5272 1954 Sandage, 5272 1956 Baker 
and Baker, 5272 1957 Johnson, 5904 1958 Wallerstein, 6656 1959 Arp and Melbourne, 
5139 1959 Belserene, 6356 1959 Sandage and Wallerstein, 104 1960 Feast and Thack- 
eray, 6121 1961 Idlis, 7078 1961 King, 5272 1961 Smak, 6522 1961 Whitford, 6397 
1961 Woolley et al., 6356 1962 Wallerstein. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 365 

NGC 6218 (Messier 12) a 16 h 44»6, S - 01° 52' Z"15°.70, b 11 + 26°.32 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach, 19486 Perek, 
1948/ Sawyer, 1949 Joy, 1949abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ace Shapley, 
1950dg Becker, 19516 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1952 Iabcd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 
Kholopov, 1953d Rosino, i953 Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Bidelman, 1954 Blamont, 

1954 Gingerich, 19546 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1954 Perek, 19547 Zagar, 1955 von 
Hoerner, 1955//6cd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 Kreiken, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, 
Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, II Kinman, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/d, 
Ilai Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., I9591ip, III Sawyer Hogg, \960acdfikl Kron 
and Mayall, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 19616 Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961/ 
Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6229 a 16 h 45t>6, 5 + 47° 37' / n 73°.64, b u -f 40°.30 

1960 Mannino, G. Periodi e curve di luce di 12 stelle variabili dell' ammasso 
globulare NGC 6229. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. XXXI, nos. 2-3; Univ. Bologna 
Oss. Pub., v. Mil, no. 13. 

1961 Mayer, P. Periods of variable stars in globular cluster NGC 6229. Astr. 
Inst. Czechoslovakia Bull., v. 12, no. 4, pp. 167-168. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach, 
19486 Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949cc Shapley, 
I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 1953d Rosino, 1953 Sawyer 1954 
Blamont, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955//6cd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 van 
den Bergh, 1956c Morgan, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 Shapley, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/d, Hi 
Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596 Morgan, \9b9Iip Sawyer Hogg, I960acdfik 
Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961a Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961/ 
Sawyer Hogg, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962// Rosino, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6235 a 16 h 50™4, 8 - 22° 06' / n 358 .91, 6 11 + 13°.52 

1921/ Gregory, 1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947d Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 1952 Johnson, 1952/a6d Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Sawyer, 
1954/ Zagar, 1955//6d Sawyer, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami 
et al., I9591ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960ad Wilkens, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6254 (Messier 10) a 16 h 54t5, 5 - 04° 02' l n 15°.l3, b 11 + 23°.07 

1955 Arp, H. C. Cepheids of period greater than one day in globular clusters. 
A. J., v. 60, pp. 1-17. 

1957 Arp, H. C. Three color photometry of Cepheids W Virginis, M 5 Nos. 42 and 
84, and M 10 Nos. 2 and 3. A. J., v. 62, pp. 129-136. 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949 
Joy, 1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 1950d Becker, 1950 
Kurth, 1951/, // Kurth, 1952/a6d Lohmann, 19536 Deutsch, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 
Kholopov, 1953di Rosino, 1953 Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Bidelman, 1954 
Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 19546 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1954 Perek, 1954a Sandage, 
1954/ Zagar, 1955/, // Arp, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955// Reddish, 1955//6cd Sawyer, 
1956ac Baum, 1956 Kreiken, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 Ferrari d'Occhieppo, 1958 Alter, 
Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958a6cj Arp, 1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958/, // Kinman, 
1958/c Sawyer Hogg, 1958 Wallerstein, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/d, 
Ilafij Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596 Morgan, \9o9Ifip, III Sawver Hogg, 
1959 Struve, 1959 Wallerstein, 1960c Burbidge, 19G0abcdefgijkl Kron and Mayall, 
19606dft Roberts, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960acf Wilkens, 1961 van den 



366 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6254 (cont'd) 

Bergh, 19616 Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1961 Slette- 
bak, Bahner and Stock, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962/7 Rosino, 
1962 Sawyer Hogg. 
See also: 6205 1954 Baum, 5904 1958 Wallerstein, 6656 1959 Arp and Melbourne. 

Palomar 15 a 16 h 57">6, S - 00° 28' Z n 18°.89, ft 11 + 24°.27 

1959 Bowen, I. S. Report of Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories. Carnegie 
Inst. Wash., Year Book no. 58, p. 60. (Discovery by Zwicky). 

1962 Kinman, T. D., and Rosino, L. Notes on faint star clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 74, pp. 499-506. 
19627 Rosino. 

NGC 6266 (Messier 62) a 16 h 58".'l, 8 - 30° 03' /"353°.58, b 11 + 07°.30 

1952 Kholopov, P. N. The ellipticity of globular clusters. A. J. UdSSR, v. 29, 
no. 6, pp. 671-681. 

1959 van Agt, S. L. Th., and Oosterhoff, P. Th. Observations of variable stars in 
the globular clusters NGC 4590 (M 68) and NGC 6266 (M 62). Leiden Ann., 
v. XXI, 4th pt., pp. 253-290, with plates. 

1935 Walters, 1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, I947abcd Sawyer, 
1948 Becker, 1948ft Perek, \949abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949g Shapley, 
I950cd Becker, 1951 Thackeray, 1952 Kholopov, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 

1953 Kholopov, 1953 Lohmann, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Cimino, 1954 Gingerich, 1954/ 
Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955/ 1 bd Sawyer, 195511b Struve, 1956 van den Bergh, 
1956ft Morgan, 1956aft Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 
195877 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/aftd, Hbi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami 
et al., \959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 19Q0acdefik Kron and Mayall, l9S0acef Wilkens, 1961 
Henon, 19617, 777 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6273 (Messier 19) a 16 h 59™5, 8 - 26° 11' / n 356°.88, ft 11 + 09°.40 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, \947abcd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 
1948ft Perek, 19487 Sawyer, I9±9ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1950cd Becker, 
I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953g Rosino, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 
19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 19557/ftcd Sawver, 195577ft Struve, 1956 Kourganoff, 
1956ft Morgan, 1956aft Schmidt, 1957 Stohl, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, 
77 Kinman, 195877 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/d, 77i 
Kinman, 1959 Matsunami el al., 1959ft Morgan, 19597cz>, 777 Sawyer Hogg, 
19G0acdfikl Kron and Mayall, 1960ar/ Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961777 
Sawyer Hogg, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 196277 Rosino, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6284 a 17 h 0lT5, 5 - 24° 41' l u Z58°.37, ft 11 + 09°.93 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947aftd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 1948 
Perek, 19487 Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, \952Iabd Lohmann, 
1953 Dreyer, 1954 Blamont, 19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 195577ftd Sawyer, 
195577ft Struve, 1956ft Morgan, 1956ft Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
19587, 77 Kinman, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Id, Hi, III Kinman, 
1959 Matsunami et al, \959Iip Sawyer Hogg, \960acdfik Kron and Mayall, 1960 
Kurth, 1960acf Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 367 

NGC 6287 a 17 h 02<?l, 5 - 22° 38' l u OO°AS, 6 11 + 11°.04 

1944 Walienquist and Lundby, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, \955IIbd Sawyer, 
1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959 lip 
Sawyer Hogg, 1960acfik Kron and Mayall, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6293 a 17 h 07™l, 8 - 26° 30' / II 357°.64, b u + 07°.84 

1915 Knox Shaw, 1921/ Gregory, 1928a Ludendorff, 1944 Walienquist and Lundby, 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949ade 
Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/aW Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954 Blamont, 1954/ 
Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \955IIbd Sawyer, 195511b Struve, 19566 Morgan, 19566 
Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 
Johnson, 1959/d, Hi, III Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., I9591ip Sawyer Hogg, 
1960acd/t£/ Kron and Mayall, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1962 Fernie, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6304 a 17 h 11<?4, 5 - 29° 24' / n 355°.84, 6" + 05°.37 

1962 Rosino, L. Ricerche astronomiche nell' emisfero australe III. Stelle variabili 
negli ammassi globulari NGC 5986, 6304, 6558, 6569, 6637 (M 69), 6681 (M 70) 
e zone attigue. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. XXXIII, no. 4; Asiago Cont., no. 132. 

1921// Gregory, 1944 Walienquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947 abd Sawyer, 

1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/a6d Lohmann, 
1953 Dreyer, 1954 Blamont, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955//a Sawyer, 
1955//6 Struve, 19566 Baum, 1956a Morgan, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 Rosino, 1958 
Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dufay and 
Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/d, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 
1959c Morgan, \959Igp Sawyer Hogg, 1960acd/^ Kron and Mayall, 1960ad Wilkens, 
1961/// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6316 a 17 h 13<?4, 8 - 28° 05' / n 357°.17, 6 11 + 05°.78 

1944 Walienquist and Lundby, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1952/a6d Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 1955//6 
Struve, 19566 Baum, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1959 Dufay 
and Bigay, 1959 Johnson, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Ip Sawyer Hogg, I960acfikl 
Kron and Mayall, 1960ad Wilkens, 1962 Fernie. 

See also: HP 1954 Dufay, Berthier, Morignet. 

NGC 6325 a 17 h 15^0, 5 - 23° 42' l ll 00°.98, b u + 07°.99 

1921// Gregory, 1944 Walienquist and Lundby, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/a6d Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 
1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami et al., I9591p Sawyer, 1960ac/^ 
Kron and Mayall, 1960ad Wilkens. 

NGC 6333 (Messier 9) a 17 h 16^2, 5 - 18° 28' / n 05°.53, 6 11 + 10°.72 

1948 Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 9. A. J., v. 53, 
p. 203; Summ., Sky and Tel., v. 7, p. 149, 1948; B. A. A. Jour., v. 58, p. 196, 
1948; Pop. A. Tids., v. 29, pp. 169-170, 1948. 

1951 Sawyer, H. B. Periods of variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 9. 
Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 24. 

1944 Walienquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 
1948 Fehrenbach, 19486 Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949a6dc Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 



368 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6333 (cont'd) 

1949<i Shapley, 1952/aW Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 1954 Blamont, 
1954 Gingerich, 1954 Perek, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, I95511bd Sawyer, 1956 
van den Bergh, 1956 Kreiken, 19566 Morgan, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 19587, // Kinman, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Id, 
Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami el al., I9591ip Sawyer Hogg, l9Q0acdfik Kron and 
Mayall, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 
Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6341 (Messier 92) a 17 h 15-6, 5 + 43° 12' /»68°.35, b u + 34°.86 

1947 von der Pahlen, E. Ueber die Entstehung der spharischen Sternhaufen. Z.f. 
Ap., v. 24, pp. 68-120; Astrophys. Obs. Potsdam Mitt., no. 18. 

1952 Arp, H. C, Baum, W. A., and Sandage, A. R. The H-R diagrams for the glo- 
bular clusters M 92 and M 3. A. J., v. 57, pp. 4-5. 

1953 Arp, H. C, Baum, W. A., Sandage, A. R. The color-magnitude diagram of 
the globular cluster M 92. A. J., v. 58, pp. 4-10, with plate. 

1953 Sandage, A. R. Interpretation of color-magnitude arrays in globular clusters. 
Symposium on Astrophysics, University of Michigan. 

1953 Sandage, A. The color magnitude diagram for the globular cluster M 3. 
A. J., v. 58, pp. 61-75. 

1954 Tayler, R. J. The luminosity function for the globular cluster M 92. A. J., 
v. 59, pp. 413-422. 

1954 Undersokningar av de klotformiga stjarnoparna M 3 och M 92. Pop A. Tids., 
v. 35, pp. 76-78. 

1954 Wilson, O. C, and Coffeen, M. The mass of the globular cluster M 92. Ap.J., 
v. 119, pp. 197-199. 

1955 Schwarzschild, M., and Bernstein, S. Note on the mass of M 92. Ap. J., v. 
122, pp. 200-202. 

1955 Walker, M. F. A search for variable stars of small amplitude in M 3 and M 92. 
A. J., v. 60, pp. 197-202. 

1961 Kurth, R. Kritik der dynamischen Massenschatzung kugelformiger Stern- 
haufen. Z.f. Ap., v. 53, pp. 240-246. 

1961 Preston, G. W. Low-dispersion spectra of RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters. 
Ap. J., v. 134, no. 2, pp. 651-652; Lick ConL, no. 119. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1946 Vogt, 1947 Parenago, \9ilabcd Sawyer, 194S Becker, 1948 
Gamalej, 1948 King, 19486 Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949abde Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1949re Shapley, 1950d/g Becker, 1950 Stebbins, 1952 Baade, 1952 Camm, 
I9521abd, Ilia Lohmann, 1953a Deutsch, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953 Loh- 
mann, 1953d"j Rosino, 1954 Becker, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 1954a Payne- 
Gaposchkin, 19546 Rosino, 1954aca' Sandage, 1954 Schwarzschild, 1954/ Zagar, 
1955// Arp, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955 Hoyle and Schwarzschild, 1955/ Reddish, 
I95511bcd Sawyer, 1956aco" Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Kourganoff, 1956c 
Morgan, 1956 Roberts, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957/, // von Hoerner, 
1957 Roman, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958abdefgil Arp, 1958a6 Burbidge 
and Burbidge, 1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958 Naprstkova, 
1958/, // Sandage, 1958 Saurer, 1958/ef, // Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Ooster- 
hoff, 1959ac Arp, 1959 Baum, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/0", Ilafgij 
Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959abd Morgan, \959Ifhiklmop, III Sawyer Hogg, 

1959 Spinrad, 1960 Bowen, 1960a6c Burbidge, 1960 Ebert, von Hoerner, Temesvary, 

1960 Kron, 19Wabcdfgijkl Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960 Markarian, 19606 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 369 

NGG 6341 (cont'd) 

Roberts, 1960 Sandage and Eggen, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 1960ar/ Wilkens, 

1961 van den Bergh, 1961a6 Haffner, 1961 Lohmann, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961 
Poveda, 19617, III Sawyer Hogg, 1961 Slettebak, Bahner and Stock, 1961 Woolley, 
1961/ Woolley and Dickens, 1962/ Arp, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Eggen 
and Sandage, 1962 Fernie, 1962 King, 1962// Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5272 1947 Lohmann, 6205 1954 Baum, 6838 1954 Becker, 5272 1954 
Sandage, 6205 1954 Savedoff, 6205 1955 Brown, 4147 1955 Sandage and Walker, 
5272 1956 Johnson and Sandage, 6205 1956 Savedoff, 104 1957 Gascoigne and Burr, 
7078 1957 Izsak, 104 1958 Thackerav, 6356 1959 Sandage and Wallerstein, 104 1960 
Feast and Thackeray, 6522 1961 Whitford, 104 1961 Wildey, 6712 1962 Smith and 
Sandage, 6356 1962 Wallerstein. 

NGC 6342 a 17 h 18»2, 5 - 19° 32' / n 04°.90, b n + 09°.73 

1921// Gregory, 1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 19i7abd Sawyer, 1949a.de Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, \9b2Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960 
acfik Kron and Mayall, 19(!>Qad Wilkens. 

NGC 6352 a 17 h 21™6, 8 - 48° 26' /"341 .37, b 11 - 07U9 

1947a6d Sawyer, I949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
1958/, //Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \9b9Ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960M Wilkens, 

1962 Fernie. 

NGC 6355 a 17 h 20-9, 5 - 26° 19' /"359°.58, b 11 + 05°.42 

1915 Knox Shaw, 1921/ Gregory, 1947abd Sawyer, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 
1955//a Sawyer, 19566 Baum, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanvsek, \959Ip Sawver Hogg, 
1960ar/j'& Kron and Mayall, 1960ad Wilkens. 

NGC 6356 a 17 h 20T7, 8 - 17° 46' / n 06°.73, b n + 10°.21 

1959 Sandage, A., and Wallerstein, G. The color-magnitude diagram of the nuclear 
globular cluster NGC 6356 compared with halo clusters. A. J., v. 64, p. 345. 

1960 Sandage, A., and Wallerstein, G. Color-magnitude diagram for the disk 
globular cluster NGC 6356 compared with halo clusters. Ap. J., v. 131, pp. 
598-609, with plates. 

1962 Wallerstein, G. Stellar content of the galaxy's nuclear bulge. A. J., v. 67, 
no. 6, pp. 329-333; Berkeley Repr. no. 207. 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 1948 
Fehrenbach, 19486 Perek, \9\9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, \9o2Iabd Lohmann, 
1953 Dreyer, 1953 Sawyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \9bbIIbd Sawyer, 
1956aca* Morgan, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Burbidge 
and Sandage, 1958 Heckmann, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958//g Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dufay 
and Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/d, Ilhi, III Kinman, 1959a Larsson-Leander, 
1959 Matsunami et al., 1959a6c Morgan, 1959 Preston, 1959/c (photo) gip, III 
Sawyer Hogg, 19596 Thackeray, 1960 Bowen, 1960/ Hodge, I960acdfikn Kron and 
Mayall, 1960 Sandage and Eggen, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961 van den Bergh, 1961a 
Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961 Preston, 1961/, Ilab Sawyer Hogg, 1962 van den Bergh 
and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962// Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 104 1961 Wildey, 6712 1962 Smith and Sandage. 



370 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Haute Provence 1 a 17 h 24™9, 8 - 29° 57' / ri 357°.06, b 11 + 02°.65 

1954 Dufay, J., Berthier, P., and Morignet, B. Un nouvel amas globulaire dans 
la region du centre de la Voie Lactee. C. R. Acad. Set. Fr., v. 239, pp. 478-480; 
Haute- Provence Pub., v. 3, no. 17. 

1956 Bakos, G. A. A new globular cluster near the galactic centre. R. A. S. C. 
Jour., v. 50, p. 224. 

1957 Ursa Ny Kuglehob. Urania, Ktfbenhavn, v. 14, p. 8. 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959/p 
Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6362 a 17 h 26?6, 8 - 67° 01' / II 325°.54, b 11 - 17°.56 

1961 van Agt, S. L. Th. New variable stars in the southern globular cluster NGC 
6362. B. A. N., v. 15, no. 508, pp. 329-330. 

1961 Van Hoof, A. Elements for fifteen variables in the globular cluster NGC 
6362. Lab. d'Astr. et Geod. Univ. Louvain Pub., no. 126, pp. 1-5. 

1928a Ludendorff, I947abd Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1951 
Thackeray, \9o'2Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955IIbd Sawyer, 1956 
van den Bergh, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 
1959/ad, Ila Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Iip Sawyer Hogg, \9Q0bcg Wilkens, 
1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Rosino and Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6366 a 17 h 25^>1, 8 - 05° 02' l u 18°A2, b 11 + 16°.03 

1959 Dufay, J. Sur la region centrale de la galaxie. C. R., Acad Sci. Fr., v. 248, 
p. 647; Haute- Provence Pub., v. 4, no. 35. 

1960 Dufay, J. La condensation centrale de la galaxie. Ann. d'Ap., v. 23, pp. 
451-464; Haute- Provence Pub., v. 5, no. 5. 

1921/ Gregory, 1947a6a* Sawyer, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949ad<> Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1952/aW Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, I95511bd Sawyer, 1956a 
Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959/t>, /// 
Sawyer Hogg, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6380 a 17 h 31"?9, 8 - 39° 02' / II 350°.28, b u - 03°.56 

1847 Herschel, J. F. W. Results of astronomical observations at the Cape of Good 

Hope. 4°. Chap. 1. Of the nebulae of the southern hemisphere. (JH 3688; 

drawing, Plate VI, fig. 18.) 
1864 Herschel, J. F. W., 1888 Dreyer, J. L. E. See Section B, Dunlap Pub., v. 1, 

no. 20. 
1954 Thackeray, A. D. Private communication. Definite classification as globular 

cluster. 
1959 Pismis, P. New southern star clusters. Tonantzintla and Tacubaya Bull., 

no. 18, pp. 37-38. 

1962 Pismis, P. Private communication. No. 1 (above) identified as NGC 6380. 

1912 Knox Shaw, 1953 Dreyer, 1955//a Sawyer, 1958 Heckmann, 1959/p Sawyer 
Hogg, 1960M Wilkens. 



.4 Bibliography of Globular Clusters 371 

NGC 6388 a 17 h 32l>6, 8 - 44° 43' / II 345°.54 I b u - 06°.74 

l9A7abd Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 195511a Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 195S Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
19587, II Kinman, 1959 lad, Ilbi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19597* Sawyer 
Hogg, 1960W Wilkens, 1962 Fernie. 

Tonantzintla 2 a 17 h 32»>7, 5 - 38° 32' / n 350°.79 f 6 11 - 03°.42 

1959 Pismis, P. New southern star clusters. Tonantzintla and Tacubaya Bull., no. 
18, pp. 37-38. 

1962 Perek, L. Private communication. Correction +20' to declination first 
published. 

NGC 6397 a 17 h 36 n .>8, 8 - 53° 39' / n 338°.18, 6 11 - 11°.98 

1952 Swope, H., and Greenbaum, I. A study of the magnitudes and colors of the 
globular cluster NGC 6397. A. J., v. 57, pp. 83-91. 

1960 Eggen, O. J. The two-colour relation for horizontal branch stars in globular 
clusters. M. N. A.S. S. A., v. 19, no. 9, pp. 115-117. 

1961 Woolley, R. v.d. R., Alexander, J. B., Mather, L., and Epps, E. Photographic 
photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6397. Roy. Obs. Bull., no. 43. 

1961 Woolley, R. v.d. R. Globular clusters. Obs., v. 81, no. 924, pp. 161-182. 

19286 Ludendorff, 1947a6d Sawyer, \949abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949a 
Shapley, 1951<i Payne-Gaposchkin, 1952 Baade, \952Iabcd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 
1953; Rosino, 1954a Payne-Gaposchkin, 1954a Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, \955IIbcd 
Sawyer, 19566 Baum, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heck- 
mann, 195S7, II Kinman, 1958/7 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 
\959Iad, Ilabdi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., I9591fip Sawyer, 19606<:g Wilkens, 
1961a Haffner, 19617 Sawver Hogg, 1962//e Arp, 1962/ Sandag'e, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5272 1953 Sandage, 6205 1962 King. 

NGC 6401 a 17 h 35"?6, 8 - 23° 53' / II 03°.45, 6 11 + 03°.97 

1912 Knox Shaw, 1947abd Sawyer, 1948/ Sawyer, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 
Ha Sawver, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, \959Ip Sawver Hogg, I960acefhikm 
Kron and Mayall, 1960aa" Wilkens, 

NGC 6402 (Messier 14) a 17 h 35t0, 8 - 03° 15' l u 2l°.30, b 11 + 14°.78 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6ra' Sawver, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach, 19486 Perek, 
194S7 Sawyer, 1949 Jov, 1949a6d'e Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949a" Shaplev, 1950 
Kurth, 1951// Kurth, 1952/a6a' Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 1953 
Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Bidelman, 1954 Gingerich, 1954 Perek, 1954/ Zagar, 
1955 von Hoerner, \955IIbcd Sawyer, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 
van den Bergh, 1957 Kholopov, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanvsek, 1958 Kholopov, 
1958/, // Kinman, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, \959Id, 
Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami rial., 19596 Morgan, 1959 lip Sawyer Hogg, 1960a6c/*'£/ 
Kron and Mayall, \960bd Roberts, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 
1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962// 
Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

Palomar 6 a 17 h 40^6, 8 - 26° 12' / n 02°.09, 6" 4- 01°.78 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 

National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory sky survey. A. S. P. 

Pub., v. 67, pp. 258-261. (Discovery by Abell). 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 1959 Ip Sawyer Hogg. 



372 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6426 a 17 h 42»4, 8 + 03° 12' J n 28 o .07, ft 11 + 16°.28 

1958 Grubissich, C. L'ammasso globulare NGC 6426 e i suoi dintorni. Asiago 
Cont., no. 94. 
1947aftd Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/aftd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//ftd Sawyer, 1956 van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1958/7 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 
19&0acfhik Kron and Mayall, 1960acf Wilkens, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6440 a 17 h 45™9, 5 - 20° 21' /i I 07°.72, ft 11 + 03°.80 

1915 Stone, 1921// Gregory, 1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 
1947aftd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 1948ft Perek, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 

1950 Stebbins, \952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 
1955//a Sawyer, 1956oc Morgan, 1956ft Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 
1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dufay 
and Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959Id, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959ftc 
Morgan, I9591gp Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Kron, 1960acrfe/Y£ Kron and Mayall, 1960 
Kurth, 1960ad VVilkens, 1962 Fernie, 1962// Rosino. 

NGC 6441 a 17 h 46<?8, 8 - 37° 02' / n 353°.53, ft 11 - 05°.00 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947aftd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 
1948ft Perek, 19i9ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/aftd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 
1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955//a Sawyer, 1956a Morgan, 1956ft Schmidt, 
1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/d, Hi 
Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959c Morgan, 1959Igp Sawyer Hogg, 1960d Kron 
and Mayall, 1960ftd VVilkens, 1962 Fernie. 

NGC 6453 a 17 h 48".'0, 5 - 34° 37' / n 355°.74, ft" - 03°.97 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947afta' Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 1956ft 
Baum, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Ip Sawyer Hogg, 
19Q0acefhikm Kron and Mayall, 1960ftd VVilkens. 

NGC 6496 a 17 h 55-5, S - 44° 15' /"348°.08, ft 11 - 10°.01 

1947aft<f Sawyer, I949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/aftd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960ftd Wilkens. 

NGC 6517 a 17 h 59^1, 8 - 08° 57' / n 19°.23, ft 11 + 06°.77 

1947afta' Sawyer, 194900^ Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1950ft Becker, 1952/aftd 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//a Sawyer, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Johnson, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Idp, 
HI Sawyer Hogg, 1960ac/7£/ Kron and Mayall, 19600^ Wilkens. 

NGC 6522 a 18 h 00-4, 8 - 30° 02' / n 01°.03, ft 11 - 03°.93 

1949 Gaposchkin, S. New variables in NGC 6522. A. J., v. 54, no. 7, p. 185. 

1951 Baade, W. Galaxies- — present day problems. Univ. Mich. Obs. Pub., v. X, 
pp. 7-17. (Four cluster type variables in 6522). 

1954 Nassau, J. J., Blanco, V. M., McCuskey, S. W. M stars in the vicinity of 
NGC 6522. A. J., v. 59, p. 334 (title only). 

1955 Gaposchkin, S. 285 variable stars in the region of the galactic nucleus. Ast. 
Circ. (Russ.), v. 10, pp. 337-381, with print. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 373 

NGC 6522 (cont'd) 

1958 Nassau, J. J., and Blanco, V. M. M-type stars and red variables in the galactic 
center. (Plates.) Ap. J., v. 128, pp. 46-56; Summ., A. J., v. 63, p. 383. 

1959 Dufay, J. Sur la region centrale de la galaxie. C. R., Acad. Sci. Fr., v. 248, 
p. 647; Haute- Provence Pub., v. 4, no. 35. 

1960 Dufay, J. La condensation centrale de la galaxie. Ann. d' Ap., v. 23, pp. 451- 
464; Haute- Provence Pub., v. V, no. 5. 

1960 Pavlovskaya, E. D. The periods of short-period Cepheids in the direction 
to the galactic nucleus. Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 13, no. 1, pp. 8-25. 

1961 Pavlovskaya, E. D. RR Lyrae variables in the direction of the galactic centre. 
Obs., v. 81, no. 922, p. 107. 

1961 Weaver, H. The scale of the galaxy: a symposium. I. Introduction. A. S. P. 
Pub., v. 73, pp. 88-94. 

1961 Whitford, A. E. The distance to the galactic center from the photometry of 
objects in the nuclear region. A. S. P. Pub., v. 73, pp. 94-98. 

1921/ Gregory, 1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, \952Iabcd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955IIbcd Sawyer, 
19566 Baum, 19566c Morgan, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Burbidge and 
Sandage, 1958/, // Kinman, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 
1959 Johnson, 1959 Kron and Mavall, 1959a Larsson-Leander, 1959 Matsunami 
et al., 19596 Morgan, 1959 Preston, 1959/i> Sawyer Hogg, I960acefiklmn Kron and 
Mayall, 1960 Morgan, 19606rg Wilkens, 1961a Haffner, 1961 /, /// Sawyer Hogg, 

1962 Fernie, 1962// Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 
See also: 6656 1959 Arp. 

NGC 6528 a 18 h 01-»6, 5 - 30° 04' /*'01°.13, 6 11 - 04°.17 

1955 Gaposchkin, S. 285 variable stars in the region of the galactic nucleus. Ast. 
Circ. (Russ.), v. 10, pp. 337-381, with print. 

1921/ Gregorv, 1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947060* Sawyer, 194900*6 Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/060* Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955/, Ilbd 
Sawyer, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Matsunami 
et al., 1959o6c Morgan, I9591ip Sawyer Hogg, \9fflacfik Kron and Mayall, 1960 
Morgan, 19606cg Wilkens, 19616 Haffner, 1961/, lib, III Sawyer Hogg, 1962// 
Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6535 a 18 h 01-?3, 5 - 00° 18' / ,T 27°.18, 6 11 + 10°.43 

1921/ Gregory, 19470* Sawyer, 1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952 Johnson, 
1952/060" Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Sawyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//60 Sawyer, 1958 
Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Johnson, 1959 Matsunami 
et at., I9591ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960od Wilkens, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6539 a 18 h 02"?1, 5 - 07° 35' /*'20°.80, 6" + 06°.78 

1921/ Gregory, 1947a6fl* Sawyer, 1949ao*e Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/a6cd 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//6J Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, 
Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Matsunami et al., \9o9Iip Sawyer Hogg, 1960ac/z& Kron 
and Mayall, 1960ad Wilkens, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6541 a 18 h 04l>4, 5 - 43° 44' /"349 .28 f 6" - 1T.19 

1928o6 Ludendorff, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1949a6o*e Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 
1952/a6co* Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953/ Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955//6cd Sawyer, 



374 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6541 (cont'd) 

1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, II Kinman, 1958/7 Sawyer 
Hogg, 1959/ad, Ilbei Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 19606cg 
Wilkens, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6544 a lS h 04™3, 5 - 25° 01' / n 05°.83, 6" - 02°.22 

1953 Svolopoulos, S. X. A photographic survey of galactic clusters. NGC 6531, 
6646, 6469, 6544, 7127, 7128. M. N., v. 113, pp. 758-768. 

1921/ Gregory, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 194Sa Perek, 1953 Dreyer, 1954 
Perek, 1954/ Zagar, 195511a Sawyer (omitted in error), 19566 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, 
Ruprecht, Vanvsek, 1958 Maffei (photo), 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Id, Hi Kinman, 
\959Ip Sawyer Hogg, 19Q0acfhik Kron and Mayall, 19<50bd Wilkens. 

NGC 6553 a lS h 06?3, 5 - 25° 56' / II 05°.25, b 11 - 03°.06 

1949 Mayall, M. W. Six novae, one with a late-type spectrum. A. J., v. 54, p. 191 

(misprint in cluster number). 
1956 Thackeray, A. D. Private communication. Shapley's variables 1 and 2 doubtful. 

1921/ Gregory, 1928a Ludendorff, 1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947a6d Sawyer, 
1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1950 Stebbins, 1951 Thackeray, \952Iabcd, 
IIIc Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954/ Zagar, \955IIbcd Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 
Rosino, 195S Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dufay 
and Bigav, 1959 Johnson, 1959 Matsunami et al., \959abcd Morgan, \959Idip, Hd 
Sawver Hogg, 19596 Thackeray, 1960 Kron, \9macefikl Kron and Mavall, 1960 
Morgan, 19606eg Wilkens, 19616 Haffner, 1961/, lib Sawyer Hogg, 1962// Rosino, 
1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6558 a 18 h 07-?0, 5 - 31° 47' / n 00M9, b u - 06°.02 

1847 Herschel, J. F. W. Results of astronomical observations at the Cape of Good 

Hope. 4°. (Discovery). 
1864 Herschel, J. F. W., 1888 Dreyer, J. L. E. See Section B, Dunlap Pub., v. 1, 

no. 20. 

1954 Rosino, L. XI. Su alcuni ammassi stellari di dubbia classificazione. Asiago 
Cont., no. 52, La Ricerca Scientifica, Aug. 1954 (photo). 

1954 Thackeray, A. D. Private communication. Radcliffe photos confirm globular 
cluster classification by Gregory in Heliuan Bull., nos. 21, 22, 1921. 

1962 Rosino, L. Ricerche astronomiche nell' emisfero australe. III. Stelle variabili 
negli ammassi globulari XGC 5986, 6304, 6558, 6569, 6637 (M 69), 6681 
(M 70) e zone attigue. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 33, no. 4; Asiago Cont., no. 132, 
pp. 1-12, with plates. 

1921/, // Gregory, 1953 Dreyer, 1955//a Sawyer, 1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, 
Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Maffei (photo), 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 
19606cg Wilkens, 1961/// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

IC 1276 a 18 h 08»0, 8 - 07° 14' / n 21°.82, 6 11 + 05°.67 

1889 Swift, L. Catalogue Xo. 8 of nebulae discovered at the Warner Observatory. 

A. N., v. 122, no. 2918, pp. 240-246. (Discovery, no. 95). 
1895 Dreyer, J. L. E. Index catalogue of nebulae found in the years 1888-1894. 

Roy. Astr. Soc. Mem., v. 51. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 375 

IC 1276 (cont'd) 

1948 Baade, W. Private correspondence. Considered globular by Baade and N. U. 
Mayall. 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 
National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory sky survey. A. S. P. 
Pub., v. 67, pp. 258-261. (No. 7 in Abell's catalogue). 

1962 Kinman, T. D., and Rosino, L. Notes on faint star clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 74, pp. 499-506, with print. 

1953 Dreyer, 195577a Sawyer, 1958/a Sawver Hogg, 1959//?, lib Sawyer Hogg 
(photo), 1960ad Wilkens, 1962 Rosino, 19627 Rosino and Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Sawyer 
Hogg. 

NGC 6569 a 18 h 10?4, 5 - 31° 50' / II 00°.49, b n - 06°.68 

1962 Rosino, L. Ricerche astronomiche nell' emisfero australe. III. Stelle variabili 
negli ammassi globulari NGC 5986, 6304, 6558, 6569, 6637 (M 69), 6681 (M 70) 
e zone attigue. Soc. Astr. Hal. Mem., v. 33, no. 4; Asiago Cont., no. 132, pp. 
1-12, with plates. 

19217, 77 Gregory, 1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947a6d Sawyer, I9i9ade 
Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, \9S2Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 19547 Zagar, 195577a 
Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 195877 Sawyer 
Hogg, 1959 Johnson, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19597/? Sawyer Hogg, 1960a<:/j'£/ Kron 
and Mayall, 19606d Wilkens, 1961777 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6584 a 18 h 14»6, 5 - 52° 14' /"342M4, b u - 16°.41 

19286 Ludendorff, IMlabd Sawyer, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 19527060" 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 19547 Zagar, 19557, 7/6d Sawyer, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, 
Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959/fd, Ilci Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., I9591ip Sawyer 
Hogg, 19606cg Wilkens, 19617 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6624 a 18 h 20»5, 5 - 30° 23' / T, 02°.80, 6 11 - 07°.92 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 
19486 Perek, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 
19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 195577a Sawyer, 1956a Morgan, 19566 Schmidt, 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 
Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 19597a*, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959c 
Morgan, l9o9Igp Sawyer Hogg, 19Wacdfikl Kron and Mavall, 19606d Wilkens, 
1962 Fernie. 

NGC 6626 (Messier 28) a 18 h 21«?5, 5 - 24° 54' / ,T 07 o .80, 6 11 - 05°.59 

1949 Sawyer, H. B. The variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 28. A. J., 
v. 54, p. 193. 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawver, 1948 Becker, 
19486 Perek, 1949 Joy, 19i9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949a Shapley, 1950d 
Becker, I9521abd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 1954 Gingerich, 19547 
Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955776d Sawyer, 19566 Morgan, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 
van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, II Kinman, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 

1959 Johnson, 1959/d, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., \9o9Iip Sawyer Hogg, 
WQOacdfikl Kron and Mayall, 19606cg Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 19617 Sawyer Hogg, 
1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 



376 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6637 (Messier 69) a 18 h 28'?l, 5 - 32° 23' /"01°.72, 6 11 - 10°.26 

1962 Rosino, L. Ricerche astronomiche nell' emisfero australe. III. Stelle variabili 
negli ammassi globulari NGC 5986, 6304, 6558, 6569, 6637 (M 69), 6681 (M 70) 
e zone attigue. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 33, no. 4; Asiago Cont., no. 132, pp. 
1-12, with plates. 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 
19486 Perek, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, I95'21abd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 
1954 Gingerich, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 195577a Sawyer, 1956ac Morgan, 
1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Burbidge and 
Sandage, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 19587/ Sawyer Hogg, 1959 
Dzigvashvili, 19597d, Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596c Morgan, I9591gp 
Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Gingerich, 19Wacdfik Kron and Mayall, 19606d Wilkens, 1961a 
HafTner, 1961777 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 196277 Rosino. 

NGC 6638 a 18 h 27«?9, 8 - 25° 32' /»07°.90, b 11 - 07°.16 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d" Sawyer, 1948 Becker 
19486 Perek, 1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 19527a6d Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1953c Rosino, 19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 195577a Sawyer, 1956a 
Morgan, 19566 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1959 
Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 19597a', Hi Kinman, 1959 
Matsunami et al., 1959c Morgan, 19597g/> Sawyer Hogg, I960acdfhikl Kron and 
Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 19606a" Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1962 Fernie. 

NGC 6642 a 18 h 28»4, 5 - 23° 30' J"09°.78, 6 11 - 06°.34 

1789 Herschel, W. Catalogue of a second thousand of new nebulae and clusters of 
stars. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 79, pp. 212-255. (Discovery). 

1833 Herschel, J. F. W., 1847 Herschel, J. F. W., 1864 Herschel, J. F. W. See Section 
B, Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 20. 

1948 Baade, W. Private communication. Identified as globular. 

1953 Dreyer, 195577a Sawyer, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19596 Morgan, 
19597/> Sawyer Hogg, 19606a" Wilkens. 

NGC 6652 a 18 h 32«?5, 5 - 33° 02' /"Or.53, 6 11 - 11°.38 

1944 Wallenquist and Lundby, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 
19486 Perek, 1949ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 19527a6d Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 
19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 195577a Sawyer, 1956a Morgan, 19566 Schmidt, 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 19597d, 77i 
Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959c Morgan, 1959Igp Sawyer Hogg, 1960acdefik 
Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 19606d Wilkens, 1962 Fernie. 

NGC 6656 (Messier 22) a 18 h 33-3, 5 - 23° 58' /"09°.87, 6 11 - 07°.55 

1959 Arp, H. C. Stars in the direction of the galactic center. A. J., v. 64, pp. 33-34. 
1959 Arp, H. C, and Melbourne, W. G. Color-magnitude diagram for the globular 

cluster M 22. A. J., v. 64, pp. 28-32, with plate. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1936 Kuiper, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 BAA J, 
1948 Becker, 1948 Joy, 19486 Perek, 19487 Sawyer, 1949 Joy, 1949a6de Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 1949g Shapley, 1950cd*e Becker, 1950 Kurth, 19517, 77 Kurth, 
19516 Payne-Gaposchkin, 19527a6d Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953 
Lohmann, 1953gh Rosino, 1953 Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Bidelman, 1954 
Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 19547a6 Payne-Gaposchkin, 19547 Zagar, 1955 von 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 377 

NGC 6656 (cont'd) 

Hoerner, 195oIIbcd Sawyer, 195577a Struve, 19566 Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 
1956 Kourganoff, 1956 Kreiken, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Stohl, 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958a6e Arp, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 
19587 Sandage, 195877 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dzigvash- 
vili, 1959 Johnson, 1959Iabd, Ilai Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596 Morgan, 

1959 Preston, 1959Iakp, III Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Gingerich, 19Q0acfgijkl Kron and 
Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960/f Roberts, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 19606cg Wilkens, 

1961 van den Bergh, 1961 Henon, 1961a Haffner, 1961 Lohmann, 1961 Payne- 
Gaposchkin, 19617 Sawyer Hogg, 19617 Woolley and Dickens, 1962 van den Bergh 
and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 196277 Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5053 1949 Rosino. 

Palomar 8 a 18 h 38T5, S - 19° 52' l u U°.ll, b 11 -06 °.79 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 
National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory sky survey. A.S. P. Pub., 
v. 67, pp. 258-261. (Discovery by Abell). 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 19597/? Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6681 (Messier 70) a lS h 40".'0, 5 - 32° 21' J TT 02°.S5, b 11 - 12°.52 

1962 Rosino, L. Ricerche astronomiche nell' emisfero australe. III. Stelle variabili 
negli ammassi globulari NGC 5986, 6304, 6558, 6569, 6637 (M 69), 6681 (M 70) 
e zone attigue. Soc. Astr. Hal. Mem., v. 33, no. 4; Asiago Cont., no. 132, pp. 
1-12, with plates. 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6rd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 1949ode Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, 19527060", 77 Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1954 Gingerich, 19547 
Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 195577a Sawyer, 19566 Schmidt, 19587, 77 Kinman, 
1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 195970", 77*' Kinman, 1959 
Matsunami et al., \9b9Ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960acdefik Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 
19606d Wilkens, 1961777 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie. 

NGC 6712 a 18 h 50".'3, 5 - 08° 47' / II 25°.34, 6 11 - 04°.32 

1924 Cannon, A. J. Fifty-nine new variable stars. Harv. Circ, no. 265. 

1928 Harwood, M. A survey of the variable stars in the Scutum Cloud; preliminary 

results. Harv. Bull, no. 880, pp. 10-16. 
1962 Harwood, M. The variable stars in the Scutum Cloud. Leiden Ann., v. 21, 

pt. 8, pp. 387-464. 
1962 Smith, L., and Sandage, A. The color-magnitude diagram of the strong-line 

globular cluster NGC 6712. A. J., v. 67, p. 121. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1947 Parenago, 1947060* Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 
19487 Sawyer, 1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 19527a6d Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1953 Sawyer, 1954 Blamont, 19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955776cd 
Sawyer, 1956a Morgan, 19566 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, 77 
Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 195877 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 
Dzigvashvili, 19597d, Hi, III Kinman, 1959a Larsson-Leander, 1959 Matsunami 
et al., 19596c Morgan, 1959 Preston, 1959Igip Sawyer Hogg, 1960a«//Y& Kron and 
Mayall, 19606cg Wilkens, 1961 Lohmann, 19617, 777 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 
196277 Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 



378 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6715 (Messier 54) a 18 h 52»0, S - 30° 32' J"05°.63, b 11 - 14°.ll 

1952 Rosino, L. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari VII. Ventotto nuove variabili 
neH'ammasso globulare M 54 = NGC 6715. Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. V, 
no. 18. 

1959 Rosino, L., and Nobili, F. Ricerche astronomiche nell' emisfero australe 1. 
Scoperta e studio preliminare di ettantadue stelle variabili neH'ammasso 
globulare Messier 54 = NGC 6715. Asiago Cont., no. 97, with plates. 

1947 Parenago, 1917 abed Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 194S6 Perek, 1919ade Parenago, 
Kukarkin, Florja, \952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953/ Rosino, 1954 Gingerich, 
1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, !9ooIIbcd Sawyer, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 Rosino, 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, II Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 1958/7 
Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/aM, Ilbi Kinman, 

1959 Matsunami et al., 19596 Morgan, 19o9Iip, Ila Sawver Hogg, 19Q0acfik Kron 
and Mayall, 19606fg Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 19617, III Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 
1962/7 Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6717 a 18 h 52™1, 5 - 22° 47' / n 12°.86, b 11 - 10°.91 

1802 Herschel, \V. Catalogue of 500 new nebulae and clusters, with remarks on the 
construction of the heavens. Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans., v. 92, pp. 477-528. (Dis- 
covery by Herschel). 

1833 Herschel, J. F. W., 1847 Herschel, J. F. W., 1864 Herschel, J. F. W., 1888 
Dreyer, J. L. E. See Section B, Dunlap Pub., v. 1, no. 20. 

1948 Baade, W. Private correspondence. Considered globular cluster by Baade and 
X. U. Mayall. 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 
National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory sky survey. A.S. P. Pub., 
v. 74, pp. 499-506. (No. 9 in catalogue). 

1953 Drever, 1955//a Sawyer, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Yanvsek, 1958// Sawyer 
Hogg, 1959/p Sawyer Hogg, 1960M Wilkens, 1961/// Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6723 a 18 h 56<?2, 8 - 36° 42' l u 00°.07, b 11 - 17°.30 

1912 Knox Shaw, 1928a Ludendorff, 19386 Pavne-Gaposchkin and Gaposchkin, 
1946 Miczaika, 1947 Parenago, 1917abd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 1949a6de 
Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 
1954/ Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \955IIbd Sawyer, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956ao 
Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 
1958/ Sandage, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Id, Hi Kinman, 
1959 Matsunami et al., \9o9Iip Sawyer Hogg, 1960acdefik Kron and Mayall, 1960kg 
Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 
1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6752 a 19 h 06?4, 5 - 60° 04' /"336 .49, b 11 - 25°.62 

\917abd Sawver, I9i9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ace Shapley, 1952/aW 
Lohmann, 1953' Dreyer, 1953d Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 II bd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 
1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958// Sawyer 
Hogg, 1959/ad, Ilabi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 1959a 
Thackeray, l9Wbcg Wilkens, 1962 Aller, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5139 1962 Fehrenbach and Duflot. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 379 

NGC 6760 a 19 h 08™6, 5 + 00° 57' / n 36°.10, 6 H - 03°.91 

\947abd Sawyer, 1949adc Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1950 Stebbins, \9S2Iabcd 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Sawyer, 1954 Blamont, 1954/ Zagar, \955IIbd Sawyer, 
1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Matsu- 
nami et al., 19596c Morgan, I9591ip Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Kron, 1960ac/i& Kron and 
Mayall, 19606d Wilkens, 1962/7 Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6779 (Messier 56) a 19 h 14-6, 8 + 30° 05' /»62°.65, 6" + 08°.34 

1949 Sawyer, H. B. Two RV Tauri-type variables in globular clusters. R. A. S. C. 
Jour., v. 43, pp. 38-44; Dunlap Comm., no. 18. 

1950 Rosino, L. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari III. Su alcune interessanti 
stelle variabili appartenenti o vicine all'ammasso globulare M 56 della Lira. 
Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. V, no. 12; Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. XXI, no. 1. 

1951 Rosino, L. Diagramma colore-grandezza e distanza deH'ammasso globulare 
M 56. Asiago Cont., no. 21, with plate. 

1952 Balazs, J. Notes on BT Lyrae and on two new variables near M 56. Sternw. 
Ungar. Akad. Wiss. Budapest Mitt., no. 30. 

1953 Sawyer, H. B. Thirty-eight new variable stars in eleven globular clusters. 
R. A.S. C. Jour., v. 47, pp. 229-236; Dunlap Comm., no. 34. 

1961 Rosino, L. Osservazioni di due variabili peculiari e d'una variabile tipo RR 
Lyrae en ammassi stellare. Accad. Patavina SS LL A A Mem., v. 74, 1960-61; 
Asiago Cont. no. 117. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1943 Payne-Gaposchkin, Brenton, Gaposchkin, 1947 Fricke, 
1947 Parenago, 1947abcd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949 Joy, 
1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1950 Kurth, 1951// Kurth, 1952/a6cd 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953 ei Rosino, 1953 Sawyer, 1953 Shapley 
and McKibben, 1954 Bidelman, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 1954 Perek, 1954/ 
Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \955IIbcd Sawyer, 19566 Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van 
Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dufay and Bigav, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/0", Ilai Kinman, 
1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Iip Sawyer Hogg, \9Q0acfik Kron and Mayall, 1960 
Kurth, 1960ac/ Wilkens, 19616 Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961/, Ha Sawyer Hogg, 1962 
van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 7078 1957 Izsak. 

Palomar 10 a 19 h 16?0, 5 + 18° 28' / n 52°.44, 6" + 02°.68 

1955 Abell, G O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 
National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory sky survey. A.S. P. Pub., 
v. 67, pp. 258-261. (Discovery by A. G Wilson). 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 1958 Rosino, \9o9Ip Sawyer 
Hogg, 1961/// Sawyer Hogg, 1962/ Rosino. 

NGC 6809 (Messier 55) a 19 h 36-9, 5 - 31° 03' /"OS ^, 6" - 23°.28 

1951 King, I. New variables and periods in the globular cluster Messier 55. Harv. 
Bull, no. 920. 

19286 Ludendorff, 1935 Walters, 1947a6cd Sawyer, \9\9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 1950a 1 Becker, 1952/060* Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 
Gingerich, 1953 Kholopov, 19530* Rosino, 1954 Cimino, 1954 Gingerich, 1954 
Markarian, 1954/ Zagar, I95511bd Sawyer, 1955//a Struve, 1956c Baum, 1956 van 



380 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 6809 (cont'd) 

den Bergh, 1956a Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Stohl, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, 
Vanysek, 1958/, 77 Kinman, 1958 Xaprstkova, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 
Johnson, 1959/ad, Had Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596 Morgan, 1959/tp 
Sawver Hogg, 1960 Gingerich, 1960acfikl Kron and Mayall, 19606<:g Wilkens, 1961 
Henbn, 19617, III Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Fernie, 19627/ Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 



Palomar 11 a 19 h 42™6, 5 - 08° 09' l u 31°.79, b 11 - 15°.60 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 
National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory sky survey. A.S. P. Pub., 
v. 67, pp. 258-261. (Discovery by A. G. Wilson). 

1962 Kinman, T. D., and Rosino, L. Notes on faint star clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 74, pp. 499-506. (May be rich galactic cluster). 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 1959 Ip Sawyer Hogg, 1961/7/ 
Sawyer Hogg, 1962/ Rosino. 



NGC 6838 (Messier 71) a 19 h 51<?5, 5 + 18° 39' / II 56°.74, b u - 04°.55 

1928 Baade, W. Untersuchung von zwei Milchstrassenfeldern auf Veranderliche 

(124 neue Veranderliche). A. N., v. 232, pp. 65-70. 
1941 Cuffey, J. The galactic cluster XGC 6838. Am. A.S. Pub., v. 10, p. 122. 
1952 Sawyer, H. B. Variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 6838. A. J., v. 57, 

p. 26. 
1954 Becker, W. Bemerkung zum Farben-Helligkeits-Diagramm des Kugelhaufens 

M 71 = NGC 6838. Z. f. Ap., v. 34, pp. 107-109; Ast.-Met. Anstalt Univ. 

Basel Mitt., Astr. Reihe, no. 1. 
1954 Rosino, L. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari XI. Su alcuni ammassi stellari 

di dubbia classincazione. Asiago Cont., no. 52, with photo. 
1956 Artjuchina, X. M. Die Eigenbewegungen von Sternen in der Umgebung der 

Haufen M 71 und H 20. Astr. Sternberg-Inst. Pub., v. 27, pp. 3-35. (Catalogue 

of 1372 stars). 

1959 Cuffey, J. XGC 6838. A. J., v. 64, p. 327. Summ, Sky and Tel, v. 19, p. 93. 

1960 Der ungewohnliche Sternhaufen M 71. Nachrichtenblatt der Vereinigung der 
Sternfreunde, Berlin, v. 9, pp. 134-135. 

1960 Messier 71. Urania, Kpbenhavn, v. 17, pp. 15-16. 

1961 Stephenson, C. B. Possible M-star members of XGC 6838. A. J., v. 66, pp. 
85-87, with plate. 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6<;d (photo, error in cluster no.) Sawyer, 1948a Perek, 1953 
Dreyer, 1953 Sawyer, 1954 Gingerich, 1954 Perek, 1954/ Zagar, 1955IIbcd Sawyer, 
1956a Morgan, 1956a Schmidt, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 195S/, // Kinman, 
1958 Maffei (photo), 1958/a, // Sawyer Hogg, 1959/d, Hi, III Kinman, 1959a 
Larsson-Leander, 19596c Morgan, 1959 Sandage, I9591gip Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Bowen, 
1960 Ikhsanov, 19§0acdfik Kron and Mayall, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, 19606cg 
Wilkens, 1961a Haffner, 1961 Lohmann, 1961 Preston, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 

1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962// Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 
See also: 5272 1953 Sandage. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 381 

NGC 6864 (Messier 75) a 20* 03™2, 5 - 22° 04' /"20 o .31, 6" - 25°.76 

1928a Ludendorff, 1947 Parenago, IMTabcd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 
I9i9ade Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, \952Iabd Lohmann, 1953 
Dreyer, 1953ad Rosino, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Gingerich, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von 
Hoerner, \9o5IIbd Sawyer, 1956 Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 
Rosino, 1957 Shapley, 195S Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 19587, II Kinman, 195877 
Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/a6d, Ilbi Kinman, 
1959 Matsunami et al, \9b9Icip Saw'ver Hogg, I960acdefik Kron and Mavall, 1960 
Kurth, 19606 Roberts, 19606cg Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 19617, 777 Sawyer Hogg, 
1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6934 a 20 h 31"?7, 5 + 07° 14' / II 52°.10, 6 11 - 18°.88 

1947 Parenago, 1947a6d Sawver, 1948 Becker, 1948 Fehrenbach (error in no.), 
19486 Perek, 19487 Sawyer, 19i9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 
1952/060" Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 1953d Rosino, 1954 Blamont, 
19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, \955IIbd Sawver, 1956c Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 
19566 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 195S7, 77 
Kinman, 195877 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Id, 
Hi Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et at., 19o9Iip, III Sawyer, 1960ac/z£ Kron and 
Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 19606cg Wilkens, 19617, 777 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 van den 
Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 6981 (Messier 72) a 20 h 50^7, 5 - 12° 44' / n 35°.15, 6 11 - 32°.68 

1953 Rosino, L. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari IX. Osservazioni fotografiche 

di variabili e determinazione dei periodi e curve di luce di 16 cefeidi appartenenti 

aH'ammasso globulare M 72. Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. VI, no. 2, pp. 49-64. 

1953 Sawyer, H. B. Thirty-eight new variable stars in eleven globular clusters. 
R. A. S. C. Jour., v. 47, pp. 229-236; Dunlap Comm., no. 34. 

1957 Nobili, F. Elementi e curve di luce di tre stelle variabili neH'ammasso globulare 
M 72. Soc. Astr. Hal. Mem., v. 28, no. 1-2, pp. 141-145; Asiago Cont., no. 83. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1946 Miczaika, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 
19486 Perek, 1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 19527a6d 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, \9o?>deji Rosino, 1953 Sawyer, 1954 Ginger- 
ich, 19547 Zagar, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955776d Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 van den 
Bergh, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanvsek, 1958e 
Arp, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 19587 Sandage, 195877 Sawyer Hogg, 
1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959/d, 
77: Kinman, 1959 Kurochkin, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596 Morgan, 1959 Preston, 
1959Iip Sawyer Hogg, \9Wacdefik Kron and Mavall, 1960 Kurth, 19606ccg Wilkens, 
19616 Haffner, 1961 Henon, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 19617 Sawyer Hogg, 1962 
Fernie, 196277 Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 7006 a 20 h 59».'l, 5 + 16° 00' / n 63°.77, 6" - 19°.39 

1954 Sandage, A. R. Variable stars found by Edwin Hubble in the globular cluster 
NGC 7006. A. S. P. Pub., v. 66, pp. 324-326; Die Sterne, v. 31, p. 187. 

1955 Rosino, L., and Mannino, G. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari XII. Distanza 
e stelle variabili d'un remotissimo ammasso globulare: XGC 7006. Asiago 
Cont., no. 59, with plate. 

1956 Lidt om Kuglehoben N.G.C. 7006. Urania, K4ben)iavn, v. 13, pp. 57-58. 

1957 Mannino, G. Periodi e curve di luce di 19 stelle variabili del tipo RR Lyrae 
deH'ammasso globulare XGC 7006. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 28, no. 3; Asiago 
Cont., no. 84. 



382 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 7006 (cont'd) 

1928a Ludendorff, 1947 Parenago, 1947aW Sawyer, 1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, 
1948/ Sawyer, 1949a6de Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 1952/aW, // 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Lohmann, 1953rd Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von 
Hoerner, I95511bcd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 19566 Schmidt, 1957 
Shapley, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Heckmann, 19587, 77 Kinman, 1958 
Rosino, 1958/7 Sawyer Hogg, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dufay and Bigay, 
1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/d, Hi, III Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 
19596 Morgan, 1959 Icip, lie Sawyer Hogg, \960acfikl Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 
IQ&Obceg Wilkens, 1961a Haffner, 1961 Kurochkin, 19617, III Sawyer Hogg, 1962 
van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962/7 Rosino, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

NGC 7078 (Messier 15) a 21 h 27 1 ? 6, 5 + 11° 57' /"65°.02, b 11 - 27°.32 

1949 Sawyer, H. B. The early discovery of four globular clusters. R. A. S. C. 
Jour., v. 43, p. 45. 

1950 Rosino, L. Twenty-nine new variable stars in the globular cluster M 15. 
Ap. J., v. 112, p. 221, with plate. 

1951 Brown, A. The color magnitude array for stars in the globular cluster M 15. 
Ap. J., v. 113, pp. 344-366; Abs., A. J., v. 55, p. 165. 

1951 Johnson, H. L., and Schwarzschild, M. On the color-magnitude diagram for 
M 15. Ap. J., v. 113, pp. 630-636. 

1952 Izsak, I. Three new variable stars in the globular cluster M 15. Budapest 
Mitt., no. 28 (plate). 

1955 Arp, H. C. Cepheids of period greater than one day in globular clusters. A. J., 
v. 60, pp. 1-17. 

1955 Kholopov, P. N. The space distribution of red giants and variable stars of 
RR Lyrae type in the globular cluster M 15. Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 10, no. 5, 
pp. 253-261. 

1956 Mannino, G. Le stelle variabili dell'ammasso globulare M 15. I. Studio di 14 
cefeidi del tipo RR Lyrae (N. 2-15). Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 27, no. 2; Asiago 
Cont., no. 74. 

1956 Mannino, G. Le stelle variabili dell'ammasso globulare M 15. II. Studio di 
10 note cefeide del tipo RR Lyrae (N. 17, 18, 22, 24, 30, 32, 35, 38, 39, 40) e di 
una nuova variabilie (X. 99). Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 27, no. 3; Asiago Cont., 
no. 75. 

1956 Grubissich, C. Le stelle variabili dell'ammasso globulare M 15. III. Studio 
delle dieci variabili No. 19, 23, 25-29, 31, 42, 43. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 27, 
p. 3; Asiago Cont., no. 76. 

1956 Pallas and M 15. Sky and Tel., v. 15, p. 444. 

1957 Izsak, I. Untersuchungen iiber die Periodanderungen der Veranderlichen im 
Kugelsternhaufen M 15. Konferenz iiber Veranderliche Sterne, Budapest, 
1956, 63-69; Stern. Ungar. Akad. Wiss. Mitt., no. 42. 

1957 Nobili, F. Le stelle variabili dell'ammasso globulare M 15. IV. Studio delle 
otto variabili X. 1, 44, 50-54, 66. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. 28, nos. 1-2, pp. 
105-120; Asiago Cont., no. 81. 

1958 Bachmann, G. Die Periode des Veranderlichen Nr. 19 im Kugelhaufen M 15. 
A. N., v. 284, p. 191; Berlin-Babelsberg Mitt., no. 7. 

1958 Notni, P., and Oleak, H. Der Lichtwechsel von 25 Veranderlichen des Kugel- 
haufens M 15. A. N., v. 284, pp. 49-56. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 383 

NGC 7078 (cont'd) 

1959 Bronkalla, W. Periodenanderungen von RR Lyrae-Sterne in Kugelhaufen. 
Remeis-Sternw. Bamberg Kl. Veroff., no. 27, p. 28. 

1959 Mannino, G. Sulla variabile N. 99 dell'ammasso globulare M 15. Soc. Astr. 
Ital. Mem., v. 30, no. 3-4; Asiago Cont., no. 110. 

1960 Bronkalla, \V. Die Periodenanderungen von 27 Veranderlichen des Kugel- 
haufens M 15. Berlin-Babelsberg Mitt., no. 10; A. N., v. 285, pp. 181-190, 
1960. 

1961 King, I. Star distribution in the globular cluster M 15. A. J., v. 66, pp. 47-48. 
See also, Globular cluster densities, Sky and Tel., v. 21, pp. 210-211. 

1961 Preston, G. \V. Low-dispersion spectra of RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters. 

Ap. J., v. 134, no. 2, pp. 651-652; Lick Cont., no. 119. 
1961 Tsoo, Yu-hua. Three new variable stars in the globular cluster Messier 15. 
Acta Astr. Sinica, v. 9, no. 1, 2, pp. 70-71, with plate. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1935 Walters, 1938ac Payne-Gaposchkin and Gaposchkin, 1946 
Miczaika, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 BAAJ, 1948 Becker, 1948 Gamalej, 
19486 Perek, 1948/ Sawyer, 1949 Gialanella, 1949 Jov, \9i9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, 
Florja, 1949cde/ Shapley, \950cdfg Becker, 1950 Kurth, 1950 Stebbins, 19517, II 
Kurth, 1952 Camm, \952Iabd Lohmann, 19536 Deutsch, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 
1953 Lohmann, 1953d/i Rosino, 1953 Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Blamont, 1954 
Cimino, 1954 Gingerich, 1954a Payne-Gaposchkin, 19546 Rosino, 1954a Sandage, 
1954/ Zagar, 19557, II Arp, 1955 von Hoerner, 1955/7 Reddish, 19557, Ilbcd 
Sawyer, 1956ac Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956 Kourganoff, 1956cd Morgan, 1956 
Roberts, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Ferrari d'Occhieppo, 1957 
Kholopov, 1957 Rosino, 1957 Stohl, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, I958abdej Arp, 
1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958 Heckmann, 195S Kholopov, 19587, 77 Kinman, 

1958 Maffei (photo), 1958 Naprstkova, 1958 Rosino, 19587, 77 Sandage, \958Ieh, 
77 Sawyer Hogg, 1958 Wallerstein, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 

1959 Johnson, 1959/a6d, Ilabefhij Kinman, 1959 Kurochkin, 1959 Matsunami et al., 
1959a6 Morgan, 1959 Preston, 1959 If gijklop, Ha, III Sawver Hogg, 1960 Bowen, 
\960acdfgijkl Kron and Mavall, 1960 Kurth, 1960 Markarian, 1960 Pavlovskaya, 
19606/j Roberts, 1960 Sandage and Wallerstein, \960bcg Wilkens, 1961a6 Haffner, 

1961 Henon, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961 Slettebak, Bahner and Stock, 19617, 
777 Sawver Hogg, 19627, lie Arp, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 Eggen and 
Sandage,' 1962 Fernie, 1962 King, 1962 Kinman, 196277 Rosino, 19627 Sandage, 

1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 6779 1949 Rosino, 6341 1953 Arp, Baum, Sandage, 5272 1953 Sandage, 
6205 1954 Baum, 5272 1954 Sandage, 6205 1955 Brown, 5272 1955 Roberts and 
Sandage, 104 1957 Gascoigne and Burr, 6656 1959 Arp and Melbourne, 5272 1959 
Oort and van Kerk, 6522 1961 Whitford, 6712 1962 Smith and Sandage, 6356 1962 
Wallerstein. 

NGC 7089 (Messier 2) a 21 h 30™9, 5 - 01° 03' / n 53°.37, 6 11 - 35°.78 

1897 Soc. Astr. Fr. Bull., Dec, p. 485. (New variable by Chevremont). 

1949 Sawyer, H. B. Two RV Tauri-type variables in globular clusters. R. A. S. C. 

Jour., v. 43, pp. 38-44; Dunlap Comm., no. 18. 
1949 Sawyer, H. B. The early discovery of four globular clusters. R. A. S. C. Jour., 

v. 43, p. 45. 

1955 Arp, H. C. Cepheids of period greater than one day in globular clusters. 
A. J., v. 60, pp. 1-17. 

1956 Arp, H. C, and Wallerstein, G. Cepheids in M 2. A. J., v. 61, p. 272. 



384 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

NGC 7089 (cont'd) 

1956 Kreiken, E. A. A statistical study of pulsating stars. VII. The variables in M 2. 
Dept. Astr. Univ. Ankara Comm., no. 14, pp. 79-82. 

1957 VVallerstein, G. Note on the behavior of the RV Tauri-type star No. 11 in 
Messier 2. A. J., v. 62, p. 168. 

1961 Kulikov, V. I. Variable stars in the globular cluster M 2. Var. Stars (Russ.), 

v. 13, no. 6, pp. 400-406. 
1961 Mantegazza, G. Fabbri. Periodi di 4 stelle variabili del tipo RR Lyrae dell' 

ammasso globulare NGC 7089. Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. 8, no. 5. 
1935 Walters, 1947 Fricke, 1947 Parenago, 1947a6cd Sawyer, 1948 BAAJ, 1948 
Becker, 1948 Gamalej, 19486 Perek, 1948/7 Sawyer, 1949 Gialanella, 1949 Joy, 
I9±9abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce Shapley, 1950^/ Becker, 1950 Kurth, 
1950 Stebbins, 19517, II Kurth, 19516 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1952Iabd Lohmann, 
19536 Deutsch, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953 Lohmann, 1953d; Rosino, 1953 
Shapley and McKibben, 1954 Bidelman, 1954 Blamont, 1954 Cimino, 1954 Gingerich, 
19546 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1954a Sandage, 1954/ Zagar, 19557, II Arp, 1955 von 
Hoerner, 1955/7 Reddish, I95511bcd Sawyer, 1956ac Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 

1956 Kourganoff, 1956 Roberts, 1956a6 Schmidt, 1957 van den Bergh, 1957 Ferrari 
d'Occhieppo, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958abej Arp, 1958 Burbidge and 
Sandage, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958 Lohmann, 1958/, // Sandage, 1958/e Sawyer 
Hogg, 1958 Wallerstein, 1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff , 1959a6cd Arp, 1959 Dzigvash- 
vili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/a6d, Ilabfhij Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 19596 Morgan, 
1959 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1959 Sandage, 1959/*&/> Sawyer Hogg, 1960 Kron, 1960 
acfgijkl Kron and Mayall, 1960 Kurth, 1960/f Roberts, 1960 Markarian, 1960 Sandage 
and Wallerstein, I960 Wallerstein and Carlson, 19606cg Wilkens, 1961a6 Haffner, 
1961 Henon, 1961 Lohmann, 1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 
1962/ Arp, 1962 Bahner, Hiltner and Kraft, 1962 van den Bergh and Henry, 1962 
Fernie, 1962// Rosino, 1962/, // Sandage, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: 5272 1947 Lohmann, 6205 1954 Baum, 5272 1954 Sandage, 5904 1958 
Wallerstein, 6656 1959 Arp and Melbourne, 5272 1961 Smak, 6522 1961 Whitford, 
6397 1961 Woolley et al. 

NGC 7099 (Messier 30) a 21 h 37-5, 6 - 23° 25' / Ir 27°.16, 6 11 - 46°.83 

1949 Rosino, L. Ricerche sugli ammassi globulari. I. Distribuzione e variabilita delle 

stelle dell'ammasso M 30 e valutazione della sua distanza. Univ. Bologna Oss. 

Pub., v. V, no. 9, with plate. Summ., Sternenwelt, v. 3, p. 109, 1951. 
1961 Rosino, L. Osservazioni di due variabili peculiari e d'una variable tipo RR 

Lyrae en ammassi stellare. Accad. Patavina di SS LL AA Mem., v. 74, 

1960-61; Asiago Cont., no. 117. 
1915 Stone, 1940 Shapley and Paraskevopoulos, 1947 Parenago, 1947 a6c0*Sawyer, 
1948 Becker, 19486 Perek, \9A9abcde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1952/a6de 
Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953 Kholopov, 1953 Lohmann, 1953bcefi Rosino, 1954 
Blamont, 1954 Cimino, 1954 Gingerich, 19546 Rosino, 1954/ Zagar, 1955 von 
Hoerner, \955IIbcd Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1956 van den Bergh, 1956a6 Schmidt, 

1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958/, // Kinman, 1958 Maffei (photo), 

1959 van Agt and Oosterhoff, 1959 Dzigvashvili, 1959 Johnson, 1959/a6d, Ilbi, III 
Kinman, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959Iip Sawyer Hogg, 19Q0acfikl Kron and Mayall, 

1960 Kurth, 19606qj Wilkens, 1961 Henon, 1961/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 van den 
Bergh and Henry, 1962 Fernie, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

Palomar 12 a 21 h 43<?7, 5 - 21° 28' / n 30°.52, 6 11 - 47°.64 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 
National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory sky survey. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 67, pp. 258-261. (Discovery by Harrington and Zwicky). 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 385 

Palomar 12 (cont'd) 

1957 Zwicky, F. Morphological Astronomy. Springer-Berlin. Page 205, Dwarf 
galaxy in Capricorn (photo). Identification of first variable. 

1962 Kinman, T. D., and Rosino, L. Notes on faint star clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 74, pp. 499-506, with print. 

1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 Burbidge and Sandage, 1958 Heckmann, 
1959 Ip Sawyer Hogg, 1961/7/ Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Kinman, 1962/ Rosino. 

Palomar 13 a 23 h 04?2, 5 + 12° 28' l u 87°.07, b 11 - 42°.72 

1955 Wilson, A. G. Sculptor-type systems in the local group of galaxies. A. S. P. 

Pub., v. 67, pp. 27-29. (Discovery by Wilson). 
1957 Rosino, L. Sopra due ammassi globulari del catalogo di Abell (no. 4 e no. 13). 

Asiago Cont., no. 85, with plate. 

1955 Abell (No. 13), 1957 Rosino, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 1958 van den 
Bergh, 195S Burbidge and Sandage, 1958 Heckmann, 1958// Sawyer Hogg, 1959/z>, 
/// Sawyer Hogg, 1961/, /// Sawyer Hogg, 1962 Kinman, 1962/ Rosino, 1962 
Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: Pal 1 1962 Kinman and Rosino. 

NGC 7492 a23 h 05?7, 5 - 15° 54' / n 53 .32, b u - 63°.46 

1957 Cuffey, J. Color-magnitude relations in Messier 53 and N.G.C. 7492. A. J., 
v. 62, p. 91. 

1961 Cuffey, J. NGC 7492. M. N., v. 122, pp. 363-370; Summ., Quarterly Jour., 
v. 2, no. 3, p. 222. 

1962 Kinman, T. D., and Rosino, L. Notes on faint star clusters. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 74, pp. 499-506. 

1928a Ludendorff, 1947aW Sawyer, 1949abde Parenago, Kukarkin, Florja, 1949ce 
Shapley, 1952/aW Lohmann, 1953 Dreyer, 1953de/ Rosino, 1954 Cuffey, 1954/ 
Zagar, 1955//W Sawyer, 1956c Baum, 1957 Shapley, 1958 Alter, Ruprecht, Vanysek, 

1958 Heckmann, 195S Maffei (photo), 1959 Johnson, 1959 Matsunami et al., 1959 
Ibcip, III Sawyer Hogg, 19606cg Wilkens, 1961a Haffner, 1961/// Sawyer Hogg, 
1962 Kinman, 1962 Sawyer Hogg. 

See also: Pal 5 1951 Rosino. 



SECTION B 

References 

References which Pre-date Bibliography of 1947 



1789 Wollaston, F. A General Catalogue of stars, nebulae and clusters of stars, whose 

positions have been ascertained by different astronomers, arranged in order 

of Right Ascension, in their respective zones of North Polar Distance of 

January 1, 1790. 
1912 Knox-Shaw, H. Observations of nebulae made during 1909-1911. Helwan 

Bull., no. 9, pp. 69-78. 
1915 Knox-Shaw, H. Observations of nebulae made during 1912-1914. Helwan 

Bull., no. 15, pp. 129-138. 
1915 Stone, O. Southern Nebulae. Leander McCormick Pub., v. 1, pt. 6, pp. 

175-241. (Stone nos. 652, 656, 741, 825). 
1921/ Gregory, C. C. L. Third list of nebulae photographed with the Reynolds 

reflector. Helwan Bull, no. 21, pp. 201-218. 
19217/ Gregory, C. C. L. Fourth list of nebulae photographed with the Reynolds 

reflector. Helwan Bull., no. 22, pp. 219-235. 
1928 Ludendorff, H. Die Veranderlichen Sterne. Handbuch der Astrophysik, v. 6, 

pp. 49-250. 

a. Page 233. Veranderliche in kugelformigen Sternhaufen. 

b. Page 238. Veranderliche in der nachsten Umgebung von kugelformigen 
Sternhaufen. 

1928 Shapley, H. Studies of the galactic center. III. The absolute magnitudes of 
long period variables. Nat. Acad. Sci. Wash. Proc, v. 14, pp. 958-962. 

1935 Walters, M. H. H. Globular clusters. Neill & Co. Edinburgh, pp. 35. 

1936 Kuiper, G. P. On the hydrogen content of clusters, binaries, and Cepheids. 

Harv. Bull, no. 903, pp. 1-11. 
1938 Payne-Gaposchkin, C. H., and Gaposchkin, S. Variable Stars. Cambridge. 
Chap. IV, The Cepheid variables, pp. 153-191. 

a. Page 158. Table IV, V. Relation of light curve to period for variables 
in clusters. 

b. Page 163. Table IV, VII. Light curve and period for Cepheids in 
extragalactic systems. 

c. Page 165. Period luminosity relation. 

1940 Oort, J. H. Some problems concerning the structure and dynamics of the 
galactic system and the elliptical nebulae NGC 3115 and 4494. Ap. J., 
v. 91, pp. 273-306. 

1940 Shapley, H., and Paraskevopoulos, J. S. Galactic and extragalactic studies. 

III. Photographs of thirty southern nebulae and clusters. Nat. Acad. 
Sci. Wash. Proc, v. 26, pp. 31-36; Harv. Repr., no. 184. 

1941 Merrill, P. The radial velocities of long-period variable stars. Second paper. 

Ap. J., v. 94, pp. 171-214. 
1943 Payne-Gaposchkin, C, Brenton, V. K., and Gaposchkin, S. The variables 
of RV Tauri type. Harv. Ann., v. 113, no. 1, pp. 1-65. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 387 

1944 Wallenquist, A., and Lundby, A. Integrated photographic magnitudes of 
twenty-four globular clusters in the Sagittarius and Ophiuchus regions. 
Ark. Mat. Astr. Fys., v. 31, A. no. 6; Astr. Obs. Uppsala Medd., no. 86. 

References received after printing of Bibliography of 1947 

1946 Miczaika, G. R. Die Periodenhaufigkeitsverteilung der kurzperiodischen 
Cepheiden in Kugelhaufen. Bad. Landes Sternw. Heidelberg- Konigstuhl 
Veroff., v. 14, no. 8, pp. 69-76. 

1946 Vogt, H. I'eber die Auslosung der kurzperiodischen 5 Cephei-veranderlichen 

in Kugelsternhaufen. Bad. Landes Sternw. Heidelberg-Konigstuhl Veroff., 
v. 14, no. 6, pp. 61-62. 

1947 Fricke, W. Neuere Arbeiten iiber die Struktur kugelformiger Sternhaufen. 

Himmelswelt, v. 55, pp. 34-36. 
1947 von der Pahlen, E. Ueber die Entstehung der spharischen Sternhaufen. 

Z.f. Ap., v. 24, pp. 68-120; Astrophys. Obs. Potsdam Mitt., no. 18. 
1947 Parenago, P. P. The motions of globular clusters. A. J. UdSSR, v. 24, pp. 

167-177. 

1947 Sawyer, H. B. A bibliography of individual globular clusters. Dunlap Pub., 

v. 1, no. 20. Ref., Sky and Tel, v. 7, p. 203. 

a. Pages 388-391. Catalogue of 99 globular clusters. 

b. Page 392. Discoverers of globular clusters. 

c. Page 395. Identification of Messier-Mechain with NGC numbers. 

d. Page 396 et seq. References to individual globular clusters. 

1948 BAAJ Messier's Catalogue. B. A. A. Jour., v. 59, pp. 49-50. 

1948 Becker, W. Bemerkungen iiber Farbe und Spektraltypus von Kugelhaufen. 

Himmelswelt, v. 55, pp. 177-179. 
1948 Fehrenbach, C. Quelques mesures de magnitudes integrales d'amas globu- 

laires. Haute- Provence Pub., Ser. A, no. 17; Ann. d'Ap., v. 11, pp. 225-227. 
1948 Gamalej, N. W. Eigenbewegungen von acht kugelformigen Sternhaufen. 

Pulkova Mitt., v. 17, no. 6, pp. 27-57. 
1948 Joy, A. H. The spectra of the brighter variables in the globular clusters. 

A. J., v. 53, pp. 113-114. 
1948 King, I. The dynamics of globular clusters. I. A. U. Trans., v. 7, pp. 410-411, 

1950. 
1948 Maitre, V. Repartitions des magnitudes, couleurs et masses dans les amas 

globulaires. Jour, des Observateurs, v. 31, pp. 129-137. 

1948 Perek, L. Sur la rotation galactique des amas globulaires. Ann. d'Ap., v. 11, 

pp. 185-192. 

a. Page 185. Clusters excluded. 

b. Pages 190-191. Table of velocities. 

1948/ Sawyer Hogg, H. Variable stars in globular clusters. LA. U. Trans., v. 7, 

pp. 408-409, 1950. 
1948/7 Sawyer, H. B. Globular clusters of stars. A. S. P. Leaflet, no. 231. 

1949 Gialanella, L. Sul problema dei due corpi di masse variabili in cui la forza 

attrativa e* proporzionale alia distanza. Applicazione agli ammassi globu- 
lari di stelle. Soc. Astr. Ilal. Mem. (NS), v. 20, pp. 93-105; Oss. Astr. 
Roma Monte Mario Cont. Sci., no. 145; Ref. Math. Rev., v. 11, p. 408. 



388 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1949 Joy, A. H. Spectra of the brighter variables in globular clusters. Ap. J., v. 

110, pp. 105-116; Mi. W. and Pal. Repr., no. 5. 
1949 Kholopov, P. N. Ein numerisches Verfahren zur Bestimmung der raumlichen 

Sterndichte in einem elliptischen Sternhaufen. A. J. UdSSR, v. 26, no. 

5, pp. 298-304; Ref. Math. Rev., v. 11, p. 467. 
1949 Parenago, P. P., Kukarkin, B. W., Florja, N. F. The system of globular 

clusters. Astr. Sternberg- Inst. Trudy, v. 16, pp. 47-70. 

c. Page 49. Moduli of 94 globular clusters. 

b. Page 53. Relation of absolute magnitude to concentration class. 

c. Page 56. Absorption for nine clusters. 

d. Pages 58-60. Diameters and absorption for globular clusters. 

e. Pages 67-68. Space co-ordinates of globular clusters. 
/. Page 69. Diagram of local cluster. 

1949 Shapley, H. A half century of globular clusters. Pop. Astr., v. 57, pp. 203- 

229; Summ, Soc. Astr. Fr., Bull., v. 63, p. 224. 

a. Pages 203-205. Historical. 

b. Page 206. Special clusters. 

c. Pages 211-212. Distances and absolute magnitudes of 31 high latitude 
clusters. 

d. Pages 212-216. Spectral types and colours; star population of a new 
kind. 

e. Pages 217-220. Angular and linear diameters of 31 clusters. 
/. Pages 221-224. Variables in clusters. 

g. Page 242. Motions and structure. 
h. Page 227. Relation to other objects. 

1950 Becker, VV. Sterne und Sternsysteme. Dresden and Leipzig. Theodor Stein- 

kopff. Die kugelformigen Sternhaufen, pp. 164-174. 

a. Page 165. Photo XGC 6205. 

b. Page 166. Apparent diameters. 

c. Page 167. Ellipticities. 

d. Pages 168-169. Distances and physical data for 15 clusters. 

e. Pages 169-170. Star counts and stellar density. 
/. Pages 170-172. Colour-magnitude diagrams. 

g. Pages 172-174. Variables in clusters. 
1950 Kurth, R. Massenabschatzung der kugelformigen Stern- und Nebelhaufen 

auf dynamischer Grundlage. Z.f. Ap., v. 28, pp. 1-16; Ast. Inst. Univ. 

Bern. Veroff., no. 6. 
1950 Shapley, H. Report of meeting of Commission 37, Star Clusters. I. A. U. 

Trans., v. 7, pp. 407-413. 

1950 Stebbins, J. The electrical photometry of stars and nebulae. M. N., v. 110, 

pp. 416-428. Globular clusters, p. 420. 

1951 Bok, B. J. Dynamics and evolution of star clusters. Sky and Tel., v. 10, pp. 

211-213, 239-240. 

a. Page 211. Photo « Cen. 

b. Page 239. Photo NGC 4372. 

19517 Kurth, R. Die Masse der Kugelsternhaufen. Z. f. Ap., v. 29, pp. 26-28; 
Ast. Inst. Univ. Bern Veroff., no. 8. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 389 

19517/ Kurth, R. Die Entwicklung der Kugelsternhaufen. Z. f. Ap., v. 29, pp. 

33-65; Ast. Inst. Univ. Bern Veroff., no. 9. Masses of globular clusters, 

p. 63. 
1951 Payne-Gaposchkin, C. The intrinsic variable stars, Astrophysics, ed. by J. A. 

Hynek, McGraw-Hill, pp. 495-525. 

a. Pages 507-510. The cluster type stars. 

b. Pages 510-514. The Type II Cepheids. 

c. Page 513. Velocity curves. 

d. Page 516. RV Tauri stars in globular clusters. 

e. Page 519. Long-period variables in isolated systems. 

1951 Thackeray, A. D. Proceedings of Observatories, Radcliffe Observatory, 

Pretoria. M. N., v. Ill, pp. 206-208. 

1952 Baade, W. Report of president of Commission 37, Star Clusters. I. A. U. 

Trans., v. 8, p. 596. 
1952 Camm, G. L. Self-gravitating star systems. II. M. N., v. 112, pp. 155-176. 
1952 Johnson, H. M. The forms, orientations, and masses of globular clusters. 

Ap. J., v. 115, pp. 124-128. 

1952 Kholopov, P. N. The ellipticity of globular clusters. A. J. UdSSR, v. 29, 

pp. 671-681. 
1952/ Lohmann, W. Die Entfernungen der kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Z. f. Ap., 
v. 30, pp. 234-247. 

a. Page 238. Interstellar absorption for globular clusters. 

b. Pages 242-243. Collection of distance moduli. 

c. Pages 245-246. Comments on distance moduli. 

d. Page 246. True distance moduli. 

1952// Lohmann, W. Bestimmung der Masse des Milchstrassensystems aus den 
Radialgeschwindigkeiten kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Z. f. Ap., v. 30, 
pp. 305-307. 

1952/// Lohmann, W. Die kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Sternenwelt, v. 4, pp. 
134-142. 

a. Page 142. Table of number of stars and total mass. 

b. Photo. 

c. Reference. 

1953 Deutsch, A. J. Quelques problemes sur le spectre des etoiles d'amas. Paris 

Conference, Principes Fondamentaux de Classification Stellaire. Centre 
National de la Recherche Scientifique. 1955. 

a. Pages 32-37. Individual spectra reproduced in Fig. 15. 

b. Page 35. Other clusters mentioned. 

1953 Dreyer, J. L. E. New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars 
(1888), Index Catalogue (1895), Second Index Catalogue (1908). London, 
Roy. Ast. Soc. Mem., 1953, 378 pp. Reprint, with corrections, of all 
material in original NGC, and two IC's. 

1953 Gingerich, O. Messier and his catalogue. Sky and Tel., v. 12, pp. 255-257, 
265, 288-291. 

1953 Kholopov, P. N. Die scheinbare Verteilung der Sterne in zwanzig kugel- 
formigen Sternhaufen. Astr. Sternberg-Inst. Pub., v. 23, pp. 250-301; 
Summ., Ast. News Letter, no. 97, p. 35, 1959. 



390 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1953. Lohmann, W. Die Durchmesser der kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Z. /. Ap., 

v. 32, pp. 298-302. 
1953 RosiNO, L. Orientamenti e problemi nello studio degli ammassi globulari di 

stelle. Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-48. Reprint of articles 

from Coelutn. 

a. Page 1. Historical. 

b. Page 6. Distances. 

c. Page 9. Diameters. 

d. Page 18. Distance table of 31 high latitude clusters. 

e. Page 24. Classification types. 
/. Tav. IV. Plates. 

g. Page 25. Integrated brightness and linear diameter. 
h. Page 31. Limiting magnitudes. 
i. Page 34. Variable stars. 
j. Page 42. H-R diagrams and evolution. 
1953 Sawyer, H. B. Thirty-eight new variable stars in eleven globular clusters. 
R. A. S. C. Jour., v. 47, pp. 229-236; Dunlap Comm., no. 34. 

1953 Shapley, H., and McKibben Nail, V. Magellanic Clouds VI. Revised 

distances and luminosities. Nat. Acad. Sci. Wash. Proc, v. 39, no. 5, 
pp. 349-362; Harv. Repr., no. 372. The brighter variable stars in 13 
globular clusters, pp. 351-352. 

1954 Belserene, E. P. The period-amplitude relation in globular clusters. A. J., 

v. 59, pp. 406-409. 
1954 Bidelman, W. P. Catalogue and bibliography of emission-line stars of types 

later than B. Ap. J. Supp., v. 1, no. 7, pp. 175-268. Intrinsic variables 

of types F, G, and K, p. 205. 
1954 Blamont, J-E., and Courtes, G. Polarization des amas globulaires. Ann. 

d'Ap., v. 17, pp. 312-313; Haute- Provence Pub., v. 3, no. 14. Ref., Pop. 

A. Tids., v. 37, p. 76, 1956. 
1954 Cimino, M. Sulla distribuzione de equilibrio della materia gassosa negli 

ammassi globulari. Rend. Accad. Nazionale Lincei CI. Sci.fis., mat. nat. 

(8) v. 16, pp. 215-221; Oss. Astr. Roma Monte Mario Cont. Sci. (NS) no. 

201. 
1954 Cuffey, J. Distribution of globular clusters in high north and south galactic 

latitude. A. J., v. 59, pp. 319-320. 
1954 Gingerich, O. Observing the Messier catalogue. Sky and Tel., v. 13, pp. 

157-159. 
1954 Huang, S-S. A note on globular clusters. A. J., v. 59, pp. 241-243; Berkeley 

Repr., no. 67. 
1954 Markarian, B. E. Ueber die Entwicklung der offenen Sternhaufen. Bjurakan 

Obs. Mitt., no. 12, 22 pp. 
1954 Payne-Gaposchkin, C. Variable stars and galactic structure. University of 

London. 

a. Page 20. Distribution of periods of RR Lyrae stars. 

b. Page 38. The W Virginis stars (Population II Cepheids). 

1954 Perek, L. A note on the galactic orbits of globular clusters. Astr. Inst. Brno 

Cont., v. 1, no. 12, pp. 1-10. 
1954 Rosino, L. Le Popolazioni Stellari. Univ. Bologna Oss. Pub., v. 6, no. 4. 

a. Figs. 2, 3, 4. Colour-magnitude diagrams. 

b. Pages 8-16. Discussion of variables. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 391 

1954 Sandage, A. R. A survey of present knowledge of globular clusters and its 
significance for stellar evolution. Les Processus Nucleaires dans les Astres. 
Comm. Cinq, Colloque Internationale Liege, 1953, Inst. d'Astrophys. Univ. 
Liege Mem., v. 8, no. 357, pp. 254-274. 

a. Page 255. Colour magnitude diagrams. 

b. Page 259. Luminosity function. 

c. Page 260. Evolutionary significance. 

d. Page 272. Masses of cluster variables. 

1954 Schwarzschild, M. Mass distribution and mass-luminosity ratio in galaxies. 
A. J., v. 59, pp. 273-284. 

1954 Woolley, R. v. d. R. A study of the equilibrium of globular clusters. M. N., 

v. 114, pp. 191-209. 
1954/ Zagar, F. Gli ammassi globulari di stelle. Oss. Astr. Milano-Merate Cont., 

NS no. 50, pp. 1-24. Catalogue of 102 globular clusters. 
1954/7 Zagar, F. Sulla stabilita degli ammassi globulari di stelle. Oss. Astr. 

Milano-Merate Cont., NS no. 46, pp. 1-14. 

1955 Abell, G. O. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae discovered on the 

National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory sky survey. A. S. P. 

Pub., v. 67, pp. 258-261. 
1955/ Arp, H. C. Cepheids of period greater than one day in globular clusters. 

A. J., v. 60, pp. 1-17, with prints. 
1955/7 Arp, H. C. Color-magnitude diagrams for seven globular clusters. A. J., 

v. 60, pp. 317-337. 
1955 Balm, W. A. The main sequence of population II. A. S. P. Pub., v. 67, p. 114. 
1955 VON Hoerner, S. Ueber die Bahnform der kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Z. f. 

Ap„ v. 35, pp. 255-264. 
1955 Hoyle, F., and Schwarzschild, M. On the evolution of type II stars. Ap. J. 

Supp., v. 2, no. 13, pp. 1-40. 
1955/ Reddish, V. C. The absolute magnitude of the RR Lyrae variables. Obs., 

v. 75, pp. 124-125. 
1955// Reddish, V. C. The period-luminosity relation in population II. M. N., 

v. 115, pp. 480-486. 
1955/ Sawyer, H. B. A summary of variable stars in globular star clusters. 

R. A. S. C. Jour., v. 49, pp. 114-116. 
1955// Sawyer, H. B. A second catalogue of variable stars in globular clusters, 

comprising 1,421 entries. Dunlap Pub., v. 2, no. 2, pp. 33-93. 

a. Page 36. Thirty-four globular clusters not searched for variables. 

b. Pages 38-39. Summary of variables in 72 globular clusters. 

c. Pages 43-45. Clusters containing variables not RR Lyrae stars. 

d. Pages 48-93. Catalogue of variable stars in globular clusters. 

1955/ Strlve, O. Globular clusters and their history. Sky and Tel., v. 14, pp. 
326-328. 

a. Pages 326-327. Photos. 

b. Pages 327-329. Structure and motion. 

1955// Struve, O. More on globular clusters. Sky and Tel., v. 14, pp. 366-369. 

a. Pages 367-368. Large-scale photos. 

b. Page 366. Small-scale photos. 

c. Page 366. Position. 

d. Pages 367-368. Absolute magnitudes. 



392 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1956 Baum, W. A. Globular clusters observed through a crystal ball. New Horizons 
in Astronomy. Smithsonian Cont. Astrophysics, v. 1, pp. 165-175. 

a. Pages 165-169. Discussion of colour-magnitude diagrams. 

b. Page 169. Interesting clusters in low latitudes. 

c. Page 170. Table of data on high latitude clusters. 

d. Pages 170-172. Comparison of spectral differences. 

1956 van den Bergh, S. The diameter of globular clusters. Z. /. Ap., v. 41, pp. 

61-65. 

Table I. Cluster radii derived from the co-ordinates of cluster-type 
variables. 
1956 Haselgrove, C. B., and Hoyle, F. A preliminary determination of the age 

of type II stars. M. N., v. 116, pp. 527-532. 
1956 Kourganoff, V. Les galaxies. II, La galaxie. 2, Amas et associations 

stellaires. Le del et la Terre, Paris. 
1956 Kreiken, E. A. A statistical study of pulsating stars. Sixth paper. Variables 

in miscellaneous clusters. Fac. Sci. Univ. Ankara Comtn., v. 8, no. 1; 

Dept. Astr. Ankara Univ. Comm., no. 13, pp. 72-78. 
1956 Morgan, W. W. The integrated spectral types of globular clusters. A. S. P. 

Pub., v. 68, pp. 509-516. 

a. Page 511. Globular clusters of later type. 

b. Pages 511-512. Other globular clusters near nucleus. 

c. Pages 512-514. Classification of McDonald spectrograms. 

d. Plate I, and page 515. Photos of integrated spectra. 

1956 Roberts, M. S. A theoretical luminosity function for the elliptical nebula 

M 32. A. J., v. 61, pp. 195-199. 
1956 Schmidt, M. A model of the distribution of mass in the galactic system. 

B. A. N., v. 13, no. 468, pp. 15-41. 

a. Pages 36-37. The distribution of globular clusters, with distance 
components. 

b. Page 38. Radial velocities and rotational components of globular 
clusters. 

1956 Woolley, R. v. D. R. The equilibrium of globular clusters. Obs., v. 76, pp. 
53-54. 

1956 Woolley, R. v. d. R., and Robertson, D. A. Studies in the equilibrium of 

globular clusters. II. M. N., v. 116, pp. 288-295. 

1957 van den Bergh, S. RR Lyrae stars and galactic structure. Perkins Cont., 

Ser. II, no. 9; A, J., v. 62, pp. 334-339. Sec. 1. RR Lyrae stars in globular 

clusters. 
1957 Ferrari d'Occhieppo. Zur Periode-Radius-Beziehung der Delta Cephei- 

Sterne. Univ. Sternw. Wien Mitt., v. 9, no. 7, pp. 143-152. 
1957/ von Hoerner, S. Der innere Aufbau der Kugelsternhaufen. A. G. Mitt., 

1956, pp. 18-19. 
1957/7 von Hoerner, S. The internal structure of globular clusters. Ap. J., v. 

125, pp. 451-469. 
1957 Johnson, H. L. The relation between U-B and absolute magnitude of F-type 

stars. A.S. P. Pub., v. 69, pp. 404-408. 
1957 Kholopov, P. N. Density distribution of RR Lyrae variables in globular 

clusters and phenomena of stratification in these systems. Var. Stars 

(Russ.), v. 11, no. 3, pp. 202-209. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 393 

1957 Poveda, A. La energia potencial de la esfera politropica n = 5. Tonantzintla 

and Tacubaya Bol., no. 17, pp. 8-14. 
1957 Roman, N. G. High velocity stars as Population I objects. A. J., v. 62, p. 146. 
1957 Rosino, L. Problems of variable stars in globular clusters. Konferenz iiber 

Veranderliche Sterne, Budapest, 1956. Mitt. Sternw. Ungar. Akad. Wiss., 

no. 42. 
1957/ Sandage, A. Observational approach to evolution. I. Luminosity functions. 

Ap. J., v. 125, pp. 422-434. 
1957/7 Sandage, A. Observational approach to evolution. II. A computed lumi- 
nosity function for KO-K2 stars from Mv = +5 to Mv = —4.5. Ap. J., 

v. 125, pp. 435-444. 
1957 Seljach, G. E. Die Berechnung der Massen der kugelformigen Sternhaufen. 

Abh. Shdanow-Staatsuniv. Leningrad, no. 190 {Math. no. 29), pp. 52-58; 

Astr. Obs. Leningrad Pub., v. 17, pp. 52-58. 
1957 Shapley, H. The Inner Metagalaxy. Yale Univ. Press. The thickness of our 

galaxy, pp. 167-169. (Clusters farthest from galactic plane). 

1957 Stohl, J. Gul'ove hviezdokopy. (Globular star clusters). Casopis, v. 7, pp. 

45-52. 

1958 Alter, G., Ruprecht, J., and Vanysek, V. Catalogue of Star Clusters and 

Associations. Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 
Prague. Individual cards of references and data for each cluster. 
1958 Arp, H. C. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. Handbuch der Physik, v. 51, 
pp. 75-133. The H-R diagram for globular clusters, pp. 107-123. 

a. Page 109, sec. 34, 35. RR Lyrae colours and gap. 

b. Page 110, sec. 36. Fit of colour-magnitude diagrams. 

c. Page 112, sec. 37. Stars off the main sequence. 

d. Page 112, sec. 38. Position of giant sequence. 

e. Page 113, sec. 39. Correlation with RR Lyrae periods. 
/. Page 113, sec. 40. Spectra and chemical abundances. 
g. Page 114, sec. 41. Observed main sequences. 

h. Page 116, sec. 42. Ultraviolet colour indices. 

i. Page 118, sec. 44. Zero point of absolute magnitude. 

j. Page 120, sec. 46. Cepheids in globular clusters. 

k. Page 123, sec. 49. Long period variables. 

I. Page 128, sec. 54. Population type and chemical composition. 
1958 van den Bergh, S. Intergalactic globular clusters. Obs., v. 78, p. 85. 
1958 Burbidge, E. M., and Burbidge, G. Stellar evolution. Handbuch der Physik, 

v. 51, pp. 134-295. Sec. III. Colour-magnitude diagrams of globular 

clusters. 

a. Page 213. Colour-magnitude diagrams of globular clusters. 

b. Page 216. Luminosity functions of field stars and clusters. 

c. Page 234. Stellar evolution in the local group. 

1958 Burbidge, E. M., and Sandage, A. Properties of two intergalactic globular 

clusters. Ap. J., v. 127, pp. 527-538, with plates. 
1958 Heckmann, O. Report of commission on star clusters and associations. /. A. 

U. Draft Report, v. 10, pp. 360-361; LA. U. Trans., v. 10, pp. 575-590, 

1960. 
1958 Kholopov, P. N. See the reference for 1957 Kholopov; Summ., Ast. News 

Letter no. 98, 1960. 



394 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1958/ Kinman, T. D. A revision of the distance moduli of the galactic globular 
clusters. M. N. A.S. S. A., v. 17, no. 3, pp. 19-23; Radcliffe Repr., no. 9. 

1958/7 Kinman, T. D. A revision of the distance moduli of seventy-five globular 
clusters. Obs., v. 78, pp. 122-123. 

1958 Ledoux, P., and Walraven, Th. Variable Stars. Handbuch der Astrophysik, 
v. 51, pp. 353-604. 

a. Page 366. Form of light curves and relation to period. 

b. Page 405. Long period variable stars. 

c. Page 582. The RR Lyrae stars. 

d. Page 583. The short period Cepheids in clusters, the W Virginis stars 
and the RV Tauri stars. 

1958 Maffei, P. Venti anni di attivita della stazione astronomica dell' Universita 

di Bologna a Loiano. Univ. Bologna Oss., Pub., v. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-58. 

Photographs with Loiano reflector. 
1958 Naprstkova, J. Globular clusters. Rise hvezd, v. 39, pp. 155-157. 
1958 Rosino, L. Ricerche astronomiche ed astrofisiche all' Osservatorio dell' 

Universita di Padova — Parte I. Asiago Cont., no. Ill; La Ricerca 

Scientifica anno 28, no. 6. 
1958/ Sandage, A. The color-magnitude diagrams of galactic and globular clusters 

and their interpretation as age groups. Conf. Stellar Populations, 

Vatican Obs., 1957. Ric. Astr. Vaticano, v. 5, pp. 41-68. 
1958// Sandage, A. Luminosity function of galactic clusters, globular clusters, and 

elliptical galaxies. Conf. Stellar Populations, Vatican Obs., 1957. Ric. 

Astr. Vaticano, v. 5, pp. 75-93. 
1958 Saurer, J.-M. Les amas globulaires. Soc. Astr. Fr., Bull., v. 72, pp. 359-365. 
1958/ Sawyer Hogg, H. Globular star clusters. R.A.S. C. Jour., v. 52, pp. 97-108. 

a. Page 98. Recently added globular clusters. 

b. Page 99. Intergalactic globular clusters. 

c. Page 100. Surface brightness curve. 

d. Page 101. Star counts. 

e. Pages 102-103. Colour-magnitude diagrams. 
/. Pages 102-105. Spectra. 

g. Page 105. Direct photo and integrated spectrum. 

h. Pages 104-106. Variables. 

i. Pages 106-107. Motions. 
1958// Sawyer Hogg, H. Report of president of Sub-commission 27b, Variable 

stars in globular clusters. LA. U. Draft Reports, v. 10, pp. 242-245; 

LA. U. Trans., v. 10, pp. 424-427, 1960. 
1958 Vandekerkhove, E. The reddening of the extragalactic nebulae. Obs., v. 78, 

pp. 206-211; Obs. Roy. Belgique, Comm., no. 149, 1959. 

1958 Wallerstein, G. Note on the population II Cepheid region in the color- 

magnitude diagram of globular clusters. Ap. J., v. 128, pp. 141-142. 

1959 van Agt, S. L. Th., and Oosterhoff, P. Th. Observations of variable stars 

in the globular clusters NGC 4590 (M 68) and NGC 6266 (M 62). 
Leiden Ann., v. 21, pt. 4, pp. 253-290. Section 4. The frequency distri- 
bution of the variables in NGC 4590 and NGC 6266 as compared with 
that in other globular clusters. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 395 

1959 Alter, G., Hogg, H. S., Ruprecht, J., and Vanysek, V. Catalogue of star 
clusters and associations, Supplement I. Astr. Inst. Czechoslovakia, Bull., 
v. 10, no. 3, App. 

1959 Arp, H. The absolute magnitudes, colors, and metal abundance of stars in 
globular clusters. A. J., v. 64, pp. 441-447. 

a. Pages 441-442. General. 

b. Pages 442-444. Absolute magnitudes and colours. 

c. Pages 444-446. Metal abundance. Table I. 

d. Pages 446-447. Discussion. 

1959 Baum, W. A. The Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of old stellar populations. 
I. A. U. Symposium no. 10, Aug. 1958; Ann. d'Ap., Supp., no. 8, pp. 
23-32, 1959. 

1959 Dufay, J., and Bigay, J. H. Mesure photoelectrique des indices de couleur 
de 21 amas globulaires. C. R. Acad. Sci. Fr., v. 248, no. 15, pp. 2162- 
2164; Haute- Provence Pub., v. 4, no. 41. 

1959 Dzigvashvili, R. M. The determination of parameters of the velocity dis- 
tribution function for the globular clusters on the base of the maximum 
likelihood principle. Abastumani Astrophys. Obs. Bull., no. 24, pp. 
129-142. 

1959 Johnson, H. L. The integrated magnitudes and colors of globular clusters. 
Lowell Bull., v. 4, no. 99, pp. 117-121. 

1959/ Kinman, T. D. Globular clusters. I. The radial velocities of southern globular 
clusters. M. N., v. 119, no. 2, pp. 157-173; Radcliffe Comm., no. 47. 

a. Page 160. Table III. Radial velocities from Cassegrain spectra. 

b. Page 16S. Table V. A comparison of globular cluster velocities. 

c. Page 170. Table VII. Radial velocities from Newtonian spectra. 

d. Page 171. Table VIII. Velocities and distances for seventy globular 
clusters. 

1959/7 Kinman, T. D. Globular clusters. II. The spectral types of individual stars 
and of the integrated light. M. N., v. 119, pp. 538-558. 

a. Page 540. Table la. Classification of spectra of globular cluster giants. 

b. Page 540. Table lb. Spectral types for integrated Cassegrain spectra. 

c. Page 540. Table Ic. Spectral types for integrated Newtonian spectra. 

d. Plate 9. Representative spectra of cluster giants. 

e. Plate 10. Representative integrated cluster spectra. 
/. Pages 542-543. Composite colour-magnitude diagram. 

g. Pages 545-549. Metal line strengths in globular cluster giants. 

h. Pages 549-553. Interpretation of integrated spectra. 

i. Page 553. Table V. Spectral type and distance from galactic plane 
and galactic centre for 63 clusters. 

j. Page 557. Correlations of numbers of RR Lyrae stars. 
1959/7/ Kinman, T. D. Globular clusters. III. An analysis of the cluster radial 

velocities. M. N., v. 119, pp. 559-575. 
1959 Kraft, R. P., Camp, D. C, and Hughes, W. T. The hydrogen emission 

lines in population II variable stars. Ap. J., v. 130, pp. 90-98; Goethe 

Link Pub., no. 32; McDonald Cont., no. 305. 
1959 Kron, G. E., and Mayall, N. U. Photoelectric photometry of galactic and 

extragalactic star clusters. A. J., v. 64, pp. 428-431. 
1959 Kurochkin, N. E. Period-amplitude diagram for the stars of RR Lyrae-type. 

A. J. UdSSR v. 36, pp. 816-824; Summ., Ast. News Letter no. 99, 1960. 



396 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1959 Larsson-Leander, G. The galaxy. Second Conference on Co-ordination of 
Galactic Research. I. A. U. Symposium no. 7. The galactic disk. 

a. Page 35. Globular clusters. 

b. Page 37. Long period variables. 

1959 Matsunami, N., Obi, S., Shimoda, M., Takase, B., and Takebe, H. Evolu- 
tion of globular clusters. Ast. Soc. Japan, Pub., v. 11, no. 1, pp. 9-34. 
See also: Takase, B., Matsunami, N., and Shimoda, M. Note on the 
evolution of globular clusters. Ast. Soc. Japan, Pub., v. 12, no. 2, pp. 
293-296, 1960: Tokyo Obs. Repr., no. 177; Ref., Astr. Herald v. 52, p. 178. 
Table of 94 globular clusters. 

1959 Morgan, W. W. The integrated spectra of globular clusters. A. J., v. 64, 
pp. 432-436. 

a. Page 432. Introduction. 

b. Page 434. Table I. Classification of spectra by groups. 

c. Page 434. Nucleus-disk clusters. 

d. Pages 435-436. Appendix and discussion. 

1959 Payne-Gaposchkin, C. Cepheid variables and the period-luminosity relation. 

Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour., v. 49, no. 10, pp. 333-350; Harv. Repr. no. 536. 
1959 Preston, G. C. A spectroscopic study of the RR Lyrae stars. Ap. J., v. 130, 

pp. 507-538. 
1959 Preston, G. W., and Spinrad, H. On the intrinsic colors of the RR Lyrae 

stars. A. S. P. Pub., v. 71, pp. 497-502. 
1959 Sandage, A. Symposium: The differences among globular clusters. General 

discussion. A. J., v. 64, pp. 447-450. 
1959/ Sawyer Hogg, H. Star clusters. Handbuch der Physik, v. 53, pp. 129-207. 

a. Page 130. Historical. 

b. Pages 168-170. Absolute magnitudes, colours, diameters, absorption. 

c. Page 170. Structure and concentration class. 

d. Pages 172-174. Distances. 

e. Pages 174-177. Density distribution, luminosity function, photo 
NGC 6205. 

/. Pages 146, 177-178. Colour-magnitude diagrams. 
g. Page 179. Integrated spectra. 
h. Page 181. Individual spectra, 
t. Pages 181-184. Variables. 

j. Pages 184-185. Planetary nebula, diffuse nebulosity. 
k. Pages 185-187. Motions. 

I. Pages 187-188. Radial velocities of individual stars. 
m. Pages 188-190. Masses and densities. 
n. Page 190. Evolution and age. 
o. Page 192. Relation to elliptical galaxies. 
p. Page 205. App. B. Catalogue of globular clusters. 
1959/7 Sawyer Hogg, H. Variable stars in star clusters. R. A. S. C. Jour., v. 53, 
pp. 97-108. 

a. Page 97. Numbers of variables. 

b. Page 98. Photo IC 1276. 

c. Page 99. RR Lyrae stars. 

d. Page 100. Slow variables. 

e. Page 101. Variables in intergalactic clusters. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 397 

1959/7/ Sawyer Hogg, H. The areas of difference among globular clusters. A. J., 

v. 64, pp. 425-428. 
1959 Spinrad, H. Photoelectric observations of RR Lyrae stars. Ap. J., v. 130, 

pp. 539-559; Berkeley Repr., no. 156. 
1959 Struve, O. Observational data of interest in the study of stellar evolution. 

Modeles d'etoiles et evolution stellaire. Univ. Liege Inst, d' Astrophy. 

8°; Mem. Roy. Soc. Liege, 5th Ser. v. 3, pp. 17-40. 
1959 Thackeray, A. D. Comparison of globular clusters in the galaxy and in the 

Magellanic Clouds. A. J., v. 64, pp. 437-441; Radcliffe Repr., no. 14. 

a. Pages 439-440. Brightest stars. 

b. Page 441. Discussion. 

1959 Wallerstein, G. The brightest main sequence star in M 67. A. S. P. Pub., 
v. 71, pp. 451-454. 

1959 Wilson, O. C. A color-magnitude diagram for late-type stars near the sun. 

Ap. J., v. 130, pp. 496-499. (Comparison). 

1960 Alter, G., Ruprecht, J., and Vanysek, V. Catalogue of star clusters and 

associations, Supplement 2. Astr. Inst. Czechoslovakia, Bull., v. 11, 

no. 1, App. 
1960 Bowen, I. S. Annual report of the director, Mount Wilson and Palomar 

Observatories. Carnegie Inst. Wash., Year Book 59. Globular and galactic 

clusters, pp. 17-18. 
1960 Burbidge, G. R. The formation of stars by the condensation of diffuse matter. 

Die Entstehung von Sternen. Springer, Berlin. Chap. III. Associations and 

clusters, pp. 51-78. 

a. Page 72. Colour-magnitude diagrams of globular clusters. 

b. Page 73. Effect of chemical composition: fitting of main sequences of 
globular and galactic clusters. 

c. Page 75. Horizontal branch stars in clusters. 

d. Page 77. Luminosity functions of clusters. 

1960 Chalonge, D. Determination spectrophotometrique des types, des luminosites 
et des ages des etoiles. Ann. d' 'Ap., v. 23, pp. 439-443. (Miinch's com- 
ments on blue stars in M 13). 

1960 Ebert, R., von Hoerner, S., and Temesvary, St. Die Entstehung von 
Sternen durch Kondensation diffuser Materie. Die Entstehung von 
Sternen. Springer, Berlin. Massenbestimmung, p. 240. 

1960 Eggen, O. J. The two-colour relation for horizontal branch stars in globular 
clusters. M. N. A.S. S. A., v. 19, no. 9, pp. 115-117. 

1960 Feast, M. W., Thackeray, A. D., and Wesselink, A. J. The brightest stars 
in the Magellanic Clouds. M. N., v. 121, no. 4, pp. 337-385. (Comparison 
of velocity determination with 47 Tuc, p. 341). 

1960 Gingerich, O. Abbe Lacaille's list of clusters and nebulae. Sky and Tel., 
v. 19, no. 4, pp. 207-208; Harv. Repr. Ser. II, no. 156. 

1960/ Hodge, P. W. Studies of the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. The globular 
cluster NGC 1846. Ap. J., v. 132, pp. 341-345. (Giant branch similar 
to that of NGC 6356). 

1960// Hodge, P. W. Studies of the Large Magellanic Cloud. III. The globular 
cluster NGC 1978. Ap. J., v. 132, pp. 346-352. (Comparison). 

1960/// Hodge, P. W. Studies of the Large Magellanic Cloud. IV. The globular 
cluster Anonymous 4. Ap. J., v. 132, pp. 351-353. (Comparison). 



398 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1960 Ikhsanov, R. N. Some problems of the interrelation of stars and nebulae and 

their evolution. A. J. UdSSR, v. 37, no. 4, pp. 642-658; Soviet Astr. AJ, 

v. 4, pp. 613-628, 1961. 
1960 Johnson, H. L. On the determination of photometric distance moduli for 

star clusters. Lowell Bull., v. 5, no. 2, pp. 17-22. 
1960 Kron, G. E. Multiple color photometry. Vistas in Astronomy, vol. Ill, 

ed. A. Beer, pp. 171-183. Reddening, p. 179. 
1960 Kron, G. E., and May all, N. U. Photoelectric photometry of galactic and 

extragalactic star clusters. A. J., v. 65, no. 10, pp. 581-620. 

c. Page 586. Table IV. Magnitudes and related diameters of 67 galactic 
globular clusters. 

b. Page 589. Table V. Comparison of infrared filters. 

c. Page 590. Table Via. Colours of star clusters in the galaxy. 

d. Pages 598-599. Table VIII. Spectral types and comparison of spectral 
type estimates. 

e. Page 599. Colour excess and absorption. 

/. Page 601. Table X. Revised spectral types, colour excesses, and 
absorptions. 

g. Page 604. Table XI. Comparison of colour excesses. 

h. Page 604. Luminosities, colours, distances, diameters. 

i. Page 605. Table XIII. App. moduli, luminosities, colours and magni- 
tudes. 

j. Page 606. Table XIV. Comparison of total abs. vis. magnitudes. 

k. Page 608. Table XVII. Corrected moduli. 

I. Page 617. Table XXI. Comparison of results for galactic globulars. 

m. Page 617. Galactic centre. 

n. Page 618. Addendum. 
1960 Kurth, R. Ueber die Bahnformen der kugelformigen Sternhaufen. Z.f.Ap., 

v. 50, pp. 215-224. 
1960 Markarian, B. E. Discussion of the nature of population of star systems from 

partial luminosities. Bjurakan Obs. Comm., v. 28, pp. 52-74. 
1960 Morgan, W. W. Yerkes Observatory and McDonald Observatory report. 

A. J., v. 65, p. 577. Integrated spectra. 
1960 Pavlovskaya, E. D. The periods of short-period Cepheids in the direction 

to the galactic center. Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 13, no. 1, pp. 8-25. 
1960 Roberts, M. S. Dust and gas in globular clusters. A. J., V. 65, pp. 457-466, 

with plates. Summary, discussion, and photos, O. Struve, Sky and Tel., 

v. 19, pp. 456-458, 1960. 

a. Page 457. Obscuring matter. 

b. Page 458. Table I. Globular clusters containing dark regions or lanes. 

c. Page 45S. Statistical fluctuations. 

d. Figs. 1 and 2. Red and blue photos of globular clusters showing 
obscured regions. 

e. Page 459. Mass of intraglobular clouds. 

/. Page 460. Emission from possible H I and H II regions in globular 

clusters. 

g. Page 461. Formation and removal of intraglobular matter. 

h. Page 462. Effects on stellar population of a cluster. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 399 

1960 Sandage, A. R., and Eggen, O. J. Photometry in the Magellanic Clouds. III. 

The cluster NGC 1783. M. N., v. 121, pp. 232-237. Composite diagram, 

p. 236. 
1960 Sandage, A., and Wallerstein, G. Color-magnitude diagram for the disk 

globular cluster NGC 6356 compared with halo clusters. Ap. J., v. 131, 

no. 3, pp. 598-609, with plates. Characteristics of many clusters, Table 4, 

p. 607. 
1960 Wallerstein, G., and Carlson, M. On the ultraviolet excess in G dwarfs. 

Ap. J., v. 132, pp. 276-277. 

1960 Wilkens, H. Leuchtkraft und Durchmesser der Kugelhaufen. Obs. Astr. 

Univ. Nacional La Plata, Circ, no. 16. 

a. Table la. Distance modulus for 54 clusters in positive galactic latitude. 

b. Table lb. Distance modulus for 54 clusters in negative galactic latitude. 

c. Table 2a. 65 well observed clusters. 

d. Table 2b. 43 poorly observed clusters. 

e. Discussion. 

/. Table 3a. Determination of constant for 31 clusters, positive latitude. 
g. Table 3b. Determination of constant for 31 clusters, negative latitude. 

1961 Alter, G., Hogg, H. S., Ruprecht, J., and Vanvsek, V. Catalogue of Star 

Clusters and Associations, Supplement 3. Astr. Inst. Czechoslovakia, 

Bull, v. 12, no. 1, App. pp. 21. 
1961 van den Bergh, S. The halo phase of galactic evolution. A. S. P. Pub., v. 73, 

pp. 135-142. 
1961 Haffner, H. Report of Commission 37. Star clusters and associations. /. A. 

U. Trans., v. XI A, pp. 419-449. 

a. Table 3. Globular clusters photometrically studied. 

b. Special investigations. 

1961 Henon, M. Sur revolution dynamique des amas globulaires. Ann. d" Ap., 

v. 24, no. 5, pp. 369-419. Pp. 42-45, Masses and radii. 
1961 Kurochkin, N. E. RR Lyr type stars in the distant vicinities of globular 

clusters. Var. Stars (Russ.), v. 13, no. 4, pp. 248-254. 
1961 Lohmann, W. Die Helligkeitsverteilungen in 16 kugelformigen Sternhaufen. 

Z.f. Ap., v. 53, no. 4, pp. 247-255. 
1961 Michie, R. W. Structure and evolution of globular clusters. Ap. J., v. 133, 

pp. 781-793; Summ., A. J., v. 66, p. 49. 
1961 Payne-Gaposchkin, C. The absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. A. S. P. 

Pub., v. 73, pp. 100-102. 
1961 Poveda, A. A mass-luminosity relation for dust-poor stellar systems. Ap. J., 

v. 134, pp. 910-915. 
1961 Preston, G. W. A coarse analysis of three RR Lyrae stars. Ap. J., v. 134, 

pp. 633-649. 
1961/ Sawyer Hogg, H. Star clusters with variable stars. A.S. P. Leaflet, no. 385. 
1961/7 Sawyer Hogg, H. The role of star clusters in our understanding of the 

galaxy. Roy. Soc. Canada, Trans., 3rd Ser., v. 55, Sec. Ill, pp. 1-14. 

a. Photos. 

b. Clusters mentioned. 

1961/// Sawyer Hoc.g, H. Report of Sub-commission 27b, Variable stars in star 
clusters. I. A. U. Trans., v. XI A, pp. 271-279. 



400 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

1961 Sharov, A. S., and Pavlovskaya, E. D. On the kinematics of the globular 

clusters. A. J. UdSSR, v. 38, pp. 939-945; Soviet Astronomy A J, v. 5, 

pp. 716-721, 1962. 
1961 Slettebak, A., Bahner, K., and Stock, J. Spectra and colors of early-type 

stars near the north galactic pole. Ap. J., v. 134, pp. 195-206. Page 205, 

Spectra in globular clusters by G. Munch. 
1961 Stothers, R. B., and Schwarzschild, M. On the periods of long-period 

variables in globular clusters. A p. J., v. 133, pp. 343-346. 

1961 Woolley, R. v. d. R. Globular clusters. 06s., v. 81, no. 924, pp. 161-182. 
1961/ Woolley, R. v. d. R., and Dickens, R. J. Studies in the equilibrium of 

globular clusters. IV. Surface photometry compared with theory. Roy. 
Obs. Bull., no. 42, pp. 291-300. 
1961/7 Woolley, R. v. d. R., and Dickens, R. J. Studies in the equilibrium of 
globular clusters. V. Rotation. Roy. Obs. Bull., no. 46, pp. 377-386. 

1962 Aller, L. H. Spectrophotometry of southern objects. A. S. P. Pub., v. 73, 

p. 398. 

1962 Alter, G., Hogg, H. S., Ruprecht, J. Catalogue of star clusters and asso- 
ciations, Supplement 4. Astr. Inst. Czechoslovakia, Bull., v. 13, no. 1, 
App., pp. 28. 

1962/ Arp, H. The effect of reddening on the derived ages of globular clusters and 
the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae cepheids. Ap. J., v. 135, pp. 
971-975. 

1962// Arp, H. C. Intrinsic variables and stellar evolution. Symposium on Stellar 
Evolution, Nov. 7-11, 1960. Ast. Obs. Univ. La Plata, pp. 87-117. 

a. Page 90. Regions of variability. 

b. Page 91. Long period variables in globular clusters. 

c. Page 93. The RR Lyrae stars. 

d. Page 94. The long period globular cluster Cepheids. 

e. Pages 107-117. Discussion. 

1962 Bahner, K., Hiltner, W. A., and Kraft, R. P. Colors and magnitudes for 

45 Cepheids of the northern Milky Way. Ap. J. Supp., v. VI, no. 59, 

pp. 319-356. 
1962 van den Bergh, S. The color-magnitude diagram of high-velocity stars. 

A. S. P. Pub., v. 74, pp. 308-311. 
1962 van den Bergh, S., and Henry, R. C. Photoelectric spectrophotometry of 

globular clusters. Dunlap Pub., v. 2, no. 10, pp. 281-313. 
1962 Eggen, O. J., and Sandage, A. R. On the existence of subdwarfs in the 

(M bo i, log T e )-Plane. II. Ap. J., v. 136, pp. 735-747. 
1962 Fernie, J. D. Distance to the galactic center from globular clusters. A. J., 

v. 67, no. 10, pp. 769-774. Table of X, Y, Z for 74 clusters. 
1962 Haffner, H. Report of meetings of I. A. U. Commission 37, Star Clusters 

and Associations. LA. U. Trans., v. XI B, pp. 341-346. 
1962 King, I. The structure of star clusters. I. An empirical density law. A. J., 

v. 67, no. 8, pp. 471-485. 
1962 Kinman, T. D. Limiting radii of stellar systems in the neighborhood of the 

galaxy. A. S. P. Pub., v. 74, pp. 424-429; Lick Cont., no. 138. 
1962 Kumar, S. S. On the age of the galaxy. Obs., v. 82, no. 926, pp. 34-36. 



A Bibliography of Globular Clusters 401 

1962 Michie, R. W. Dynamics of spherical stellar systems: properties of theoretical 

models, and comparison with clusters and elliptical galaxies. A. J., 

v. 67, no. 9, p. 582. 
1962/ Rosino, L. Work being carried out at the Asiago Observatory. /. A. U. 

Trans., v. XI B, pp. 300-301. 
1962/7 Rosino, L. Ricerche astronomiche nell' emisfero australe III. Stelle variabili 

negli ammassi globulari NGC 5986, 6304, 6558, 6569, 6637 (M 69), 6681 

(M 70) e zone attigue. Soc. Astr. Ital. Mem., v. XXXIII no. 4; Asiago 

Cont. no. 132. Table 14. Morgan's spectral classes and numbers of variables. 
1962 Rosino, L., and Sawyer Hogg, H. Report of meeting of Sub-Commission 27b, 

Variable stars in star clusters, 22 August 1961. I. A. U. Trans., v. XI B, 

pp. 301-302. 
1962/ Sandage, A. Introductory report. Symposium on Stellar Evolution, Nov. 

7-11, 1960. Ast. Obs. Univ. La Plata, pp. 1-22. 
1962// Sandage, A. The age of the oldest stars in the galaxy compared with the 

cosmic expansion time. Symposium on Stellar Evolution, Nov. 7-11, 1960. 

Ast. Obs. Univ. La Plata, pp. 119-135. 
1962 Sawyer Hogg, H. Numbers and kinds of variables in globular clusters. 

Remeis-Sternw. Bamberg, Kl. Verqff., no. 34, pp. 8-10. 
1962 STRUVE, O. The oldest star clusters. Sky and Tel, v. 24, pp. 261-263. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 13 



DISTANCES OF 97 OB STARS 



BY HARRY H. GUETTER 



19G4 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



DISTANCES OF 97 OB STARS 
By Harry H. Guetter* 

Abstract 

Equivalent widths of the H7 line are determined for 97 stars of spectral range B3 
and earlier which have been observed spectroscopically at the David Dunlap Observa- 
tory. All the equivalent widths were reduced to the system of the Dominion Astrophysi- 
cal Observatory, Victoria, B.C. The distances of these stars were obtained by the use 
of the Hy-My calibration determined by Johnson and Iriarte (1958) and the assumption 
that the ratio of total to selective absorption is 3.0. 

The distances of various association members are compared to one another, and it is 
concluded that the luminosity calibration may be incorrect for very bright stars. 

Finally, the effect of duplicity among OB stars on the Hy-Mv calibration is briefly 
examined. 

Introduction 

The basis of this study is the correlation between the equivalent 
width of the H7 line of an early-type stellar spectrum and the star's 
absolute magnitude, to which attention has been directed by Petrie 
(1953). This relation has been recalibrated by Johnson and Iriarte 
(1958) with cluster stars whose luminosities have been determined by 
zero-age main sequence fits. By a combination of this estimate of 
absolute magnitude with the apparent magnitude and colour of the 
star, the distance of the star can be computed. 

Observational Data 

Stars of spectral type no later than B3 and fainter than apparent 
magnitude 6.0 were considered in this investigation. With these 
criteria 97 stars were selected from spectrograms already available in 
the plate files of the David Dunlap Observatory. Upwards to eight 
usable spectrograms were available for each star. 

The spectrograms had all been obtained on Eastman 103aO emulsion 
with the one-prism spectrograph of the 74-inch telescope at the David 
Dunlap Observatory. The spectrograph has two cameras giving dis- 
persions at H7 of 33 A. /mm. and 66 A. /mm. respectively. The former 
was used for many stars brighter than m pg = 7.0, while the latter was 
used to obtain fainter spectra. The slit width was chosen between 
0.02 mm. and 0.04 mm., depending on the brightness of the star and the 
seeing and transparency during the time of observation. 

*Now at the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona. 

405 



406 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Calibration and Error Determination 

The measurement of the spectra was carried out with the Dunlap 
microphotometer (Oke 1957) with the aid of tube sensitometer 
calibrations. The sensitometer spots, exposed on each plate beforehand, 
are used to transform density to intensity. The intensity steps were 
taken from the work of Armstrong (1933), checked by Wellmann 
(1957). 

The mechanical magnification of the microphotometer was calculated 
from the iron arc comparison lines to be 45.5. 

The spectra usually were traced from X4250 to X4450 centred about 
H7 so that the continuum could be estimated fairly accurately. The 
mean of density readings taken on the unexposed parts of the plate 
adjacent to the Hy line was considered to be zero intensity since many 
plates showed uneven fog density. 

To obtain the line profile, the best-determined side of the H7 line 
was drawn, the centre of the profile estimated, and the opposite side 
of the profile drawn symmetrically to the first. In this way the effects 
are minimized of other lines which are close to the H7 line, for example 
Oil X4349 and X4351, and also photographic irregularities. 

The plates were given weights from zero to unity to denote the 
quality of the spectrogram. Similarly, the tracings were also given 
weights from zero to unity. The two weights were then multiplied to 
give the final weight for a particular measurement. In case of more than 
one measurement, the square of the final weight was taken to equal 
the sum of the squares of the individual weights. The weights of spectra 
obtained with the 33 A. /mm. dispersion were doubled with respect to 
those of the 66 A. /mm. dispersion. 



Calibration of the Equivalent Widths 

The Hy-M v calibration by Johnson and Iriarte (1958) is based on 
Victoria equivalent widths. It was therefore necessary to determine the 
transformation required to convert the Dunlap equivalent widths to the 
Victoria system. From twenty-one stars in common, it was found for 
the 33 A. /mm. dispersion that 

HTvictoria = (1-08 ± 0.07) H"7 Dunlap . 
From twenty-five stars in common, it was found for the 66 A. /mm. 
dispersion that 

HTvictoria = (1-07 ± 0.08) HTDualap. 

The individual points are shown in figures 1 and 2. 



Distances of 97 OB Stars 



407 




2 3 4 5 6 

H y (VICTORIA) 

Fig. 1 — Comparison of the H7 equivalent widths from spectra obtained at the 
David Dunlap Observatory and the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Victoria) 
for the 33 A. /mm. dispersion. 





1 




1 


1 - 


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1 V / 




6 












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H y (VICTORIA) 

Fig. 2 — Comparison of the H-> equivalent widths from spectra obtained at the 
Dunlap Observatory' and Victoria for the 66 A. /mm. dispersion. 



408 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Absolute Magnitudes 

The data for the stars which were studied in the present programme 
are listed in Table I. The designations of the columns are self-explana- 
tory except for the following. Column 8 (Ref.), is the reference to the 
source of the photometric data: (a) Hiltner (1956), (b) Hiltner and 
Johnson (1956), (c) Hiltner and Iriarte (1955), (d) Author's observa- 
tions obtained with the photometer attached to the 19-inch reflector 
at the David Dunlap Observatory (Marlborough 1964) ; column 9 (W), 
is the equivalent width of the H7 line; column 10(Wt.), is the combined 
weights of the plate-tracing combination; column 11 (±AW), is the 
standard error of the equivalent width in units of 0.01 A. 

Distances of Various Associations 

Some of the stars in the present programme are members of associ- 
ations. Since most associations are fairly rich in early-type stars, only 
a few stars in each association were studied spectroscopically. 

The information obtained for four associations is given in Table II. 
First the name of the association and its distance (as determined by 
other workers) are given. For each association, the individual stars are 
listed as to: the spectral type; the equivalent width of the H7 line; the 
total weight given to the spectrum-tracing combination; the number of 
plates used ; the internal dispersion or standard error of the equivalent 
width in milliangstroms; the distance modulus; and the distance in 
kiloparsecs. 

Table II shows that the four stars of III Cygni agree fairly well with 
one another, giving an average distance of 1.6 kpc, which is only a little 
smaller than the distance given by Schmidt (1958). The three stars of 
III Cephei yield an average distance of 0.85 kpc, corresponding closely 
to that estimated by Blaauw, Hiltner and Johnson (1959). For the 
other two associations significant discrepancies are found, in that the 
computed distances of the three stars with equivalent widths smaller 
than about 2.0 angstroms are much greater than those with larger 
equivalent widths. Three possible explanations suggest themselves: 
(a) that the Johnson and Iriarte calibration is over-luminous for small 
equivalent widths, (b) that the three discordant stars are not associ- 
ation members, but background stars and (c) that incipient emission 
at H7 in the spectra of these stars has reduced the value of the equiva- 
lent widths. It is not possible to choose among these explanations 
because of the small sampling. 



Distances of 97 OB Stars 



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Distances of 97 OB Stars 



413 



TABLE II 
Distances of Various Associations by Means of Individual Stellar Distances 





Spectral 














Distance 


Star Xumber 


Type 




W 


\vt. 


n 


AW 


m — M 


(kpc.) 


III Cygni, distance = 


= 1.93 kpc. 


(Schmidt 1958) 










H.D.E. 229227 


BOII 




3.1 


0.8 


2 


35 


10.8 


1.45 


H.D.E. 229234 


09.5111 




2.4 


1.1 


3 


8 


11.1 


1.67 


H.D.E. 229238 


BOIb 




2.3 


0.9 


3 


15 


11.1 


1.68 


H.D.E. 229239 


Bllab 




2.5 


1.0 


3 


60 


11.1 


1.64 


II Cephei, distance = 


= 3.9 kpc. 


(Schmidt 1958) 










H.D.E. 235673 


07 




3.0 


1.3 


3 


26 


12.4 


2.95 


B.D. +54°2726 


BUI 




3.1 


0.9 


3 


29 


12.4 


2.98 


H.D.E. 235783 


Bllb 




3.4 


1.0 


3 


9 


12.1 


2.67 


B.D. +53°2843 


08 




1.8 


0.8 


2 


2 


14.2 


7.05 


H.D.E. 235813 


BOIII 




1.8 


0.9 


2 


2 


13.6 


5.20 


H.D.E. 235825 


09V 




2.2 


0.4 


1 




13.3 


4.63 


B.D. +54°2764 


Bllb 




3.1 


0.6 


1 




12.9 


3.73 


III Cephei, distance 


= 0.725 kpc. 


(Blaauw, 


Hiltner 


, an 


d Johnson 1959) 




H.D. 216658 


BOV 




4.6 


1.5 


5 


21 


9.1 


0.66 


H.D. 216711 


B1V 




4.7 


1.4 


4 


13 


9.4 


0.76 


B.D. 4-63°1962 


B1III 




4.3 


1.5 


5 


42 


10.3 


1.13 


I Cassiopeiae, distance = 2.5 kpc. 


. (Morgan, Code and VVhitford 1953) 




B.D. +61°2509 


B0.5Ib 




2.5 


1.1 


3 


30 


11.7 


2.23 


B.D. 4-60°2615 


B0.5Ib 




1.9 


1.1 


4 


13 


12.8 


3.63 


B.D. +61°2526 


B2Ib 




3.4 


1.1 


3 


2 


11.7 


2.21 


B.D. +61°2529 


Bllb 




2.7 


1.2 


3 


22 


11.6 


2.11 


B.D. +61°2550 


BOIV 




2.7 


1.1 


3 


16 


12.5 


3.16 


B.D. +61°2559 


09V 




3.4 


1.2 


3 


11 


12.4 


3.05 



Conclusions 

The conclusions reached in this paper are only tentative. The 
derived distances may be incorrect for the following reasons: First, the 
spectra of some stars may have at H7 a little emission which is difficult 
to distinguish on the tracings from the grain of the photographic 
emulsion. This would cause the equivalent width to be under-estimated 
and the distances obtained would be too large. Secondly, there is the 
fact that according to Blaauw and van Albada (1963) approximately 
half the stars of the nearest associations are spectroscopic binaries. 



414 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Heard (private communication), in a study of five stars in the associ- 
ation III Cephei, found one definite, and three probable spectroscopic 
binaries. It may be shown that in the present method of determining 
absolute magnitude, the effect of an unresolved binary is to lead to an 
absolute magnitude which is intermediate between the absolute 
magnitudes of the two components. The distance of such a binary is 
therefore underestimated. 

However, due to the high incidence of spectroscopic binaries among 
OB stars and the relative frequency of line emission, it seems doubtful 
that the stars used for their calibration by Johnson and Iriarte were 
all single stars without any H7 emission. Hence the H7-M v relation 
is probably overluminous where derived from single stars, and under- 
luminous where derived from binaries. Therefore, by assuming that 
the sample of stars used in this paper is similar to those used by Johnson 
and Iriarte, one would expect that on the average their calibration is 
valid for use in this study. This statistical conclusion, however, may be 
invalid for the most luminous stars because of the small number of such 
objects. 

Acknowledgements 

The author would like to express his gratitude to the following persons: to Dr. J. F. 
Heard for providing the necessary facilities at the David Dunlap Observatory; 
to Mr. J. M. Marlborough for obtaining some photometric observations; to Dr. A. A. 
Hoag for several valuable discussions; and especially to Dr. J. D. Fernie for suggesting 
this problem and for his guidance and advice throughout. This research was supported 
in part by a grant from the National Research Council, Ottawa. 

References 

Armstrong, W. S. 1933, M.A. Thesis, University of Toronto. 

Blaauw, A., Hiltner, W. A., Johnson, H. L. 1959, Ap. J., vol. 130, p. 69. 

Blaauw, A., and Albada, T. S. 1963, Ap. J., vol. 137, p. 791. 

Hiltner, W. A. 1956, Ap. J. Suppl. vol. 2, p. 389. 

Hiltner, W. A., and Iriarte, B. 1955, Ap. J., vol. 122, p. 185. 

Hiltner, W. A., and Johnson, H. L. 1956, Ap. J., vol. 124, p. 367. 

Johnson, H. L., and Iriarte, B. 1958, Low. Obs. Bull., vol. 4, p. 47. 

Marlborough, J. M. 1964, A. J., vol. 69, p. 215. 

Morgan, W. W., Code, A. D. and Whitford, A. E. 1953, Ap. J., vol. 118, p. 318. 

Oke, J. B. 1957, R.A.S.C. Journal, vol. 51, p. 133. 

Petrie, R. M. 1953, Piibl. D.A.O. vol. 9, p. 251. 

Schmidt, K. H. 1958, A. N., vol. 284, p. 76. 

Wellmann, P. 1957, Ap. J., vol. 126, p. 30. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 14 



SPECTROGRAPHIC ORBITS OF THE 

ECLIPSING SYSTEMS 
V822 AQUILAE,BV241,BV342,BV374 



PIM FITZGERALD 



1964 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



SPECTROGRAPHIC ORBITS OF THE ECLIPSING SYSTEMS 
V 822 AQUILAE, BV 241, BY 342, BY 374 

By Pim FitzGerald 

These four eclipsing systems have been studied spectrographically 
at this observatory in the years 19G2 and 1963. Earlier observations of 
the star V 822 Aquilae, made between the years 1936 and 1939, have 
also been employed in the spectrographic study of this star. 

Photometric studies made of V 822 Aquilae by Nicolini at Naples, 
and of the other three systems by the observers at Bamberg, had 
identified the stars as eclipsing systems. Periods were established by 
these observers, though not the other photometric elements. 

The secondary component is visible in each spectrum, but it is too 
weak for accurate estimation of the mass-ratio except in the case of 
BV 241. Some indication of the mass-ratio is given with the spectro- 
graphic elements of each. The spectra of each system have been classi- 
fied according to the MK system. 

V 822 Aquilae 
The star V 822 Aquilae, H.D. 183794, a(1900) 19 h 26 m 0, 5(1900) 
— 02° 19', m pg 6.7 — 7.3,sp.B8V,had been observed spectroscopically at 
this observatory by the late F. S. Hogg between 1936 and 1939. 




100 



-100 



--I00 



J.D. 2226 2227 2228 2229 2230 2231 

Figure 1 
417 



418 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE I 
Radial Velocity Observations of V 822 Aquilae 





V 


Vo-V c 


Phase from 


Dispersion 


J.D. 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


final T 


A./mm. 


2428272.676 


- 14.6 


-23.9 


2.187 


33 


282.874 


+ 96.2 


+34.0 


1.795 


33 


296.832 


+ 12.0 


-22.1 


5.369 


33 


310.850 


-108.2 


+ 7.0 


3.294 


66 


311.866 


-105.2 


- 1.1 


4.310 


66 


314.673 


+ 53.8 


- 4.7 


1.917 


66 


317.800 


- 11.8 


- 5.7 


4.951 


66 


323.846 


+ 140.5 


+24.2 


0.408 


66 


325.816 


- 2.2 


+ 14.2 


2.378 


66 


328.800 


+ 87.7 


+ 18.3 


0.063 


66 


355.693 


+ 119.3 


- 4.2 


0.482 


66 


362.641 


+ 7.0 


- 9.4 


2.134 


66 


400.639 


- 96.7 


+ 0.4 


2.071 


66 


407.608 


- 56.2 


-12.2 


4.744 


66 


800.544 


+ 97.1 


-31.2 


0.545 


66 


2429165.514 


+ 93.4 


+ 9.8 


0.154 


66 


176.507 


+ 117.8 


-11.2 


0.561 


66 


183.494 


+ 3.3 


+ 2.3 


2.235 


66 


432.793 


- 55.8 


- 0.7 


2.679 


66 


465.719 


-129.2 


+ 2.1 


3.834 


66 


469.648 


- 36.0 


- 7.6 


2.468 


66 


486.663 


-114.5 


+ 15.0 


3.580 


66 


2437558.566 


+ 99.3 


-23.3 


0.471 


33 


563.553 


+ 97.4 


+ 12.2 


0.164 


33 


569.516 


+ 134.5 


- 3.8 


4.522 


33 


570.535 


+ 41.8 


-13.2 


1.853 


33 


572.534 


-145.5 


-14.6 


3.839 


33 


816.778 


- 82.6 


- 3.8 


4.522 


33 


823.838 


+ 154.7 


+ 18.9 


0.990 


33 


824.785 


+ 50.7 


+ 7.1 


1.938 


33 


840.750 


+ 23.3 


- 9.5 


2.017 


33 


843.749 


+ 16.8 


+ 10.8 


5.014 


33 


864.694 


+ 26.6 


+ 10.9 


4.781 


33 


891 . 653 


+ 57.3 


+ 4.9 


1.075 


33 


892.579 


+ 142.9 


+ 4.9 


0.895 


33 


898.565 


+ 92.9 


+ 4.8 


1.583 


33 



Observation was recommenced in 1962 by J. F. Heard as a result of the 
photoelectric observations of Nicolini (Fresa 1961), which identified 
the star as an eclipsing system of period 2.6477 days. A total of thirty- 
six measurable plates have been used to determine the spectrographic 



Spectrographic Orbits of Eclipsing Systems 



419 



TABLE II 
Orbital Elements of V 822 Aquilae 



Element 




Preliminary 


Final 


m.e. 


Period 


P 


5.2949 days 


5.29510 


0.00004 


Eccentricity 


e 


0.0 


0.089 


0.028 


Angle of periastron 


0} 




294° 


19° 


Epoch of mean longitude 


To 


J.D. 2432227.020 


J.D. 2432226.900 


0.022 


Epoch of periastron 


T 




J.D. 2432225.924 


0.279 


Velocity of the system 


7 


+4.0 km. /sec. 


-1.6 


2.7 


Semi-amplitude 


K 


138.0 km. /sec. 


135.0 


4.1 


a sin i 






9.8 X 10 e km. 


0.4 X 10 6 


Mass-ratio 






1.0: 


0.1: 


m sin 3 i 






5: O 


2: 



orbit. The spectral lines are broad, and on most plates only the lines of 
hydrogen and sometimes X4481 of Mg II are measurable. Lines of the 
secondary spectrum appear on a few plates, but ought only to be used 
to give a rough indication of the mass-ratio, since they are very weak 
and indistinct. 

Since the spectrographic observations cover a long interval (between 
1936 and 1963), the period determined by Nicolini has not been used in 
the solution. The period obtained here, 5.29510 days, is close to double 
that of Nicolini. This may be explained by his observing primary and 
secondary minima of equal depth, and by his making the reasonable 
assumption that he had observed only one of two eclipses. 

The six elements were obtained from the pre-computed curves of 
R. K. Young (1936), and then corrected by a computer programme of 
least squares employing the method of Sterne (1941) for zero eccen- 
tricity. The mass-ratio was estimated from the method of Wilson 
(1941). The velocity of the interstellar medium, determined from the 
Ca II lines X3933 and X3968, was found to be -9.8 ± 1.0 km./sec. 

Table I lists the observed velocities and velocity residuals; Table II 
lists the preliminary and final elements; and figure 1 shows the velocity 
curve of the system. The average internal probable error of a single 
velocity determination is about 5 km./sec. 



BV241 
The star BV 241, H.D. 190020, a(1900) 19 h 57 m 9, 5(1900) 73° 21', 
m P g 9.4-10.3, sp. F5V, F5V, was identified as an eclipsing variable of 
period 1.682000 days by the Bamberg observers from photographic 



420 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



7892 7893 

Figure 2 



- 100 




-50 



--I00 



7894 




50 

secondary 



100 



km/sec. 



Figure 3 



Spectrographic Orbits of Eclipsing Systems 



421 



TABLE III 
Radial Velocity Observations for BV 241 







Primary 


Secondary 


















Phase 






















v„ 


V -V c 


v 


v -v c 


from 




J.D. 




km. /sec. 


km. 


/sec. 


final T„ 


Weight 


2437843.785 


+ 


68.7 


+4.4 


- 59.3 


+ 3.0 


2.870 


0.7 


7844.741 


+ 


63.7 


+0.9 


- 67.4 


- 6.7 


0.462 


1.0 


7847.741 


+ 


93.9 


-2.1 


- 99.6 


- 5.3 


0.152 


1.0 


7855.733 


- 


89.2 


-6.8 


+ 93.4 


+ 7.6 


1.362 


1.0 


7858.797 


- 


49.6 


-7.5 


+ 52.1 


+ 7.0 


1.062 


1.0 


7860.768 


+ 


83.4 


-1.4 


- 82.4 


+ 0.6 


3.033 


1.0 


7865.802 


- 


77.9 


+2.2 


+ 73.6 


- 9.9 


1.339 


0.7 


7879.678 


- 


94.7 


+1.3 


+102.8 


+ 3.2 


1.759 


1.0 


7884.723 


+ 


96.3 


-3.3 


- 91.7 


+ 6.3 


0.076 


1.0 


7892.702 


- 


82.9 


-4.1 


+ 84.2 


- 2.0 


1.327 


1.0 


7894.685 


+100.1 


-1.0 


-107.1 


- 7.6 


3.310 


1.0 


7898.679 


+ 


51.5 


+6.8 


- 43.3 


- 0.7 


0.576 


0.7 


7906.647 


— 


95.6 


-2.0 


+ 97.4 


+ 0.2 


1.816 


1.0 


7911.606 


+ 


96.3 


-4.2 


- 97.7 


+ 1.1 


0.047 


1.0 


7915.559 


+ 


43.8 


+9.4 


- 23.0 


+ 9.2 


0.636 


0.5 


8161.852 


- 


74.0 


+7.9 


+ 74.5 


-10.8 


1.357 


0.7 


8166.808 


+ 


80.3 


+5.2 


- 64.9 


+ 8.3 


2.949 


1.0 








TABLE IV 












Orb 


ITAL ELEMEN 


rs for BV 


241 






Element 






Preliminary 


Final 




m.e. 


Period 




P 


3.364000 days 3 


. 364000 






Eccentricity 




e 


0.0 





.0 


0. 


014 


Epoch of mean longi 


tude T„ 


J.D. 2437891 


.320 J. 


D. 2437891.375 0. 


025 


Velocity of the syste 


m 


y 


0.0 km. /sec. 


+ 1.3 


1. 





Semi-amplitude, primary Kx 


100.0 km. /sec. 99.4 


1. 


7 


Semi-amplitude, secondary K.2 


105.0 km. /sec. 100.4 


1. 


7 


ci sin i, primary 








4.60 X 10 6 km 


0.08 X 10 6 


a-i sin i, secondary 








4.65 X 10 6 km 


0.08 X 10« 


Mass-ratio 








1. 


01 


0. 


02 


m\ sin 3 *, primary 








1 


38 O 


0. 


03 


nti sin 3 /, secondary 








1 


,37 O 


0.03 



photometry (Strohmeier 1959). Spectrographic observation was started 
at this observatory in 1962. Nineteen usable plates were obtained dur- 
ing the summers of 1962 and 1963 using a dispersion of 33 A. /mm. 



422 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Both spectra are visible and are of approximately equal strength. 
The number of lines in the spectrum of each component which could 
be measured was about fifteen on plates of normal exposure and reason- 
ably large doublet separation, and about five on those of weak exposure 
or those on which the double lines were close. Weights based on the 
plate quality and velocity separation were assigned to the individual 
velocity determinations and these are given in Table III. The average 
internal probable error of a velocity measure from a well exposed plate 
is 2 km. /sec, and from a weak plate is 5 km. /sec. 

Exactly double the period obtained from the photometric investiga- 
tion has been used in the solution for the elements, since it fitted our 
observations well. The explanation for the difference in period is the 
same as that given for V 822 Aquilae. The remaining elements were 
obtained from the pre-computed curves of R. K. Young (1936), and 
then corrected by a computer programme of least squares following the 
method of Sterne (1941) for double-line binaries of zero eccentricity. 

The mass-ratio was estimated from the ratio of semi-amplitudes and 
by the method of Wilson (1941). Agreement was found within the 
mean error for both the mass-ratio and the velocity of the system as 
found from each method. The mass-ratio and velocity of the system 
given by the least-squares solution were, respectively; 1.01 ± 0.02, and 
+ 1.3 ± 1.0 km. /sec, and by Wilson's method: 1.03 ± 0.02, and 
+ 1.2 ± 0.8 km./sec 

Table III lists the observed velocities and velocity residuals; 
Table IV lists the preliminary and final elements; figure 2 shows the 
velocity curves of both components of the system ; and figure 3 shows 
the diagram for Wilson's method of obtaining the mass-ratio. 



BV 342 

This star, BV 342, H.D. 204038, a(1900) 21 h 20 m 8, 5(1900) 33° 16', 
m pg (1931-1939) 8.6-9.1, m pg (1952-1960) 8.35-8.85, sp. A3Vm, was 
identified as an eclipsing variable of period 0.7858620 days by the 
Bamberg observers from photographic photometry (Strohmeier, 
Knigge and Ott 1962). They have pointed out that the character of the 
light curve and photographic magnitude of the system have changed 
considerably between 1931 and 1960. Twenty-seven spectrograms of the 
system were obtained during 1962 at this observatory using a dispersion 
of 33 A./mm. The mean exposure time was about 0.06 days. 

The spectrum of the primary component is that of a metallic line 
A-star having very wide absorption lines. The classification of A3V 



Spectrographs Orbits of Eclipsing Systems 423 





-200 



-100 



100 KM/SEC. 

secondary 



Figure 5 



424 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE V 
Radial Velocity Observations of BV 342 





Primary 












Secondary 


Phase 










v 


v„-v e 


V 


from 


J.D. 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


final T 


2437831 . 799 


-49.0 


+ 3.7 




0.104 


840.790 


- 9.5 


-11.8 




0.451 


844.817 


+52.3 


+ 11.5 


-212.2 


0.549 


852.782 


+47.2 


-12.2 




0.655 


855.658 


-32.9 


- 8.7 




0.388 


858.709 


-53.6 


+ 3.4 




0.295 


861.808 


-76.8 


- 9.4 




0.251 


869.674 


-66.3 


- 0.3 


+ 166.9 


0.258 


878.760 


+56.4 


+ 4.1 




0.700 


886.043 


+42.0 


- 1.7 




0.724 


888.870 


+67.1 


+ 13.7 


-195.3 


0.594 


891 . 691 


-66.6 


- 3.4 




0.271 


895.749 


-22.0 


- 2.7 




0.400 


898.613 


-57.8 


+ 1.1 




0.120 


898.888 


- 6.5 


- 6.5 




0.395 


899.847 


+48.3 


+ 1.3 


-127.7 


0.568 


904.658 


+66.3 


+ 7.4 


-269.3 


0.664 


906.703 


- 1.8 


+36.5 




0.351 


907.716 


+52.3 


+ 2.5 




0.579 


907.818 


+54.2 


- 2.5 


-187.1 


0.681 


911.664 


+41.7 


-12.5 


-217.0 


0.597 


915.669 


+52.3 


- 4.6 




0.673 


915.818 


-12.0 


+ 2.5 




0.036 


918.674 


+48.5 


+ 12.5 


-175.5 


0.535 


938.706 


-68.7 


- 5.2 


+ 160.8 


0.134* 


954.642 


-46.4 


- 8.7 




0.353 


955.533 


-25.8 


-31.2 




0.458 



•Secondary given only half weight. 

was based on the hydrogen line strength in the spectrum. The measured 
line broadening of 150 km. /sec. for the iron lines coincides well with 
the value given by Babcock (1960) for rotational broadening in an 
early A-star with a period of the order of 0.8 days. This indicates that 
the orbital and rotational periods of the primary component may be 
synchronized. 

The spectrum of the secondary component is visible on several of the 
plates, but is extremely weak and diffuse, being measurable on only a 
few of the plates near phases of extreme velocities. Between fifteen and 
twenty-five lines were measured on each plate for the primary com- 



Spectro graphic Orbits of Eclipsing Systems 425 



TABLE VI 
Orbital Elements for BV 342 



Element 




Preliminary 


Final 


m.e. 


Period 


P 


0.7858620 davs 


0.7858620 




Eccentricity 


e 


0.21 


0.115 


0.053 


Angle of periastron 




120° 


76° 


34° 


Epoch of periastron 


T 


J.D. 2437831.800 


J.D. 2437831.695 


0.076 


Velocity of the system 


7 


— 4.5 km. /sec. 


-8.1 


2.8 


Semi-amplitude, primary 


K, 


71 .0 km. /sec. 


65.9 


3.8 


a\ sin t, primary 






7.03 X 10 s km. 


0.43 X 10 5 


Mass-ratio 






2.95 


0.12 


m\ sin 3 *, primary 






1.02 © 


0.36 


ffl 2 sin 3 i, secondary 






0.35 O 


0.24 



ponent, giving an average internal probable error for one velocity 
determination of 3 km. /sec. On the nine plates measured for the secon- 
dary component, only the lines of hydrogen, H/3 and H7, could be 
measured, giving an average internal probable error of 9 km. /sec. for 
one velocity determination. 

Strohmeier's period fitted our observations well, and it was therefore 
used in the solution for the orbit. The remaining elements were obtained 
from the pre-computed curves of R. K. Young (1936), and then ad- 
justed by a computer programme of least squares employing the 
method of Lehmann-Filhes (1894) for a single-line binary. 

The mass-ratio has been estimated using the method of Wilson 
(1941). Agreement was found within the mean errors between the 
velocity of the system as determined from Wilson's method ( — 9.5 ± 
1.0 km. /sec.) and from the Lehmann-Filhes method ( — 8.1 ± 2.8 
km. /sec). 

Table V lists the observed radial velocities and the velocity residuals; 
Table VI lists the preliminary and final elements; figure 4 shows the 
velocity curve of the primary component; and figure 5 shows the 
diagram for Wilson's method of obtaining the mass-ratio. 

BV 374 

This star, BV 374, H.D. 217224, a(1900) 22 h 54?2, 5(1900) 67° 52', 
m pg 8.2-8.8, sp. B3V, was found to be an eclipsing variable of period 
4.90875G days by the Bamberg observers from photographic photom- 
etry (Strohmeier, Knigge and Ott 1962). Nineteen usable spectro- 
grams have been obtained at this observatory in the summer of 1962 
with a dispersion of 33 A. /mm. 



426 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



km/ 




o 


1 


1 


1 1 




1 




sec. 










BV 374 








50 






x. O 










- 


P 
r 






^s^ 












m 
a 

r 






o 


o \^ 










y o 


















-50 


- 




1 


1 


i i 


"X. o 


1 


- 



-200 -100 



100 

secondary 



200. 



km /sec. 



Figure 6 



80 




1 




1 


1 1 


1 


1 

o 


- 


km/ 
















sec. 




° \ 




BV 374 




/ o 


" 


40 































- 








°\ 




















o / 






-40 














- 


-80 




i 


I 


o 

1 1 


1 


1 


- 



-80 



40 



-0 



--40 



--80 



J.D. 7835 7836 



7837 7838 

Figure 7 



7839 7840 



Spectro graphic Orbits of Eclipsing Systems 



427 



TABLE VII 
Radial Velocity Observations for BV 374 





Primary 




Secondary 
















Phase 
from 




v 


V 


a -v c 


v 




J.D. 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


km. /sec. 


Weight 


final T 


2437840.830 


+35.0 


+ 


2.8 


-174.6 


1.0 


0.951 


844.817 


+70.6 


+ 


2.2 






0.029 


855.817 


+ 9.7 




0.0 


-176.1 


1.0 


1.212 


860.862 


-12.2 


— 


9.2 






1.355 


864.814 


+52.4 


-: 


L4.1 


-158.6 


1.0 


0.391 


878.810 


+48.7 


- 


2.7 






4.570 


882.817 


-25.5 


+ 


2.2 






3.668 


884.833 


+45.7 


- 


0.2 






0.775 


895.793 


-40.2 


+ 


6.1 


+ 121.0 


0.5 


1.917 


898.793 


+63.9 


- 


2.5 


-147.1 


0.7 


4.864 


899.773 


+33.2 


+ 


4.1 


-123.1 


0.7 


0.949 


900.796 


-48.4 


+ 


3.5 


+ 118.9 


1.0 


2.012 


905.750 


-60.8 


- 


6.4 


+ 130.0 


1.0 


2.057 


906.779 


-55.9 


+ 


7.5 


+207.7 


0.7 


3.086 


907.767 


+ 9.4 


+ 


0.4 


-112.2 


0.7 


4.074 


911.730 


-64.8 


- 


3.0 


+ 159.3 


0.5 


3.129 


915.743 


-58.1 


+ 


4.3 


+ 160.3 


0.5 


2.233 


918.720 


+82.2 


+ 


2.1 


-232.8 


0.7 


0.301 


955.661 


-78.4 


- 


9.2 


+212.0 


1.0 


2.881 



TABLE VIII 
Orbital Elements of BV 374 



Element 




Preliminary 


Final 


m.e. 


Period 


P 


4.908756 days 


4.908756 




Eccentricity 


e 


0.060 


0.063 


0.037 


Angle of periastron 


CJ 


45° 


346° 


34° 


Epoch of mean longitude 


To 


J.D. 2437834.547 


J.D. 2437835.170 


0.030 


Epoch of periastron 


T 




J.D. 2437834.970 


0.484 


Velocity of the system 


y 


— 5.0 km. /sec. 


-4.9 


1.8 


Semi-amplitude, primary 


K, 


70.0 km. /sec. 


70.5 


2.4 


a\ sin i, primary 






4.66 X 10«km. 


0.17 X 10 6 


Mass-ratio 






2.94 


0.27 


mi sin 3 *', primary 






7.58 O 


0.96 


mj sin 3 i, secondary 






2.58 O 


0.21 



428 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

The spectral lines are well denned in the primary component, the 
most prominent being those of hydrogen, helium, and ionized oxygen. 
About ten lines were measured on each plate, yielding an average 
internal probable error of 3 km. /sec. for each velocity determination. 
The secondary component is visible on many of the plates, but is 
considerably weaker than the primary and consequently gave high 
internal probable errors of about 9 km. /sec. for individual velocity 
determinations. 

The Bamberg period fitted our observations well, and was therefore 
used here. The remaining elements were obtained from the pre-com- 
puted curves of R. K. Young (1936), and then adjusted by a computer 
programme of least squares employing the method of Sterne (1941) for 
a single-line binary of non-zero eccentricity. 

The method of Wilson (1941) has been employed to estimate the 
mass-ratio, using the observations weighted according to the probable 
error of the velocity determination for the secondary component. 
Agreement within the mean errors was found between the velocity of 
the system as determined from Wilson's method ( — 7.8 ± 3.7 km. /sec.) 
and from Sterne's method ( — 4.9 ±1.8 km. /sec). 

Table VII lists the observed radial velocities and velocity residuals; 
Table VII I lists the preliminary and final elements; figure 6 shows the 
velocity curve of the primary component; and figure 7 shows the dia- 
gram for Wilson's method of obtaining the mass-ratio. 



Acknowledgements 

The author would like to thank Dr. J. F. Heard for suggesting the study of these 
systems, and him and Dr. J. D. Fernie for their help and encouragement. This research 
was supported in part by a grant from the National Research Council. 



References 

Babcock, H. W. 1960, "Stellar Atmospheres", p. 309 (vol. 6, "Stars and Stellar 
Systems"), Univ. Chicago Press. 

Fresa, A. 1961, Annali dell' Istituto Universitario Navale di Napoli, vol. 30. 

Lehmann-Filhes, R. 1894, AN., no. 3242, p. 136. 

Sterne, T. E. 1941, Proc. of Nat. Acad, of Sci., vol. 27, p. 175. 

Strohmeier, \Y. 1959, Kleine Veroffentichungen der Remeis-Sternwarte Bamberg, no. 24, 
p. 2. 

Strohmeier, \Y ., Knigge, R. and Ott, H. 1962, Veroffentichungen der Remeis-Stern- 
warte Bamberg, vol. 5, no. 13, pp. 3, 10. 

Wilson, O. C. 1941, Ap. J., vol. 125, p. 661. 

Young, R. K. 1936, Pre-computed Curves for Orbital Elements, unpublished. 






PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 15 



SPECTROSCOPIC AND 
PHOTOMETRIC ORBITS OF EE PEGASI 



GUSTAV A. BAKOS 



1965 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



SPECTROSCOPIC AND PHOTOMETRIC ORBITS OF 
EE PEGASI 

By Gustav A. Bakos* 

Abstract 

Spectroscopic and photoelectric observations of this binary system made in 1953 
and earlier are recorded here. Improved orbital elements have been obtained as 
compared with those derived by Wellmann and Beyer (1953). The photometric 
observations were made in three colours, but the individual observations are of low 
quality. For this reason the means of the three colour observations have been 
tabulated. 

Introduction 

The eclipsing system of EE Peg (H.D. 206155, a(1900) 213 b 5'?l, 
6(1900) 8°44') was discovered by Hoffmeister (1935) and has been 
described as an Algol-type variable. From visual observations by 
Gomi (1940) a preliminary period of 5.256 days has been found. Both 
spectroscopic and visual observations by Wellmann and Beyer (1953) 
have shown that the actual period is half of that derived by Gomi. 

Wellmann's orbital elements were based on 44 blue-sensitive 
spectrograms with a dispersion of 65 A. /mm. at H7 and on ten red- 
sensitive plates with a dispersion of 156 A. /mm. at Ha covering the 
period from June 12, 1951, to January 5, 1952. Furthermore, with the 
aid of 211 visual estimates within the same time interval a light-curve 
was derived. 

The present observations were made at the David Dunlap Observa- 
tory. The spectroscopic material consisted of 48 plates with a dispersion 
of 66 A. /mm. at H7 of which 26 were taken by the late F. S. Hogg in 
1936-39. The remaining plates were taken in 1952 and 1953. In 
addition, the star was observed photoelectrically with the earliest 
version of a photometer attached to the 19-inch reflector. Because an 
unstabilized power supply was used and the intensity measures were 
read off a galvanometer the scatter of individual measurements is 
larger than expected in photoelectric photometry. 

The Spectrographic Orbit 

The radial velocity measurements have been summarized in Table I. 
It gives the plate number, the Julian date of observation and the 

Dearborn Observatory, Evanston, Illinois 

431 



432 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE I 







Radial 






Plate 




Velocity 


Phase 


o-c 


No. 


J.D. 


km./sec. 


p-i 


km./sec. 



1081 


2428360.776 


- 


52.4 


.844 


- 8.1 


1094 


362.788 


— 


102.9 


.601 


- 4.5 


1160 


375.774 


- 


95.8 


.551 


- 6.7 


1168 


377.776 


+ 


28.2 


.312 


+ 9.6 


1186 


380.736 


— 


40.5 


.439 


- 7.5 


1195 


381.723 


— 


69.9 


.814 


-11.6 


1208 


387.706 


+ 


60.0 


.091 


- 8.5 


1221 


389.732 


— 


27.4 


.862 


+ 7.9 


1296 


400.692 


+ 


46.2 


.032 


- 5.0 


1304 


404.711 


- 


95.5 


.563 


- 3.8 


1315 


408.654 


+ 


50.0 


.061 


-11.2 


1359 


425.576 


— 


89.4 


.500 


-15.6 


1390 


431.628 


— 


54.4 


.802 


+ 9.0 


1422 


440.601 


+ 


51.0 


.216 


- 9.3 


1556 


503.456 


+ 


68.0 


.132 


- 4.8 


1565 


510.469 


— 


72.1 


.800 


- 7.7 


2514 


800.697 


+ 


60.8 


.227 


+ 4.1 


2742 


8864.458 


- 


62.6 


.488 


+ 6.7 


3821 


9179.508 


- 


00.6 


.359 


+ 5.8 


4590 


432.843 


— 


86.8 


.749 


- 4.2 


4714 


465.826 


+ 


24.5 


.299 


- 0.8 


4735 


469.744 


- 


65.0 


.790 


+ 2.9 


4741 


470.732 


+ 


72.0 


.166 


+ 1.0 


4747 


472.781 


+ 


5.4 


.945 


- 4.0 


4753 


476.749 


— 


54.4 


.455 


+ 1.2 


4790 


2429486.755 


+ 


43.0 


.262 


0.0 


19329 


2434217.864 


- 


27.8 


.377 


-11.4 


20151 


551.854 


— 


50.0 


.455 


+ 5.6 


20168 


555.853 


+ 


42.9 


.977 


+ 17.2 


20177 


557.858 


— 


88.4 


.740 


- 3.3 


20185 


561.855 


+ 


43.3 


.260 


- 0.5 


20193 


563.808 


+ 46.0 


.004 


+ 6.0 


20203 


565.866 


— 


50.2 


.787 


+18.6 


20223 


569.867 


+ 28.0 


.309 


+ 7.8 


20297 


576.869 


+ 


16.0 


.973 


- 8.3 


20321 


580.875 


— 


62.0 


.497 


+10.7 


20337 


583.874 


- 


96.6 


.638 


+ 2.9 


20339 


584.772 


+ 


33.9 


.980 


+ 6.2 


20345 


586.883 


— 


64.4 


.783 


+ 6.6 


20352 


589.889 


— 


6.5 


.927 


- 6.2 


20392 


600.624 


+ 


60.5 


.012 


+ 17.6 


20400 


600.866 


+ 79.3 


.104 


+ 8.7 



Spectroscopic and Photometric Orbits of EE Pegasi 



433 



TABLE I— {Concluded) 







Radial 






Plate 




Velocity 


Phase 


O-C 


No. 


J.D. 


km. /sec. 


p-i 


km. /sec. 


20405 


2434601.668 


- 34.4 


.409 


- 1.1 


20410 


601.872 


- 67.1 


.486 


+ 1.4 


2041S 


603.891 


+ 45.0 


.255 


- 0.9 


20445 


609 . 624 


- 48.8 


.436 


- 2.0 


20454 


610.810 


- 21.0 


.887 


+ 1.1 


20526 


2434622.640 


- 30.0 


.388 


- 7.9 



radial velocity reduced to the sun. The phase was calculated by means 
of the formula 

Phase = ( J. D-. 2400000) P~ l 

where P" 1 = 0.3804848/day corresponding to the period P = 2.6282253 
days. This period was found from both photometric and spectroscopic 
data. The last column gives the O—Cs. 

According to Wellmann the spectral type of EE Peg is A4V. On an 
average about 15 lines were measured for radial velocity determination 
including the K line, the calcium line at X4227, the Mg II line at 
X4481, and a large number of iron lines. The hydrogen lines were 
generally broad and therefore less suitable for accurate measurements. 

Preliminary orbital elements have been obtained graphically. For 
a definitive orbit differential corrections to the elements have been 
calculated by the method of least squares. The final elements and their 
mean errors are given in Table II. The velocity curve has been plotted 
in figure 1. 

The calculated velocity curve gives a good representation of the 
observed velocities by both Wellmann and the writer. However, 
Wellmann's points exhibit a much larger scatter. The run of the writer's 
O—Cs as a function of time has been plotted in figure 2. The mean 
value of Wellmann's O—Cs has been indicated by an open circle at 
J.D. 3800. It appears from figure 2 that the earlier O — Cs are pre- 
dominantly negative while the later are positive as shown by the 
crosses, their mean values. On the other hand, Wellmann's mean of 
44 observations is definitely negative. At any rate it would require 
only a slight adjustment of the adopted period to make the mean 
O—Cs zero. 

Photometric Orbit 

A single comparison star was used, H.D. 205923 of spectral type A2 
and magnitude 8.2 about 40 minutes of arc north of the variable. The 



434 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



KM/SEC 
80 



40 



-i 1 r 



1 1 r 




j i 



.2 .3 .4 5 6 7 8 9 

Fig. 1 — The velocity curve of EE Pegasi. 



.1 

PHASE 



observations were made in three colours: blue, green and yellow 
spectral range. The effective wave-lengths of these colours were 
XX4300, 4900 and 5200. Originally the inclusion of two more regions, 
the UV and the red, was planned; however, the measured deflections 
were small and the measurements unreliable. Since the photometer 
had no provision for selective shunting of the galvanometer, the 
sensitivity of the instrument was adjusted by changing the voltage 
of the photomultiplier tube on practically every night. Because the 

TABLE II 
Spectrographic Elements of EE Pegasi 



Periastron passage 

Period 

Velocity of the system 

Semi-amplitude 

Longitude of periastron 

Eccentricity 

Semi-major axis 

Mass-function 



T = 2429486'? 408 ± . 023 
P = 2 d 6282253 
7 = —13-43 km. /sec. 
K = 86-15 km. /sec. ±0.29 
co = 357°71 ± 3° 15 
e = 003 ±0-003 
a sini = 3-11.10 6 km. 
f(m) =0-1740 



Spectroscopic and Photometric Orbits of EE Pegasi 



435 




2430000 2000 

Fig. 2 — The run of O — C as a function of time. 



4000 JD 



colour difference between the variable and the comparison stars is 
zero and observations were limited to moderate hour angles no correc- 
tion for differential extinction appeared to be necessary. Also, since 
the light curves in all three colours appeared to be identical they were 
combined into a single light curve for which the individual points as a 
function of phase can be found in Table III. In figure 3 the mean 
light curve has been plotted, the Am versus the phase. The latter was 
computed by the same formula as in the previous section. 



TABLE III 



J.D. 


Phase 


Am 


J.D. 


Phase 


Am 


2434582.677 


0.183 


-1.272 


2434595 . 744 


0.154 


-1.263 


.693 


.189 


-1.269 


4600.739 


.055 


-1.272 


.713 


.193 


-1.271 


.758 


.062 


-1.274 


.730 


.203 


-1.276 


. 775 


.069 


-1.281 


.747 


.209 


-1.269 


.792 


.075 


-1.275 


.762 


.215 


-1.266 


.814 


.083 


-1.277 


4582.779 


.222 


-1.272 


.829 


.089 


-1.286 


4583.739 


.587 


-1.276 


.845 


.095 


-1.278 


.756 


.593 


-1.276 


.863 


.102 


-1.278 


.774 


.600 


-1.286 


4600.881 


.109 


-1.279 


.791 


.607 


-1.284 


4603.733 


.194 


-1.275 


.823 


.619 


-1.290 


.747 


199 


-1.275 


.839 


.625 


-1 276 


.762 


.205 


-1.271 


4583.857 


.632 


-1.263 


.776 


.210 


-1.265 


4586.638 


.690 


-1.274 


.791 


.216 


-1.277 


.654 


.696 


—1.268 


.804 


221 


-1.280 


.670 


.702 


-1.270 


.820 


227 


-1.272 


.686 


70S 


-1.265 


.836 


233 


-1.272 


4586.704 


715 


-1.270 


.851 


.239 


-1.271 


4595.687 


L33 


-1.255 


4603.872 


.247 


-1.264 


.708 


141 


-1.272 


4605.715 


.948 


-1.272 


.729 


1 49 


-1.278 


.731 


954 


-1.279 



436 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 
TABLE III — Continued 



J.D. 


Phase 


Am 


J.D. 


Phase 


Am 


2434605.748 


0.961 


-1.278 


2434621.644 


0.009 


-1.283 


.764 


.967 


-1.278 


.661 


.015 


-1.296 


.790 


.977 


-1.280 


.680 


.023 


-1.295 


.807 


.983 


-1.280 


.693 


.028 


-1.288 


.826 


.990 


-1.282 


.709 


.034 


-1.286 


4606.629 


.296 


-1.273 


.724 


.039 


-1.293 


4606.648 


.303 


-1.261 


.741 


.046 


-1.290 


.684 


.317 


-1.273 


.756 


.051 


-1.284 


.715 


.329 


-1270 


.772 


.058 


-1.272 


.730 


.334 


-1.262 


.786 


.063 


-1.274 


.746 


.341 


-1.246 


4622.561 


.358 


-1.051 


.764 


.347 


-1.199 


4622.573 


.362 


-0.925 


.780 


.353 


-1.132 


.588 


.368 


-0.838 


.802 


.362 


-1.001 


.602 


.373 


-0.762 


.818 


.368 


-0.840 


.617 


.379 


-0.654 


.833 


.374 


-0.688 


.633 


.385 


-0.598 


.849 


.380 


-0.610 


.647 


.390 


-0.601 


.866 


.386 


-0.595 


.681 


.403 


-0.892 


4606.881 


.392 


-0.617 


.693 


.408 


-0.981 


4607.724 


.713 


-1.272 


.706 


.413 


-1.059 


.742 


.719 


-1.272 


.720 


.418 


-1.142 


.756 


.725 


-1.269 


.735 


.424 


-1.200 


.771 


.730 


-1.262 


.748 


.429 


-1.234 


.786 


.736 


-1.264 


.763 


.435 


-1.261 


.801 


.742 


-1.271 


.777 


.440 


-1.270 


.819 


.749 


-1.270 


.793 


.446 


-1.276 


4607.835 


.755 


-1.274 


.807 


.451 


-1.272 


4614.764 


.391 


-0.611 


4622.822 


.457 


-1.270 


.779 


.397 


-0.716 


4623.573 


.743 


-1.260 


.795 


.403 


-0.879 


.586 


.748 


-1.255 


.811 


.409 


-0.972 


.602 


.754 


-1.266 


.831 


.417 


-1.124 


.615 


.759 


-1.267 


4614.849 


.424 


-1.218 


.632 


.765 


-1.262 


4618.588 


.846 


-1.236 


.646 


.771 


-1.273 


.602 


.851 


- 1 . 196 


.661 


.776 


-1.270 


.620 


.858 


-1.155 


.681 


.784 


-1.270 


.638 


.865 


-1.140 


.696 


.790 


-1.270 


.652 


.870 


- 1 . 127 


.709 


.795 


-1.268 


.668 


.877 


-1.091 


.722 


.799 


-1.273 


.718 


.896 


-1.115 


.735 


.804 


-1.276 


4618.732 


.901 


-1.157 


.749 


.810 


-1.258 


4621.586 


.987 


-1.273 


.762 


.815 


-1.266 


.600 


.992 


-1.251 


.776 


.820 


-1.235 


.614 


.997 


-1.266 


.805 


.831 


-1.236 


.627 


.002 


-1.276 


4623.818 


.836 


-1.227 



Spectroscopic and Photometric Orbits of EE Pegasi 
TABLE III — Continued 



41:57 



j.D. 


Phase 


Am 


J.D. 


Phase 


Am 


2434626.617 


0.901 


-1.158 


2434630.716 


0.461 


-1.275 


.634 


.907 


-1.223 


.729 


.465 


-1.267 


.653 


.915 


-1.237 


.743 


.471 


-1.272 


.669 


.921 


-1.258 


.756 


.476 


-1.279 


.686 


.927 


-1.248 


.772 


.482 


-1.272 


.699 


.932 


-1.278 


.785 


.487 


-1.270 


.712 


.937 


-1.280 


.798 


.492 


-1.282 


.725 


.942 


-1.284 


.812 


.497 


-1.275 


.744 


.949 


-1.274 


4630.827 


.503 


-1.275 


.758 


.955 


-1.295 


4631.580 


.789 


-1.275 


.776 


.961 


-1.305 


.592 


.794 


-1.281 


.791 


.967 


-1.297 


.606 


.799 


-1.281 


.806 


.973 


-1.278 


.620 


.805 


-1.281 


4626.820 


.978 


-1.279 


.641 


.813 


-1.275 


4628.556 


.639 


-1.276 


.656 


.818 


-1.246 


.572 


.645 


-1.279 


.670 


.824 


-1.257 


.591 


.652 


-1.278 


.682 


.828 


-1.242 


.606 


.658 


-1.275 


.697 


.834 


-1.259 


.624 


.665 


-1.274 


.711 


.839 


-1.229 


.640 


.671 


-1.274 


.727 


.845 


-1.221 


.659 


.678 


-1.290 


.740 


.850 


-1.195 


.672 


.683 


-1.274 


.756 


.856 


-1.172 


.686 


.688 


-1.274 


4631.788 


.868 


-1.116 


.697 


.692 


-1.272 


4635.546 


.298 


-1.266 


.708 


.697 


-1.274 


.558 


.303 


-1.260 


.720 


.701 


-1.264 


.575 


.309 


-1.260 


.737 


.708 


-1.277 


.583 


.312 


-1.256 


.753 


.714 


-1.277 


.597 


.318 


-1.260 


.768 


.719 


-1.274 


.611 


.323 


-1.257 


.782 


.725 


-1.270 


.628 


.329 


-1.260 


.797 


.730 


-1.269 


.639 


.334 


-1.260 


.813 


.737 


-1.283 


.656 


.340 


-1.245 


4628.828 


.742 


-1.262 


.667 


.344 


-1.235 


4630.551 


.398 


-0.753 


.680 


.349 


-1.191 


.563 


.402 


-0.910 


.690 


.353 


-1.153 


.577 


.408 


-1.028 


.704 


.358 


-1.051 


.589 


.412 


- 1 . 100 


.717 


.363 


-0.945 


.606 


.419 


- 1 . 157 


.729 


.368 


-0.858 


.619 


.424 


-1.184 


.740 


.372 


-0.776 


.638 


.431 


-1.234 


4635.754 


.377 


-0.686 


.649 


.435 


-1.262 


4637.692 


.115 


-1.281 


.663 


.440 


-1.261 


.704 


.119 


-1.275 


.675 


.445 


-1.270 


.718 


.125 


-1.272 


.687 


.450 


-1.276 


.733 


.130 


-1.283 


.699 


.454 


-1.270 


.763 


.142 


-1.280 



438 



Publications of the David DunJap Observatory 
TABLE III— Concluded 



J.D. 


Phase 


Am 


J.D. 


Phase 


Am 


2434637.774 


0.146 


-1.292 


2434647 


.605 


0.886 


-1.078 


' .788 


.151 


-1.268 




.616 


.891 


-1.110 


4638.548 


.440 


-1.275 




.629 


.896 


-1.124 


.562 


.446 


-1.283 




.640 


.900 


-1.139 


.615 


.466 


-1.265 


4647 


.652 


.904 


-1.197 


.627 


.471 


-1.261 


4648 


.538 


.241 


-1.273 


.638 


.475 


-1.261 




.550 


.246 


-1.274 


.649 


.479 


-1.261 




.565 


.252 


-1.278 


.663 


.484 


-1.268 




.580 


.257 


-1.270 


.674 


.488 


-1.269 




.613 


.270 


-1.263 


.688 


.494 


-1.269 




.624 


.274 


-1.270 


.699 


.498 


-1.274 




.636 


.279 


-1.273 


.715 


.504 


-1.274 




.642 


.281 


-1.273 


.726 


.508 


-1.268 




.660 


.288 


-1.273 


.738 


.513 


-1.270 




.672 


.292 


-1.276 


.749 


.517 


-1.275 




.686 


.298 


-1.273 


.763 


.522 


-1.272 




.697 


.302 


-1.266 


.774 


.526 


-1.269 




.714 


.308 


-1.266 


4638.788 


.532 


-1.279 




.726 


.313 


-1.256 


4643.545 


.342 


- 1 . 192 




.739 


.318 


-1.268 


.579 


.355 


-1.090 




.752 


.323 


-1.260 


.595 


.361 


-0.958 




.765 


.328 


-1.262 


.609 


.366 


-0.856 


4648 


.778 


.333 


-1.273 


.620 


.370 


-0.778 


4649 


.536 


.621 


-1.273 


.631 


.374 


-0.692 




.547 


.625 


-1.267 


.644 


.379 


-0.627 




.562 


.631 


-1.269 


.668 


.389 


-0.593 




.576 


.636 


-1.266 


.680 


.393 


-0.642 




.594 


.643 


-1.271 


.697 


.400 


-0.754 




.606 


.648 


-1.274 


.711 


.405 


-0.927 




.618 


.652 


-1.268 


.724 


.410 


-1.025 




.629 


.657 


-1.268 


.736 


.414 


-1.119 




.648 


.664 


-1.269 


4643.788 


.434 


-1.260 




.660 


.668 


-1.277 


4647.527 


.857 


-1.193 




.674 


.674 


-1.273 


.539 


.861 


-1.145 




.684 


.677 


-1.274 


.552 


.866 


-1.138 




.699 


.683 


-1.270 


.563 


.870 


-1.116 




.713 


.689 


-1.265 


.581 


.877 


-1.086 


4649 


.727 


.694 


-1.271 


.593 


.882 


-1.076 











There are 12 epochs of primary minima available including those 
observed by Wellmann covering a total of 290 periods. These have 
been listed in Table IV, together with the O—C's based on the period 
derived by the writer. The systematically decreasing deviations in 



Spectroscopic and Photometric Orbits of EE Pegasi 439 



&M 



■1.2- 



•I 



- .8 



• •* 



1 r~ Wi l 



.2 .4 6 8 

Fig. 3 — The mean light curve of EE Pegasi. 

TABLE IV 
Epochs of Primary Minima 



J.D. 


No. of Periods Elapsed 


O-C 


243 3881.509 


-290 


+0 d 038 


889.394 


-287 


+0.039 


910.400 


279 


+0.019 


923.537 


274 


+0.015 


931.417 


271 


+0.010 


939.297 


268 


+0.005 


947.176 


265 


0.000 


3960.316 


260 


-0001 


4606.863 


14 


+0.002 


622.633 


-8 


+0.003 


635.770 


-3 


-0.001 


643.656 





0.000 



Wellmann's observations are within the uncertainty of visual estimates 
of the times of minima. 

The light curve shows two unequal minima, the secondary minumum 
being quite shallow and, in addition, not too well observed. Con- 
sequently, only the primary minimum was used for a solution of the 



440 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

photometric orbit, with the added information for the depth of the 
secondary minimum. It appears that the eclipse is either partial or 
grazing. Outside eclipses the brightness remains constant. 

Following the Russell-Merrill (1950, 1952) method for the derivation 
of preliminary orbital elements, it appears that the primary eclipse is 
a transit with a very close to 1. Assuming a limb-darkening coefficient 
x = 0.6 the light curve during the primary minimum can be represented 
by the following elements: 

k = 0.85 L g = 0.784 

r g = 0.166 L e = 0.216 

r 8 = 0.141 AM = 1?40 

i = 88?57 

Since the spectral type of the primary component is A4V, the 
secondary component is of the spectral type about F5V. 

It should be pointed out that the new orbital elements differ from 
those derived by Wellmann. It has been found that for the same value 
of ao and the limb-darkening coefficient Wellmann's ratio of the 
radii, k = 0.666, is too small to match the observed and the computed 
light curve adequately. The deviations are quite large in the wings of 
the primary minimum. On the other hand, the present value for k 
should be considered as tentative until a more accurate light curve 
has been derived. 

Conclusion 

There is a need for new and more accurate photometric observations 
of this eclipsing system. Although this writer's data are better than 
the visual estimates of Wellmann, sections of the light curve have been 
covered inadequately or not at all. Also, new observations would 
provide additional epochs for improving the period of the system. 

References 

Gomi, K. 1940, Beob. Zirk., vol. 22, p. 39. 

Hoffmeister, C. 1935, Astr. Nach., vol. 255, p. 401. 

Merrill, J. E. 1950, Princeton Contr., no. 23. 

Russell, H. N. and Merrill, J. E. 1952, Princeton Contr., no. 26. 

Wellmann, P. 1953, Zs. f. Ap., vol. 32, p. 81. 






PUBLICATIONS OF 
THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 16 



THE RADIAL VELOCITIES AND 

SPECTRAL CLASSES OF 55 KAPTEYN 

AREA FUNDAMENTAL STARS IN 

HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES 



JOHN F. HEARD 



1965 
TORONTO, CANADA 






PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 






THE RADIAL VELOCITIES AND SPECTRAL CLASSES 

OF 55 KAPTEYN AREA FUNDAMENTAL STARS 

IN HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES 

By John F. Heard 

Abstract 

In 1954 a programme was set up for the determination of the radial velocities of 
55 fundamental stars in Kapteyn's Selected Areas 13-15, 29-35, 53-60, that is, in the 
selected areas near the north galactic pole. The stars selected were those brighter 
than photographic magnitude 10.01 (on the Bergedorjer Spectral-Durchmusterung 
scale) which are listed in Hins' (1934) Catalogue in the stated areas and for which 
no radial velocities were known in 1954. Observations were obtained over a period 
of ten years and the results both of radial velocity and of MK spectral classification 
are presented here. 

Observations and Results 

Spectrograms. The instrument used to obtain the spectrograms was 
the one-prism Hilger spectrograph with a camera lens of 12.5 inches 
focal length giving a dispersion of 66 A. /mm. at H7. With a slit which 
gave a projected width of 20/i the spectra of these 9th to 10th magnitude 
stars required exposures of two hours or more. The rule was to observe 
the stars at least four times in different seasons. Actually most of the 
stars were observed more than four times. 

Radial Velocities. The spectrograms were measured for radial 
velocity by the standard technique used at this Observatory. In 
addition to the writer the following persons did appreciable shares of 
the measuring: Miss Kiili Milles, Messrs. W. Russell, S. C. Morris, 
D. Crampton, M. P. FitzGerald, H. Mairo. As a general rule between 
10 and 20 star lines were measured except for the B- and A-type 
stars, and the probable errors of the means mostly ranged between 
1 and 4 km. /sec. as computed from the inter-agreement of the lines. 
Decisions as to constancy or variability of the velocities were made 
not by any fixed rule but by judgement based on experience in 
measuring similar spectrograms on other programmes. 

Spectral Classification. All spectra were classified by the writer on the 
MK system with the aid of an almost complete set of spectrograms 
of the MK standards taken with the same dispersion. 

The Tabulations. Table I lists the stars. Column 1 gives the Kapteyn 
Selected Area number and the star number in Ilins' (1934) catalogue. 

443 



444 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

TABLE I 



S.A. and 


H.D. or 


R.A. 


Dec. 


Ptg- 




Velocity 








Hins No 


B.D. 


(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 


Class 


(km. /sec.) 


P.E. 


PI. 


Ref. 


53/567 


82011 


h m 
9 27.1 


+30 16 


10.09 


B9 111 


+31.1 v? 


2.7 


5 


II 


53/568 


82069 


9 27.5 


29 48 


9.45 


F8 V 


Var. 




6 


II 


53/569 


29°1907 


9 27.6 


29 20 


9.89 


F5 V 


Var 




8 


II 


53/570 


29°1908 


9 28.2 


29 31 


9.93 


K0 III 


- 1.2 


0.8 


4 




53/571 


30°1875 


9 29.6 


29 48 


9.73 


F3 V 


Var. 




6 


II 


53/573 


82570 


9 30.6 


+29 06 


10.02 


G8 III: 


+ 11.0 v? 


2.8 


4 


II 


29/301 


83697 


9 38.4 


44 26 


9.72 


GS III 


+29.0 v? 


2.1 


7 


II 


29/302 


44°1898 


9 39.8 


44 04 


9.85 


go y 


-10.0 


2.6 


5 




29/303 


45°1753 


9 39.9 


45 16 


9.87 


A2 V 


Var. 




6 


II 


29/304 


84059 


9 40.6 


44 56 


7.50 


FO III 


Var. 




5 


II 


29/306 


84219 


941.7 


+44 39 


8.52 


GOV 


-28.5 


2.0 


5 




29/307 


45°1758 


941.9 


45 10 


9.99 


F8 V 


Var. 




6 


II 


29/308 


45°1761 


9 43.4 


44 36 


9.88 


F8V 


+ 4.5 


2.9 


5 




29/310 


45°1763 


9 43.6 


45 18 


9.95 


F8 V 


-26.0 


0.9 


4 




29/311 


44°1904 


9 44.2 


44 28 


9.39 


A9 III 


+ 0.4v? 


3.2 


5 


II 


54/579 


30°2024 


10 26.9 


+29 46 


9.66 


F8 V 


- 9.0 


3.0 


4 




30/312 


92124 


10 36.0 


45 06 


9.76 


K5 III 


+58.9 


2.9 


8 


N 


30/317 


45°1859 


1041.3 


44 56 


9.59 


F3 V 


Var. 




21 


N 


13/117 


95866 


1101.6 


59 10 


9.86 


GO IV 


+87.4 


1.0 


5 




13/118 


95975 


11 02.2 


59 50 


9.85 


F7 IV 


-31.1 


2.1 


4 




13/119 


96093 


11 02.9 


+60 06 


9.56 


F5 III 


- 1.6 


1.8 


4 




13/122 


96950 


11 07.7 


59 10 


10.08 


G8 IV 


-52.6 


2.0 


5 




13/124 


97420 


11 10.6 


59 25 


9.32 


F6 V 


+ 6.0 


3.3 


4 




13/125 


97438 


11 10.7 


60 01 


9.81 


FO III 


-29.6 


1.3 


4 




55/587 


30°2175 


11 32.4 


29 42 


9.78 


GOV 


Var. 




8 


II 


31/322 


44°2112 


11 35.9 


+44 22 


9.65 


F6 V 


-32.2 v? 


2.4 


7 


II 


31/327 


101674 


11 39.6 


44 25 


9.12 


F6 III 


-29.5 


1.4 


6 




56/596 


105020 


12 03.0 


28 47 


8.91 


K3 III 


-38.7 v 5 


1.7 


9 


II 


32/333 


111851 


12 49.4 


44 18 


9.27 


F6 IV 


- 6.6 


2.1 


5 




32/335 


112297 


12 52.9 


44 34 


9.48 


F8 V 


- 5.6 


3.1 


5 




57/600 


113995 


13 04.8 


+28.59 


9.76 


K3 III 


-23.9 


1.7 


4 




57/601 


114059 


13 05.3 


29 43 


10.06 


G8 V: 


-21.8 


1.1 


3 




57/602 


114071 


13 05.3 


29 44 


10.08 


F7 V 


Var. 




7 


II 


14/133 


117845 


13 29.7 


59 13 


8.36 


G2V 


+ 3.4 


2.8 


6 




33/341 


45°2134 


13 48.8 


44 37 


9.90 


F8 IV 


-23.7 


1.9 


6 




33/344 


45°2137 


13 52 . 1 


+44 58 


9.57 


F5 V 


+ 2.2 


2.2 


5 




33/347 


121933 


13 55.6 


45 24 


9.28 


F3 V 


- 4.0 


2.9 


6 




58/617 


29°2495 


14 04.8 


29 30 


10.00 


F7 IV 


Var. 




6 


II 


34/349 


130988 


14 47.8 


45 05 


9.17 


G8 V 


+ 19.8 


1.3 


6 




34/352 


131381 


14 50.0 


45 23 


9.68 


F6 IV 


-33.4 


1.6 


6 




34/353 


131447 


14 50.4 


+44 26 


9.88 


KO IV 


-46.6 


2.2 


5 




34/355 


131861 


14 52.6 


45 30 


7.64 


F5 V 


Var. 




20 


N 


34/356 


132046 


14 53.8 


45 06 


9.13 


FO III 


- 7.8 


0.3 


4 




59/625 


133965 


15 04.3 


29 23 


9.42 


F6 V 


-19.8 


1.6 


8 




15/134 


135721 


15 12.6 


60 08 


9.60 


F2 II 


Var. 




6 


II 



Radial Velocities and Spectral Classes 
TABLE I — Continued 



445 



S.A. and 


H.D. or 


R.A. 


Dec. 


Ptg. 




Velocity 








Hins No. 


B.D. 


(1950) 


(1950) 


Mag. 


Class 


(km. /sec.) 


P.E. 


PI. 


Ref. 


15/135 


135741 


h m 
15 12.8 


+59 43 


9.45 


F5 V 


Var. 




7 


II 


15/136 


135962 


15 14.1 


59 37 


9.69 


G8 II 


-13.1 v? 


2.7 


5 


II 


15/137 


60°1598 


15 15.4 


59 57 


9.84 


F5 II 


-31.1 


0.9 


4 




15/138 


136244 


15 15.6 


60 17 


9.08 


K3 III 


Var. 




8 


II 


15/140 


136617 


15 17.7 


59 42 


9.75 


K5 V 


-64.3 


1.4 


4 


N 


15/144 


60°1611 


15 22.9 


+60 05 


9.98 


F8V 


-20.5 v? 


3.1 


5 


II 


35/360 


45°2344 


15 50.2 


44 51 


9.67 


F3 V 


-38.0v? 


3.3 


6 


II 


35/364 


142592 


15 51.9 


45 06 


9.25 


A4 V 


Var. 




10 


II 


60/634 


143585 


15 58.2 


30 15 


10.08 


K0 III 


- 1.9 


2.3 


4 




60/635 


29°2751 


15 58.7 


29 42 


9.99 


A9 III: 


-20.4 


2.0 


6 





Notes to Table I 

H.D. 92124 Exclusion of one discordant measure (of 76.4 km. /sec.) would change 

the mean velocity to +55.8 km. /sec. and would reduce the P.E. to 

0.7 km. /sec. 
B.D.45°1859 Twenty-one observations show the velocity to be variable; the period 

seems to be about 22.7 days, the half-range 26 km. /sec, and the 

velocity of the system — 81 km. /sec. This would make this star a rare 

combination of high-velocity and binary. 
H.D. 131861 Twenty observations show the velocity to be variable; preliminary 

elements are: period 3.55 days, half-range 72 km. /sec., velocity of the 

system — 20 km. /sec. 
H.D.136617 The G-band is weak. 

Columns 2 to 4 are self-explanatory. Column 5 gives the photographic 
magnitudes as listed in the Bergedorfer Spectral-Durchmnsterang. 
Column 6 is our MK classification. Column 7 lists the mean radial 
velocities for those stars which are believed to have constant velocities 
and for stars whose velocities may be variable (v?), but no mean 
velocities are listed for those stars which are more certainly variable. 
(The individual velocity measures are tabulated in Table II both for 
stars which are of doubtful and of certain velocity variability.) 
Column 7 lists the probable errors of the means computed from the inter- 
agreement of plate measures, and column 8 gives the number of plates 
measured. Column 9 refers to the notes (TV) and to inclusion of the 
star in Table II. 



446 



Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 



TABLE II 
Stars With Definitely (Def.) or Possibly (Poss.) Variable Velocity 



Star 


Julian Da\ 


Velocity 


Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


H.D. or B.D. 


(243...)' 


km./sec. 


H.D. or B.D. 


(243...) 


km. /sec. 


S2011 


5559.639 


+ 


17.1 


451753 


5553.651 


- 67.7 


(poss.) 


5783.892 


+ 


28.7 


(def.) 


5583.623 


- 63.7 




6222.819 


+ 


44.7 




6309.594 


- 29.1 




7747.662 


+ 


43.0 




6646.702 


+ 75.5 




8061.806 


+ 


22.1 




7335.778 
7742.684 


4-117.4 

+ 38. S 


82069 


5146.788 


+ 


9.0 








(def.) 


5514.867 


+ 


26.6 


84059 


5215.540 


- 20.0 




6255.708 


+ 


6.9 


lef. 


5538.631 


- 38.0 




6323.583 


+ 


9.6 




7044.578 


- 42.0 




7734.726 


— 


3.6 




8085.753 


- 18.8 




8045.791 


+ 


14.0 




8473.680 


- 35.5 


29°1907 


5527.731 


_ 


19.2 


45° 1758 


5215.555 


- 10.8 


(def.) 


5874.805 


- 


31.0 


(def.) 


5557 . 704 


- 16.6 


double lines 


6271.772 


— 


28.5 




6656 . 647 


- 39.2 




6650.749 


— 


47.7 




7740.668 


- 51.6 




7771.622 


— 


97.7 




7779.600 


— 22 2 






+ 


95.8 




7780 . 044 


- 17 4 




7997 . 850 





L06.2 












+ 


68.7 


44°1904 


5141.786 


- 2.7 




8046.891 


— 


21.4 


(poss.) 


5601.604 
663S.688 


+ 13.2 
- 15.0 


30°1875 


5573 . 631 


— 


8.0 




7341.814 


+ 5.6 


(def.) 


5587 . 605 
6644.696 


+ 


12.0 
3.4 




7726.699 


+ 8 




6672.658 


— 


27.8 


30°2175 


5527.829 


+ 13.0 




7750.631 


— 


5.2 


(def.) 


5551 .755 


+ 53.0 




8046 . 762 


— 


20.0 




6222.897 
0624.823 


+ 1.6 
+ 46.2 


82570 


5551.659 


+ 


10.2 




7410.731 


+ 40.1 


''poss.) 


5881.768 


+ 


11.2 




7412.717 


+ 52.7 




6655.633 


+ 


20.8 




8058.894 


+ 30.6 




6673 . 576 


+ 


1.9 




8461.7S6 


4- 7.6 


83697 


5533.713 


+ 


33.5 


44°2112 


4883.626 


- 21.8 


(poss.) 


5564.660 


+ 


32.8 


(poss.) 


5533.858 


- 27.5 




6302.610 


+ 


33.7 




5602.626 


- 21.0 




6635.635 


+ 


12.3 




6309.708 


- 41.9 




7410.603 


+ 


32.5 




7427.642 


— 35.4 




8453.732 


+ 


24.5 




7751.831 


- 34.3 




8478.695 


+ 


33.9 




8500.725 


- 43.2 



Radial Velocities and Spectral Classes 
TABLE II — Continued 



447 



Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


Star 


Julian Day 


Velocity 


H.D. or B.D. 


(243...) 


km. /sec. 


H.D. or B.D. 


(243...) 


km. /sec _ 


105020 


2989.760 


- 31.9 


135962 


4 ss 1.793 


- 20.5 


(poss.) 


3015.697 


- 37.0 


(poss.) 


5261.722 


— 5.7 




3031.646 


- 2S.9 




630S.892 


_ 7 j 




40S9.776 


- 44.4 




6637.891 


- 25.0 




4558 . 635 


- 33.8 




7416.864 


- 7.0 




4562.624 


- 40.4 










5142.934 


— 53.5 


136244 


4880.677 


- 51.5 




5559 . 757 


-35.7 


(def.) 


52S3.649 


- 48.3 




5587.708 


- 43.1 




6672.848 
7087.738 


- 20.2 

- 60.7 


114071 


5251.663 


- 6.9 




7761.842 


- 51.4 


(def.) 


5552.865 


- 24.4 




7765.781 


- 49.9 




5890.'. 123 


- 27.1 




8134.726 


- 56.9 




6308.866 


- 12.5 




8486.802 


- 35.6 




6635.865 


- 34.2 










7378.842 


- 22.3 


60°1611 


4922.685 


- 24 s 




7749.839 


- 22.9 


(poss.) 


5285 685 

6644.846 


- \ s 

- 16.4 


29°2495 


4908.625 


— 37.5 




6680. M- 


— 32.2 


(def.) 


5226.790 
5559.868 


- 58.4 

- 39.9 




7791.77s 


-24.2 




6271.876 


- 43.6 


45 2344 


1886.796 


- 27.3 




7057.631 


- 74.8 


(poss.) 


5260. 7( is 


- 39.5 




7398.836 


-67.7 




5601.707 

■".61 is. 802 


- 41 (i 

- 25.4 


135721 


4SX< )747 


- 13.3 




8467 857 


- 48.6 


(def. 1 


5261.625 

6309.884 


— 7 5 

- 36.6 




8489.880 


- 46.0 




6673.780 


- 4.9 


142592 


lssi.856 


- 16. 1 




7057.807 


- 2s 6 


(def.) 


5215.887 


- 10.4 




7389.832 


- 5.0 




5283.689 
5602.819 


- 76 .; 

- 46 9 


135741 


4881.728 


- 10. 8 




7056 


- 46 3 


(def.) 


5295 . 630 


- 28.5 




7M57 685 


- 19.2 




6637.936 


- 33.0 




8125.832 


+ 0.7 




6673.853 


- 17.1 




8477 ss; 


+ 1.3 




7416.786 


- 9.2 




8502.811 


+ 36.3 




7747.784 


- 12.5 




8512 776 


- 2:;. 4 




8486.885 


- 0.6 









448 Publications of the David Dunlap Observatory 

Acknowledgements 

The writer gratefully acknowledges the help of many observers in obtaining the 
spectrograms over the past ten years and that of the student assistants listed above 
who helped with the measurements while receiving financial support from grants 
made to the writer by the National Research Council of Canada. 



Reference 
Hins, C. H., 1934, Leiden Observatory Annals, vol. 15, part 4. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume II Number 17 



A STUDY OF THE VARIABLE STARS 

IN THE 
GLOBULAR CLUSTER MESSIER 14 

I. PERIODS AND LIGHT CURVES OF TWENTY VARIABLES 



HELEN SAWYER HOGG 

AND 

AMELIA WEHLAl" 



1966 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



A STUDY OF THE VARIABLE STARS IN THE 
GLOBULAR CLUSTER MESSIER 14 

I. Periods and Light Curves of Twenty Variables 

By Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



The globular cluster Messier 14, NGC 6402, (R.A. 17 h 35 m 0, Dec. 
— 03° 15', 1950) is one of the clusters very rich in variable stars. It is 
exceeded in number of variables by only seven other clusters at present. 
Seventy-two variables were discovered by H. B. Sawyer (193S) from 
a series of plates taken with the 72-inch reflector of the Dominion 
Astrophysical Observatory at Victoria. A preliminary report of work 
on their periods appeared at the same time (Sawyer 1937), but cir- 
cumstances delayed publication of further work until now. 

For the past three years we have been making a study of the variables 
in the cluster to determine their periods and the form of their light 
curves. A total of 258 plates is now available, virtually all of which have 
been taken by one of us (H.S.H.). Of these, 31 were taken with the 
72-inch reflector of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, 211 with 
the 74-inch reflector and 9 with the 19-inch of the David Dunlap 
Observatory, 2 with the 36-inch Steward Observatory reflector, and 
5 early Mount Wilson plates were taken by F. G. Lease and H. 
Shapley. These plates span an interval of 52 years. 

Four additional variables have now been found by Amelia Wehlau, 
bringing the total to 76. These are indicated on figure 1, and are given 
in Table I of this paper. The first 72 variables were identified in the 
original paper. One of the first results of the renewed study was the 
discovery of a nova (by A.W.) on the plates of 1938 taken with the 
David Dunlap Observatory 74-inch (Sawyer Hogg and Wehlau 1 *. H > 4 ) . 

All the available plates have been measured (by A.W.) with the 
Becker iris photometer at the Hume Cronyn Memorial Observatory 
of the University of Western Ontario. The magnitudes of the sequence 
previously published have now been revised from five plates taken with 
superimposed exposures on both the cluster and Kapteyn Area 61, one 
of the areas where the magnitude values have been standarized to the 
fainter magnitudes (Stebbins, Whit ford and Johnson 1950). The 
comparison stars are identified on figure 1, and their revised magnitudes 
are given in Table II, which includes four auxiliary stars added to the 
original sequence. 

451 



4o2 Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



NOV. A - '•, v *- 
.75- *•,' ' • ' ~ 76 ' 

f-- • • • . * . 



. - •- c 

-z « 



h - 



Fig. 1 — The globular cluster Messier 14, photographed with the 74-inch reflector 
of the David Dunlap Observatory on June 23, L938, when the nova was visible. 
(Plate 3263, exp. 40 min.) Four new variables, and comparison stars are also identified. 
Scale of the figure, 7".0/mm. 

The variables in this paper are mainly those for which preliminary 
results were given in 1937, with many additional observations obtained 
since. They have large ranges, and three bright Cepheids with periods 
over one day are among them. .Many of the preliminary periods derived 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 14 



453 



TABLE I 
New Variable Stars 



Variable 


Co-ord 


inates 




Magnitudes 




Xo. 


x" 


y" 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


Remark- 


73 


+05 


+07 


16.5 


18.0 


17.25 


Bright irregular? 


74 


+07 


+91 


16.5 


17.2 


16.85 


Bright irregular? 


75 


+35 


-12 


16.7 


18.5 


17.60 


RR Lyrae 


76 


-105 


+03 


16.1 


17.0 


it; 55 


Short period Cepheid 


Nova 


+30 


+04 


16 (0 


bserved) 




Found only on plates 
of 1938 



TABLE II 
Magnitudes of Sequence Stars 





Co-< 


)rd inates 


Mean Mag. 


Star 


x" 


y" 


(Pg) 


a 


-43 


-86 


14.52 


b 


-146 


-150 


14.70 


c 


-39 


— 57 


15.35 


d 


-141 


-71 


15.85 


e 


-9 


-104 


16.17 


f 


+ 110 


-42 


16.71 


g 


+ 11 


-92 


17.46 


h 


+ 21 


-93 


1 7 . 98 


J 


+2 


-99 


18.42 


w 


-80 


-152 


16.20 


X 


-105 


-115 


1 7 . 40 


y 


-139 


-138 


1 7 . 55 


z 


+24 


-79 


17.56 



some years ago are being brought up to date with the help of the 
IBM 7040 at the University of Western Ontario. Even though the 
magnitudes have been determined with the photometer it will be 
difficult to get periods for many of the stars with small ranges, located 
in the congested central region of the cluster, where background cor- 
rections are large; the congestion in the central region, even on a scale 
ol 22". 43 to the millimetre, is severe. Although the cluster has a 
relatively large angular diameter of 6'. 7, the stars are faint, with the 
RR Lyrae stars ranging mostly from the 17th magnitude at maximum 
to the 18th at minimum. Since l he twenty stars which appear in this 
paper have been selected for large ranges and unobscured position, this 



454 Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 

material alone is not suitable for a discussion of the frequency of 
periods in this cluster. 

Table III gives the observations on all available plates for the 
following twenty variables, numbers 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 19, 
22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 32, 33, 36 and 43, giving the number of the plate, 
the Julian Date, and the observation derived from photometer read- 
ings. There are fewer plates listed in the second section of Table III 
for the stars with numbers 19 to 43 since on some of the poorer quality 
plates none of these stars could be measured. 

Table IV gives for these variables the maximum, minimum and 
mean magnitudes, the epoch of maximum (chosen as the nearest 
maximum just before J.D. 2438200 in the 1963 series of observations), 
and the period, followed by remarks when pertinent. 

The light curves of these twenty variables, in order of decreasing 
length of period, are shown in figures 2 and 3. The points are the 
computed weighted means of all observations at intervals in phase of 
0.04 of the period of the star. Observations with colons in Table III 
have been assigned half weight. A filled circle represents at least three 
good observations, but averages about ten such. Open circles represent 
mean points derived from observations which are few in number or 
of low weight. 

Of this first group of stars, three are Cepheids with periods longer 
than one day. Sixteen are type ab RR Lyrae stars with periods between 
0.48 and 0.68 days, and one is a type c with period 0.36 days. A period 
change is noticeable only for Var. 1, the Cepheid with longest period 
in the cluster, 18.730 days, whose period seems to be steadily shorten- 
ing at the rate of (3 = 14 X 10 -7 days/day. 

In figure 2 two light curves are given for this star to illustrate 
graphically the change in period from an earlier to a later interval. 
In the case of this star, the figure shows many open circles which do 
not represent uncertainty in the magnitudes, but rather fewer obser- 
vations in the means because of the division of material. 

Joy (1949) studied spectroscopically variables 1, 2, 7, and 17 in this 
cluster. For Var. 1, his classification from two spectrograms was G2 
and GO, with an average radial velocity of —115 km/sec, indicating 
cluster membership. 

Variable 2, with period 2.79468 days, is the type of short period 
Cepheid in clusters mentioned by Joy and C. Payne Gaposchkin 
(1954). Joy gives the spectrum from one plate as F8, and the radial 
velocity as —129 km/sec. 

Variable 7 seems to be a typical W Virginis star with period 13.596 



455 



CN OI OI 

xx i> 



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r~ x x x x 


!>■ t» 00 00 l> 


X 


X 30 



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X 


— CO 


■* X 

x co 


IO 00 i-H CO 


t> CO "* ■* OI 


CO "3 CM O ■>* 


X X 


co t— x x 


l> CO 1^ X X 


; x i> 


X t- 


35 rH 




C-J o 


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co co x ■<* 


t^ CO X CO 35 


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X X 




I- X 


X 


t^r-- t^ X 


t^ X X » X 


i^ 


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x oi 

X X 


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lO 
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t- X X 


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X X 


X X 



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iO iO 

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m io 

i-i 01 35 IO ■* 


coaoffl 


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iO iO iO iO iO 


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t-iO 


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lO-tf Tj<r-I 


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t^l^ 


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XX XX 


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tp co x — 


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X X 




X 


lO 
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CO CO »0 CO 


CO iO 


«. lfl 


»o 


CO >0 


CO CO CO 


CO CO CO CO t- 


CO '0 CO CO CO 


IO "5 IO IO 

— — ~ rH X 


i-i co ~- oi x 


iO IO 

C 33 


<0 rH CD 


LOW 


lO IO >o lO 
1- X X CO CO 


CO IO iO IO io 


iO i-O CD CD CD 


CO iO 


lOlQifl 


lO IO IO iO IO 


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CO ^h CO iO iO 
CO -h i.O C CO 

c/:m>x 


■* •* iO X "# 

oi oi x io oi 

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CO — 01 -t -f 
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t^ t^ t^ t^ X 


x o — s : o 

X I- OC CO iO 
1^ 1^ X 1- X 


77(1 
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co iO CD X CO 
CO 01 OI -f 35 


lOi-nec* 

— OI OI OI 


'O -r co oi 
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CO 'cf iO 

1- 1- 1- 


CO 1 - X ~- X 

CO CO CO CO iO 



CO I- I- 35 t- 



01 01 71 CI "N 



n ti ri N oi 



co co co oi CO 

71 01 T-l OI C-l 



OOOtOOON 
— CO iO 1^ CO 

I- 1- I- — ~1 

C 1 C* I C 1 C" 1 1 



456 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



X i- i- i- r- 



DC Dl 



XNON 



CNM 


CO Dl *D 


co .-( oj oc 


X t^ CO 


X X DC 


I> (^ CO CO 



X LD —i -T — 
X X X X X 



LD CO 



>e i~ CO iD "* 
l> CO CO CO l~ 



■* — re 

O CO X 



Dl CD t^ 1^ X lOXW 
t~- X t- t> l> t^ t^ X 



t^ CO CD CD 



CD tJIMNC 
t- X X X X 



X t^ 



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x od 



CD CD ^h 
X — l> 



re i- CO 1^ Dl 
x" X 00 I> l> 



t^r-[- t- 



CD oc re 
t^cOt^ 



re ic >e x -r 


O • • • • ID 

■* CD iD CD -f 


ID ID 


~Z~C CD 


iO ID 
CO t~ X I- DC 


ID 

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CO CD CO CO *D 


,~ to CO CO CO 


CO CO CD "D iD 


lD *D lD CO *D 


iD iD ID ID ID 


iD iD CO CO lO 



CD I - CO iD X 
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ID iD CO Dl 
D- X XI- 



t^ t*- t^ t- 



iD D. CO I— I- 

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X I- 



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D. X 



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iD ID iD »e 

r> — ~ s — 


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i~ ..ID 

— i ei ei -r d 


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CD CD CO "* '""' 


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t> 


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t- t- I- I- CO 


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t- CD CC D D 



iD iD >D iD ^ tJ* iD CD "D iD ic iO O ■* "D 



LD t^ t- 1-- t- 



^t 1 •'t 1 ^ Tt< 'f ^fiDiDiDLD 



— — re cr id 

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X I- X X I- 



ei c d co h 
cd re -f co co 
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CD X t- CD X 

re cd t— — ei 

CD CO CD CO CD 



■^ ce i—i ei d; 
co 3 t- i^ "D 



n o ei x Tf 

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CD iD kO CO CO 



I^ iD CO CO l> 



d ei >e o co 

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re re re rr re 
ei ei ei ei ei 



x ~ ei d. x 

D d. ei ei re 
co co >". i'e ie 
re re re re re 
ei ei ei ei ei 






ei n ce. rr C 
dc — — ei ei 
— i ei ei ei x 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Afessier 14 457 



1- r- t^ x 1- 



t^ |, 1^ t^ t^ x x 00 



7-1 1^ co t- ~ m t-i t-i to >r 

1- 1- 1- coed r^ xx i-t- 



I- X X t- I- X I- 00 06 CO X 



•* O ■* CO ^ffitO i~ x C -^ C: ~ 'M X l- -^ 
NOCN X t- CO CO t^ t^ OJ 1^. 05 Xt-t-t^I^ 



t- I- t- X CO CO l> 



in lO in to 

C- 3 -T — 7-1 ~. 

I- X X X t^ t^ 



X X X X 1^ 



1^ -~z v- 



oc i^- t~ co - n i> 

X X t - X I - X X 



'O CO X I - I - 



— 3 -M l- -f — 03 qc 
X X X 1^ XX 1- X 



co 77 — '~ CO 


m 


M h CO "O 


in 
1- x x — — . 


— -0 l~ c- t— 


10 m 
-r in i~ in -^ 


C O C l^ l'; 


u- "O CO - JO 


co to -0 m m 


I~ >-~ Itt L~ L~ 


co i ~ '~ >~ 't 


W L~ ' ~ ' ~. I" 



3 


— 


77 C C 77 m 


— C c: in — 


~ 


X I - -0 


t^ 


X 


X ~ X I- I- 


X ~ : — I- 1- 


~ 


I-l^ I- 



X — X 

I- 1^ X 



l- T) -O — 
X I- I- X 



71 -71 ~ M 
X XXX 



•71 77 7-1 

1~I^ I~ 



Q 






1- Ti7ft 



— 77 I '" I- -O — 77 C — X ~ 7-1 77 X ~ 77 77 i~ 77 1^ 

\Z t CC X 77 7C IC — 7-1 l~ 77 lO 71 ~ — I - ~ C 7~1 ~ 7*1 X 

t^ X t> 1^ X t- co i~ i ~ i - -o -o I - i~ -o CO CC -o CO CO -o >~ 



i OS C-l C: in 77 ~ 

i- x 77 ~ — in 

^O lO CO CO t"^ !>■ 



hcDt>C ~ — 717717: 77-fi-v;i- —ere r i-i-x— ri -ti~~~t\ 

71 71 77 TC -J- C 7-17-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7"1 77 -f -T -r lC CO "O I - I - X X ~ X X 

X X X X X — — — 7-1 7-1 7-17-17-17-17-1 7-1 71 71 71 71 71 71 7-1 3! ~ 



458 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



Z> cO W i - i 1 t 1 •«? — — re re CD i-i'eo 00 « 

x x t^ i- z z c n i> x x x t> i> t^ «> 1^ i> 



Oct- -h ■* x 



t>t~- t- t- — 



XX X X 1- X X XX X 



CO 00 00 00 oc 



re x 

X I- 



~ ~ re to co 

3. CT> l> 00 b- 



omc 

XCON CO t- X X — — NCI-ZN [-t-l-XI 



~- Z C t- '/ N r— t— t— CD t— 



re co x — 

t- x x x 



xx i> t-- 1^ x x x t^ i- x 



3: re 


•o 


— -* re x 


X X 


i~ 


DO 00 00 t- 



X I- X t- i^i^i^t^l^ Zl^NNX XXt^I- 



l> XXXI- 



czric x 

X X X X I~ 



re ■* r- oc — < re 'tzhc 
l~ c l* s ^ co i-e co >3 "3 l -e io *c co co o c c lc 



ei x -f — co 
i~e ie m >oic 



i~e io ic ^c ie 



i-e co t> ie i.e otooo 

3. X X X X l> I - X 3. 



Xr-Hrereco oo »o co o 
X X X X t- t- — . X X 



Z !D N C Z 
t— X X 35 X 



X t^ 00 00 t-- 



i-e co ei 3 re x 

X l> 00 00 00 oc 



x *-t- x ei re ~ oc r' 

X I- I- X l> X I- X 



co Th t- o i-e 
z z n * z 



c x o 

X X X 



<M I> 35 OS OJ ~ X 35 — X CO ei — i 3 

co co co ie co co ic Le t>- co co c 



o co t>- co i.e i-e co t^- co co co co co co >-e co i-e co co 



I - I - X I - X 

i_e Le '-e -r -r 



Le c '■" i-e ie i-e o i_e 

3. X X X C 3: I- 35 35 X C5 



^Tf-^-^i-e Le '*■*■*■* 



i — x i- x 



L.e ue ie ^ ie 



ei ~ *+ co 3. 3- ei co >-e t- 
ri n o -t u- i^e>i-i--r 
z n z i- i^ co t^ i- co i- 






re ei ei ei — co x re x re 
x -r : r) n i-e re io ■* m 

l~I~l~l-05 35 1^ CD CD CO 



tCMNZ* 

'-' ~ »o co co 
co t- co i-e t- 



X 3- 


co >e 


'.' 


X X 


3- 3. 


35 


CD 







1- r- l> 

o 

C5 



•«* -# i— re — < re io t- > ■* ue 35 ei re L e x ~ re x 35 x ■* ■* re re 

z r. * - n re re re —> ~-< H-^iofflN r- 35 o — ~ n z z o c 
3. 3. 3. ro 3; co co co -^ -h 1— 1 cn cn cn ei ei ei re re ei ei *-e co co t— 
— ~i ~i cn n ~i ei ei ^i re re re re re rt re re ^ ^t ^t ^ ^t ^f 



t^ 3- CD 35 10 

X X 3. r-l X 



13 t^ 35 re ei 

3 3 - N 3 
I- Z Z ^ N 

Tf T^H Tt -^t ue 



o 
Z 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 14 4o9 



l 


I 


1^ ~ 


— u-T |> CN 


co I- I- 


I- t^ 


r- CO 


[ - I - 1 - X 



— re X O y; ~ t» X ~ CO — 

ONM^C — I - I - X X I - 



»o 

re X ~ X co 


35 S 


03 X 


IQ1Q 

t^ t^ rr -t- _ 


l~ i~ co o i 


»e 
re re ~ re -o 


I- X X X X 


CO t~ 


X X 


X X X X X 


I- I- x - ~ 


30 00 00 00 CX 



x o O ok 


-f OS 


X t- 


ei re OS cO l~ 


O! — X IO X 


NN^OO 


c 


re 


IO 


CO X X X X 


I- I- 


to X 


30 00 t^ COOC 


CO I- |> t- X 


X t- CO 1- X 


X 


X 


t^ 



•M T O CN ~ Tf l> O 
1^ X X X t^ oa X XX [^ t^ t-- X 



— — ~ •* CO 


£ -M CO O CM 


<N 


-- X OS X X 


X X I- l> X 


X 



IQ «0 L~ 

cO re i-t — re 


lO M 


»0 

05 t— 


i - X -f — : e 


M X 


-r -r 


C io oo -r cr 


05 


_' 


X 


t^ t> t^ 1^ X 


X t^ 


X X 


X X X t- X 


00 x 


X X 


X X X X 1- 


» 


X 


t- 



t do io cO -^ Lt ;£ t^ 

L.~ Lt »^T L-t Lt lit Lt t-t l-t Lt lC L ~ »-t IC *C kC *C »-t L t L t LC Lt Lt LTt Ut L~ 1* Lt '* 



t- 1- CN o i' 


-f Tf 


X CO 


co ci re t^ re 


lO iC • • 

CO ■* <N OS 00 


"* ■* CO ~ : 1- 


1 - 1 - x — ~ 


1- X 


i- as 


X I- I- X X 


t~ t- I- I- 1- 


X I- X I- X 



X rC l- CO X i- lC — Tf CO ei X 

t^ X X X x — XX X OC X I- 



X -+ CO 


^ •* l- C 05 


— 


1- X X 


X x X i- r- 


X 



OS lOCOOK 


:r. co t -r co 


t-- 00 OS 00 OS 


"* "d" — — — 


— 1 - O ~ CO 


co io x ro x 


.--O CO. -CO 


jO CO CO CO co 


co CO CO CO »0 


CO CO CO co — 


CO CO I- CO CO 


CO >C CO CO 'O 



o ^ ■* n o »e i^ — oc co co co x :o ei r: T-i co i^ x co >.e co — »e co os re »-e ~ 
io >~ >~ >~ »o io io i.e -f t -t- -r -r >e Le i.e >e >e io *C >e io >e ^e -<j< -^ t?- i.e m t 



ri> ei-t"~i--f eicot^-H— < ~re~xre 

rt — x — r - x i ~ t- >e — re o. re x X co 

^ X I - X CO I - CO 1 - CO I - CO CO t>- t^ CO t- CO l^ CO t^ 1^ 1^ l^ l^ 1^ CO t^ I - t - CO CO 

co t» re -cf >o co — ei re ~ — — ei i- o: 3 o: 

XX— _-_— f* tJ< to • — r — i — — re ~ -r 

t^ x — ei >e 



n -jc o x n o l- l- •- c re co x x -? -r ~ co i - x ~ i r r c r z - :: 

— ei e< ro — ei ei re re -r -r -f -f 't co i- x re re re rT-rcocoi- i-r: :: >:ri 

1 , i , i , s„ X X X X X X » 00 00 OS OS OS OS 00 00 0C 30 00 00 00 0C 30 OS OS OS O! 

»e »* i.e >e io >e >e »e ».e >e »e >e »e »e io »-e »-e co co co co co co co co co co co co t>- 



460 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia We h Ian 



CO 00 os <o 

l> t^ l~ X 



CO 00 OS OJ i-H 

t^ t^ t-- x t^ 



N X N N X 



t^ t^ t^- t^- t^ t^ t^ t^ 1^ O 



t^ t^ X X X 





lO 13 lO 
X JO ■* l> OS 


13 13 13 
CO "# i-l <N -"cC 


13 *o • • 


tfj 13 lO 13 

C C ^t * c 


O O L^ 

X CO 02 CN 05 


CO X X X 1- 


2NI-/ CO 


x x i- x x 


35 t- X X X 


X X X X X 


X X X X t^ 



t^ CO — I - I - 30 <CO I> 00 l> 



OS 31 h- t- 35 
t^ CO t^ t^ t- 



X CO !•- t-- t- 



35 —I t^ ■* ■* 
t^ t- CO — CO 






» r- t— oo oc 



O CO CO CM o 
NNt-X X 



i-OCOXN* 
00 l> t> t> X 



co h <N co >o 

X X X X X 



in eo i> o OS 

30 00 00 00 b- 



(N C 35 »3 35 
1> 00 «> t- l> 



X X I- I- t^ 1^ t- X X X 



■* -f -t 35 31 
X X /.[-/ 



XXXXX XX XXX 



PL, 



•3 l3 l3 O 

CO CO eo ■* CO 


i3 i3 13 >3 

13 CO CO 35 t- 


CO iC 3. 3. X 


X o n -o ^ 


i* iC »~ o o 
CO -^ lO fcO "^ 




O lO O lO "O 


'" '" '~ '3 '-t 


-O CO i3 .- JO 


tO iO *C »T >-t 


I* iO kO *C *0 


c l*i* it i: 



iO> i3> iO 

COOHOOH 


iO >o o 
iO co 3 to 31 


o >3 

— i3 31 CO IO 


i.- l3 
CO Tt< OS iO ■<* 


lC lO C L* 13 
CO CO IN co i3 


t^ c3 t- tP tP 


X X X X 1 - 


X X 1- X X 


XXXXX 


— |^ 1^ 1^ X 


XXXXX 


30 00 00 t> t> 



30 00 00 OC X 



30 00 t^ 00 t- 1^ t> X X X Xt^I^I^t^ XXXXX 






iO iO iO 


i-i-i3 >3 
CO !>• CO CO CO 


i- i- i- 

X X ~ 31 CO 


13 13 


i3 i3 

35 X X X 35 


13 iO 

X X X l3 L3 


i3 CO "O CO '3 


CO CO CO CO CO 


CO CO CO CO CO 


3 3 1- l> i3 


i3 i3 i3 l3 i3 


13 13 13 CO CO 



i- i- i3 i3 
3 0>000 


,H o o o o 


i3 13 

53 53 X i — ' CO 


iO 13 i3 
MOOON 


"3 
■O CO 1^ t~- CO 


13 13 13 
X !~ l^ 35 X 


-r -f i3 13 13 


i- i- -r '- i~ 


i3 "3 Tfi CO CO 


CO CO CO CO i3 


13 t3 i3 l3 13 


13 l3 i3 »3 >3 



~ CO I - CO 35 
i- X ~1 — I- 
I - co I - X CO 



*001CC 3- 
-1- r I I - i3 73 
CO 1- !><Ot- 



CO X -* i3 ~f —i i3 CO CO 1^ l> CM — "3 ^t" •* 
X -T ~ X '3 — I - CO — — 3) i3 CO X 35 -n 
CO t^ CO CO 1^ X co I- X CO CO CO CO CO CO t^ 



t -t o o 

31 C3 ~ -h 
t^ t^ CO CO 



r~ t>t- i, i^ 



~ TZ "* ~ -+ CO t^ i3 31 [j- 3- CO C M CO 
, |> T~ i"U t> XXX X X X X X X O. 35 



lS5i 2 — 3i ^ 3i ?3 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 14 461 



L t L 1 '-1 '" '" 1-1 Ll Ll Ll Ll Ll L~ IO Ll Ll L~ 

HON^O IO CO •"** CN CI CO CO O: — — II -T O I> r-t CN CN x o. — — >+ 

X>GOGOI>;0C - I- X X X X X I- XX I- it- X X X X I- I- t- X I- t- 



'-1 Ll 1-1 1-1 ll .. L~ 115 1_~ L~ IO .. I" Ll 1- Ll L~ 

CN 1) co "C _ co no: ci li — — -* IN I- li o; X li — — li — dc — -r — t— 

X X X X I- I- XX) GO XI- XX I- I- X X X XXt-I-I- I-XXl-t- 



30QOQOQOCO 1- CO I- t- t- X I- CO r-t-t-i-cO I- t- t- t- t- I-I-t-l-cO 



1-1 Ifl Li . . . . . . ll Li Li Li Li Li Li Li Li Li Li Li Li 

HNIONH OCOOSOC '1 l1 X DO Li t- — CN CO CNC — CO 05 11 CO 11 CO 

x x x x x t- x t- t- r- i- x x x x x i- i - x x t- t- t- i- x x t- r- 



'" '1 • • Li Li Li Li . . Li Li L~ Li H 1-1 

lOHMOC X X CO ■* t^I> OS C 1) X o x cn -r -t -f rj< i-1 cO X ri 

30 00 00 00 OS I- I- I- i^i^Xl-t- X X X t- X r-XXI-I- i-t-t-i-t- 



Li 1.1 

I- CO co CO CO 


Li Li 

CO ■<# O CO 35 


lO *0 *C 

lO ic t^ co co 


i-t iC *C iO 


IC iC t- LC 1^ 


aa i- o n i- 


Li Li Li Li Li 


eg eg eg n n 


iC ifl t^t i-t *o 


"2 ^ l ~ *= l ~ 


Lt l -t Lt »C C 


lO i-t iC kO *C 



r— r— x x x i- x ~ xxx xx xxxi-i- i-t-xxx x x i- x x 



CO CO X CO Li t- 35 lT -T X X — NNOM^ Li — -r 35 i-1 CO I- 35 i ~ i- 

3) 00 00 X X XI- XX1-I-X I-I-XXX l-I-XXX I- I- t- X X 



tO CO CO CO cO CO CO CO CO 'I i-1 Li cO CO cO CO CO CO CO t- 



ll ll ll ll -T Li Li Li Li Li CO CO CO CO CO Li Li Li 1.1 1.1 1.1 >1 CO CO "O -Y T ~f -f ' 



>» ioocnn^ co i— ~ co n co x — i- i- n c x n c ioh ojcoeo i- co ii x n 

rt CO Ll X — I CO Ll — i i~ CO O. C '1 -ti»-t -J3 'I n Ll — ii 3 ii n gj C0 00COCOO5 
^ CO CO CO I- I- I- XI- I- CO I- I- CO CO I- cO I- S_ CO I- CO I- CO I- I- cocoi-coco 



ii i- ~ co -f iohomo ii o. — -r ~ -t — co l~ x ~ -r y n i - ~ t r ~ 

cn cn eo eo eo -f ii i - -r co -t -r co co i - u n n -r -r co <p op o» C3S x x ~ s ~ 

c:c;c~— crr-:i rinncin -r-r-r-r-r -r-r-t-r-r iQioiflcpto 

~ 05 O- O- 2 ii n u n cm n n n n n ri r- n n n ci n co CO CO -r -r t -r -r 



462 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



l~ l^ l*C 


L~ L~ 

— -r rc l- c«3 


— ~ [^ CO t^- 


UJ Lt L~ LT? 

N N x c C 




X X t^ I - X 


I^ I- 1^ X X 


x x x i^ t^ 


»00l>001> 


t- x t^ 



co :t ■" -i z i- ~ z c :i x x ~. -r x b>>ohon i> ■* l~ 

X X t- t~ I- I- r> X — . t- t^ X CO X X X X X X I~ — X X 



OOJCO l- 


"O 'O C5 "3 X 


rl OCR CO IQ 


IC >-t L.~ 

NCOOU5N 


l- W 


X r- l- x :0 


I- CO I- t^ CO 


I- x -o t- l> 


t^ l> t^ 1^ CO 


X t- t- 



X X I- X X 



— r m r. ic 

X X X CO X 



ao oo c» t> ex: r~ t- x x t~ 



CO CM 
b- X 



00 1^ 



-.-. — n -< cc 
oo oo t- a x 



cc x 



I- I- t^ l^ X CO 



30 00 00 00 t> 



M 33 — 



— (N — -* Tf 


C C L* 

<~ CO O CM "* 


-r — Cl — ~ 


C c ^ 
-r -r >.- — ifl 


re l- -* cc ri 


— x -r >~ •- 










jC IQ «f= CO CO 


CO L ~ »C L~ L~ 



i" l> IQ l.~ CO 


COCM>O00C 


>* CM O C3i CO 


■* CM CO C l~ 


CO CO i-l 


X) 00 00 00 oc 


X X X I - — 


X x — I - X 


X t- X t^ X 


XXX 



lO X 



l> <3> CM t~ 00 T — ~ CO rc 
I, o X I- I~ I- X t- I- X 



■m ~ i> zr. •n 

X ZNhX 



X XI- X X 



C ~- — CC — X X X CC X c. c — t- 

-* ■* Lt Tj< Lt Tj< Tf •>* Tt 4 'S 4 ■* L.C L~ L~ l_~ Lt C C O LO 



■*f Tf "* U5 CO 



■-i eo o c© i> 

J 1 1 - I — 

CO CO i - CO CO 



X>CM iOC3Sl> i~ HCOH^i 

co t> -o i - 5 i~ cs t> t~ x 



— r. x co -? >~ ri co — m 

(M CM CO >C CO cc cc Tl M — 

-o cc co i - i - re **■<*■ ■>* re 



TjtcOf-oooc — ri -r ~. — 






—* -—* — * i— i— . . t ^r ^r . . . . . . . . - - - . *-. *-- »-» - j - - -'. *-- »• ^ 

?i ri ?i ?i ri ti MtMCMeoec :t tt k ^ 

— i -^ — i Cl ~1 Cl C~l Cl M 71 M M M d C~l ^1 M CI 71 "M CI 



2 t -r ii i'~ 
^ c^ co :0 — 



'" M Cl CI l~ 
l^ t^ t^ t- t^ 






Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 1A 



4(33 



o 



© co x ei c: 

i~ t - i- x i- x x 



CO ei — OS l- 

x x x I - x 



x ei ~ re l- l- — re t co ~ re — 

X X t- X X l^ X X T. X X X X X X. 



ei — — x 

X 30 30 I - 



— — ~) — I- T ~~ ■' 

— x x x x x /.i' 



r-H> ei -r 
X t- X X 



DO l~ re e-1 

KN XI- 



C I- N I- CO 



3 1^ N C C CO CO t^ t^ t> i-~ t- l> t- ed I- • - CO 



CD X -r 



Lt — cr -r l- 


~ *+ re -r so 


c re c * ei 


NlOHU CO 


ei in x 


X I ~ X X X 


t- X X I- t- 


(•- X X I- X 


t- X I- — X 


X X X 



io o ic >e ic >e >c l~ i.e io ir* »o ifl 

oo cm cc r: ?: c n c c co co co ©co z c n *t c — <rcc 

i- i- t- 1- i- x t^ x x x x i- x x r- x x x x x x x 



»-e te L*t L.e »~e 





i- ~ do co G 


re ei re !e x 


L e .e «o - co 


•e 'e ie 

•trie 


XXX 


X 1 - X X X 


X Z X I- t> 


X X X X t^ 


t^ t^ t^ 



re co i- i- -r -r — r; cm >-e cm »-e 

t^ CO t^- l^ X X X X X X X X X t^ 1- t^ X X XXX 



— © ©oa O ~ x x — O co x so x co x -r cm >e — 

to co co co i> ifl L.e L.e Le co co co co co co L.e i-e >e co co co co 



c Le -r -r -r 






co o Oi o> c re x ei x 

X *r t- re •"? re ** co -f ■ 
CO CO CO 1 - CO i - O i - o 



riNono re -r re re © 
x c >e t~ cr coo co« re 

COt-t^COl- I- i- i^ I- CO 



ej re c 
i> i- L.e 

cr i- 



t^ -* 



TJ 3 re 0! >e re x re re ^ >e i- cr ei >e i- — i 

-*- -*- J— | ~ X """ C ' — ' C C O — — "M ei CN CN CD C3 U3 

•~'~i-i-i~ f- x x ei ei ei ei ei e» ei ei x x x x 

— — ei ei ei 



ei -j re 
i - i - o 



m ei ei ei 



ei ei ei n ei 



ei ei ei 



x x 

el ei 




X t- CO t^ 
I- X XX 



XX XX 



x r; xx 



r; >e ta ■* -r 
■ e c — ei ei 

I- l- X X X 



t^ r; i — r — 

re <* os -r >e 
co co re »e >e 
:i:i-ror 

CM M 



464 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



"o x ta t^ t~ 


rt«(0^ 


X CO. X X 


L." 

i — re 




/: i^t^ i^t^ 


X 1- t^ t^ 


t^ t^ t^ t^ 


X l> 


t^ t^ 



CO X re -t 'M l- ^ - 
X t~ X r^ X X t- X 



c [^ x m ei o: *t re 



XXX XX 



x roc© ih c: x co co 

I- X X X t^ X t-- I> 



'-t '~ i~ ei re oc ei re 

xxr^x xt^xx 



i- i- r- x 



OS O — X eo t~ OS ■* ^ ■* h os i-h OS 
t^ 00 30 l> XhM> t~ !~ X CO X 1^ 



X) 00 00 00 0C I - x co t^ X X t» X 



M C l- C X CO CO 
X X t~ X XXI- 



I - X X X X) l> t^ l> 



I - — ?: C X M C X) OS CN CO lO 

t~ o- xiaooooo: x>ooosoot- 



X I- X I- 



t- t> X 35 



-tcnc ©eooo «ooc t> t> as 

I, t- I- X X>00 001>OC I- X X 



■X -r — >~ t~- ^lok 
X X CO X X 00 00 X 



co — co Oc 

I- X X CO 






X I^ X X 



OO 00 



— co re 
x OS t^ 



O re co X i-e re CO 
X I- X X OS 00 OS 



co oc — re os co as as 
xnxn t> x t^ r-- 



■e x t co — ei 't ■* x co — x co co os 
xcrii- x -r x co x o as co »c i^ os 

I - I - X t^ t- l^NXhN X t^ X t^ t- 



co co o. — co r: c l: n - r:-noxN 
O os 'd 4 «-i co ri -t c c * co co re co r— 

XM^Zh X X I- X CO CO CO CO CO CO 



M -r 


iO ■* 


co ei 


re "* 


Le 


CO l> 


x o. X 


ei ei 


(M^P 


-r i- 


i-i- 


t^ 






os 




CM 






re 


CO 



-h rf t^ t^ t^ ie i- 3 co ~ co ei co i-e x cxnc ei 

i- x x o: -r t» i>oooo os o re iot> eo ■># <e 

i-e ie >e >e co to r~ cc re rr. -t- -r ~r i-e m >-e — ei ei ei 

ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei 



■ e co cc xn ~ x co — ei 

i.e «~e co co ei ei re o oc O- 

ei ei re rt »c >e w co 

ei ei ei ei ei ei ei ei 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 14 465 



U~ . . L- l~ l- . . 10 . . . . »o is 

co i-H co ■* oo so w t> ~ ~ «o oo OS ■* o ~ ei -r ~ — 

6 t^ o b~ l>l> t^l>t*O0l> cO«0 cOCC t^t^l^l^t- r~t~l-~ 



DO »0 CM 1^ 't 1 re X O t> ~ e-1 t> L ~ l ~~ ~ "* XT 



O C<1 L.O O I - X 

b t« i> xx x i^ 



xx o ei re — x ~ i-' 

r^ t^ x t~i> i> x t~ i- 



-h oa re i ; i (35 l- i- -f ojoso ~ ei to t~ -t r ioooi>i>co ei x s ~ 

O 0ON00 t^ X l> X X X «> t^ X CO i- 1^ ■> X X I- l> OfflNOO t- 1- X tj- 



re e>i 

X X 



l- o »o io w so t^ '-h ~ ei _ to >o x x _ o 

d x— x six xx x t- V" t- J> OS xn;; 



d X X I - I - I - ~ X 3JO> 9 1 - X _- '_; -• X X 

z; 



cn ,_, x to i> ec o o «o oo i> no '-e — i - 

ooV" i- 1- i- r-. ~ i- 1- i- x ~ i-x i> 



: e 5 cb x t> -t o t^ to co e» i-e ■* >e — — — ■■" — 

O cot^t-t^ i> xjoo NN 00 00 00N X x x c; r- X 

- i 7 - ^ -- — — -3 x S -+• — i — t- co oo eo co iQONNM >e ei c. — i- 

.-.-Us;,, [.; ,-k -~ ,~ ,- Scoi>»o«c cot-r^oocc coi>t^t-cO — i- >e co to 



o ^ ^i -^ -t U50i0»0«0 t^ r - . e-) t- ~ re to r- ~ ~ ~ ei re >~. re ~r i- to t> _• 
S ( — > e3 < — : — ! — to t*- oo oc x x ~~ — — ' eirere~f— — — — — e* eieieieiei 
X ^ — z; — ?h — : -- — — — eiei ei x x x — ei ei e> 



466 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



Ol CO Oi-r- 

t-- I s - I s - I s - 



I s - t^ x I s - i> 



CO CO OS I s - 

x t- I s - I s - 



[- CD — I s - 

I s - l^ I- (Z N X N X 



to I s - I s - I s - t- 



X CO co CO 
x I s - x I s - 



CM I s - X 


t> 00 Ci O 00 


iO iC o 

^H I s - i-( CO CO 


I s - I s - I s - 


t> I s - I s - X 1^ 


X I s - X X I s - 



--. 


BiONtO 


<M 


I s - 


i— 1 LO 


-* 


lO CO 


cn os t^ en 


O0 CM 00 o 


z 


I s - 00 00 I s - 


o. 


o 


X X 


I s - 


I s - I s - 


X t^t^t^ 


00 X X I s - 


01 


iQ 

00 O CM ■<* 


00 


eono 


lO OS CO -* 


lb 


C 00 


lO lO l -0 

•-< CD --H CD 


C: CD I s - -* 


O 


I s - X I s - I s - 


t~- 


I s - X X 


I- 1- X X 


t- 


00 b- 


00 X I s - I s - 


CO I s - I s - t^ 


o 


00 Ci CO o 


»*OHOJ 


ic © o os eo 


cicco 


— Q 


co co a cs i-i 


HO 

HMNNM 


X 

>-- 

IN 


t> I s - I s - X 


I s - CO 00 00 t- 


as oo as i- oc 


I s - X X 


X X 


I s - t^ I s - I s - X 


oo I s - oo co oc 


s ■• 




co co o-i 


CN CD CD CO 




kC 


• ■ lO i.~ 


iO l-0 . . 

iho:M-C 


O 


x OS 


I s - 


I s - I s - X 


I s - I s - OS I s - 




X X 


00 00 00 •> 


00 b- 00 00 oc 



iO iO t^ CD CD 


>c 


OS "0 iO 


X X iO X m 


co oi 


Ol o 


lOOOM'M 


Cl C N iO iO 


00 00 00 00 I s - 


00 


X I- I s - 


I s - X 05 l> 00 


00 X 


X CI 


t-- OS X X I s - 


N D X D X 



CO -t O — i-0 CO CD CD D. 

x x 02 x x x — x r> 



-r co co x x 

BO OS OS 00 CC 



0-1 l.0 Ol CO X 
X XI 00 t- I s - 



N LO N •* 0-1 
I - X ZNX 



. . KO •• 

»-H o co co 


iO 


~ 1- X 


XCC lO *ff 


x >-o 


X iO 


.. ..lO 

CO LC ■* LC o 


coco-H--f it 


X X 1- I s - 


I s - 


I- X o 


I-- (-- x os t> 


CD I s - 


X 00 


X X X I s - X 


XX X I s - I s - 



XN-*iO 


-r c: — CD I s - 


=: CO CO CO W 


CO O »0 OS C 


X I s - CO i-O lO 


CD lO CO CO CD 


I s - I s - X I s - 


i- s. x x i- 


X X X X X 


I s - X X I- X 


I s - X X I s - X 


00 00 00 00 oo 



C- CO CO »0 I s - O". CO C 01 2 

o: c oi o. x CC.N x co 

CO CO O CO lO CO CO CD iC CO 



co ~ o-i co -f 

-h ire Ol Ol CO 
I s - I s - X t-- X 



CO OS OS 0-1 CO 
-# iO I s - OI I s - 
I s - I s - CO I s - I s - 



lO N C C X CO OS CO CM CN 

t^ rf t — o; x co x •* co 

CO I s - I s - I s - I s - I s - I s - I s - I s - I s - 



~ CO — * Tt< I s - 

CO -t 1 -t -* CD 
0s| Ol Ol 01 01 



X — < 0-1 -* I s - CO Ol -* tJ* I s - 
CD I s - I s - X X XXX O- O. 

0-1 0-1 0-1 Ol Ol ^T. 1Z°. ~ ~ ^ 



CO-— iCOi-OI-- i-^-tiOOCCM OOLOXCOCO 

— Ol CO CO CO — — — ■ i "* >o CO I s - I s - cs C 

CD CO CO CO CO «-H-<clcl Ol 0-1 0-1 Ol CO 

oi oi oi oi oi oi oi oi oo co oo co oo oo co 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 1A 467 



OONWC Ol X X ~ t- t^ >-H *h c-1 Ol CO CT. lO CO x M ^t - C -ftrct:! 

o .... 

2" OOOOOOt-OC X>l>O0 0OI> I- l> t- X X 00 J> CO OC I-l-t-XX i-t-xi-x 



co i-h o 10 © o co c c o m r: os to os 01 to to x t> to l- 01 to 

xx scxaact- 00 1- r- oc i 00 x 1 - 1 - x 1^ 1- 1- t> 1- x ' x ' 1 - 



Q 



— i 1- 


— t- OS 


re os co 


t- >* to OS 


co 01 01 to co 

30 CO CO CO* OC 





1-I1-IOO 


X I- 


i> i- 


x r^ i>oo 


t- X 1^ t- 


X t> l> 


lO 


lO 

t^ ^ CO oc co 


01 >o co os <N 


LO lO 

■<* os i-H os 


10 10 10 lo 

O LO CO LO — 

X X X X X 


lO 

to 


IC • . . . 
© co ■* 


X 


t- t^ r-t^X 


x r- t> I- X 


I- t- x 1 - 


X 1 - t - 



to co — > CO to' 


1- iO 

CO i-H i-< 00 CO 


CO i-H 00 oc 


0-1 OS OS N O 




co L ~ co 1—1 c-i 


X l> t- X l> 


0- 1^ 1^ to X 


X t- to I- CD 


Xl^hX t» 


X 1 - to t- l> 


X X X X X 



- 




b-i 





"5 


OS 




.. lO 

t> OS 


lO lo 

0-1 t- 





1- 


LO 


'* 


c 0. 


LO 


LO 


CO 1- 


rH^H 


Ol 


Ol 


— 


X 




t^ 


X 


X |> 




x t- 


X 


t> X 


i- 


X 


XXXI- 


X 


X 


1 - 


X X 


X 


X 


X 


01 




■* 


lO 


co 


J_ - 


j^ - 


lo -^ 


o-5 


A' 


0; 


rt 


_ 


O-l C-l rH 


CO 


LO 


_ 


LO 

1^ 


LO LO 
Ol rH 


t> 


lO Ol 


00 O 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 




X X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


I- 


t^ 


X r> 




l> 


X 


X 


X t- 




OS X 


X 0. 


lO .. .. 

0-1 CO OS 


rH X 


a; 






lo 

i> co 


,-5 


t^ 


10 


Ol 


lO 


L0 


l>Tt* 


LO 


-t t- 


* ' 


LO LO 
X rH 


lO 


CO 


O CO 


CO X t^ 


t- 


r— 






i> 


X X 


X t- 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X t> 


1^ 


1- 


X 




X X 


I- 


X Z X 


X 


•• 


lo 


01 


■* 


CO 


CO 


LO 

os co 


t^ 


_ 




■* 


LO 


_ 


**< I- 


1^ 


1- 


LO 


U0 

CO 


L0 


•* 


CO 


O oi 


1^ 




X 




X 


X 


X 


X l^ 


t^ 


t^- 




t^. 


t^ 




X 1- 




X 


X 1- 


t- X 


t^ 


r- x x 


X 


(N 




„ 


t~- 


i; 




LO 


rt 


rt 


a: 


01 IO 


to 


lO tO 


LO 


(M 




LO LO 

LO Ol Ol 


I- 




ro '- 


X 


I- 


/ 


I- 


X 


03 




X 


X 


XXXI- 


X X 1- X 


t^ 


X X I- I- 


X 


XXX 



Ol c; tO X 70 X TO -f Ol t^ X -* 0-1 •* O t^ Tt 1 Ol ~ 1- -h -h — re ~ X TO TO Ol TO 

Ol Ol iO TO 'O ^lOHOW CS ffl - X h i~ x r^ t^ LO — TO ~. TO X X ~ 01 ro — 

t^ OS Oi t^ to to to CO r- CO 1ONXNX CO t— to t^ to t>- to to t^ t^ tO t^ O I- CO 

X iO tO O Tl TO-^t-OlO OJLOcOt^ TO -*ti LO CO hmco OS 

NCCCOCO CD CO 00 00 OS H0OO0 00 i-i *- —1 —1 ^rf->* CO 

~ -t -r '0 1- x — 



XfflX'*'* TO TO LO 1^ OS TO Ol t^ X Ol X Ol ~ 'O LO to O TO to X X •* ■* TO to 

— < CO Ol X X OS O OS O i-H l-C«TITI TO^OIOITO TO'f-t-f-t - -ftOt-XTO 

TO Ol Ol 'O to to I- I- X x — I- I- I- I- X X X X X X X XXX — 3S 05 O. X 

rC't't-f -t 't ■*■*■* ■* -f 10 1.0 iO 10 iO lO LO iO LO LO iO LO LO iO iO iO "O ■- tO 



468 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



i~ x. v- x t~ x x x i^ t- 1^ t- i~ x r^ t^ t^- 1^ x i^ x t> i> i^ i> h- i> o t^ 



X XXX XI^t-1^1- t^ X X X X t>t^l>OOJ> XXXXX XX1^1-I^ 



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CO CO co CO co co CO CO CO 1^ 1^ t^ t^ t~ 1^ t^ t~ t^ l^ t~- 



X X X X X X X X X o. 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 1A 469 



t- |- t^ t - t- i- r- t- I- l- CO CO i- t^ co to t^ t^ t^ t- X X X X X X X X 



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i> oooo oo oc » oo oo oo i> i> co t- r-oc t^ t - 1- t- 1- x x x xjoooo ii> loc 



•* -t- x cO'ti-oioi — i- :r: — c 

XX XXX 3: XXXI- I-t-I-l-X 1- XI- I- X X X I- t-I-l-XX 



i - — c 1 ■* co r- ■* co ■«* oo co i- ■>* oo x oo - z c - io ■- — i.o i- co 

N3NNN I- I- I- X X X X X I- X X I- X 30 00 00 00 OC X I- t- X X 



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32 ~ — ~ ~ ~ ~. 32 32 ~ ~ — 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 CO CO 00 00 00 



470 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 





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Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 14 471 



o ir; l- . . . . >o »c L ~ L o io ifl 10 10 

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O (30 N N X N 1^ X I~ x r~ t- t- I~ X X X X X 1^ X I - X X X 

Z 

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z 



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«s cro co r~. io ■* >o x i^ co -t< co -r co -r co x c '0 i^ ~ coo<oooo5 — io — 

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moh^? .-'. y: i-i~^ ~ : - — ~ - — - — oi oi oioicecc'0 .-.-.- 

CO — 35 ' "" ' ~ ' — '~i — I — I — I - X X 01 Ol Ol 01 01 Ol Ol IN 00 00 00 0C X X • 

eje -^ *^ ^h— — .^^*.^.^. ^._^._^.-^-^ cCcCcCcCcC cC'C'C'CcC cC C I - 

— ^01 01 01 01OIO10101 0101010101 0101010101 010101 



472 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



Notes to Table III 

Plates 103-4397 taken by F. G. Pease and H. Shapley with Mt. Wilson 60-inch 
reflector. 

Plate- 20544-23600 taken by H. Sawyer Hogg with Dominion Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory, 72-inch reflector. 

Plates 4209 and 4228 taken by H. Sawyer Hogg with 36-inch reflector, Steward 
Observatory, University of Arizona. 

Plates B 1691 to B 1789 taken by various observers with 10-inch David Dunlap 
reflector. 

All other plates taken by H. Sawyer Hogg with 74-inch David Dunlap reflector. 

TABLE IV 



Var. 



Max. 



Magnitude 

Min. Mean 



Epoch 
of Maximum 



Period 
davs 



1 


14.65 


16.1 


15.35 


38191.8 


18.730 


2 


15.8 


17.0 


16.4 


38198.58 


2 . 79468 


4 


17.2 


18.6 


17.9 


38199.23 


0.651313 


5 


17.1 


18.7 


17.9 


38199.61 


0.548796 


7 


15.4 


16.5 


15.95 


38189.56 


13.596 


9 


17.0 


18.4 


17.7 


38199.47 


0.538831 


10 


17 1 


18.5 


17 8 


38199 34 


0.585914 


11 


16.4 


18.0 


17.2 


38199.59 


0.604417 


15 


16.9 


18.6 


1 7 . 75 


38199.51 


0.557727 


16 


16 . 8 


is 2 


17.5 


38199.40 


0.600617 


19 


17.0 


IS. 6 


17.8 


3S199.34 


0.545671 


22 


17.3 


18.5 


17.9 


38199.23 


0.655916 


23 


17.1 


L8 •". 


17.8 


38199.72 


0.552342 


24 


17.0 


18.7 


17.85 


38199.64 


0.519901 


25 


17.65 


18.4 


is (i 


38199.48 


0.360707 


30 


16.9 


18.3 


17.6 


38199.72 


0.534226 


32 


17.0 


18.1 


17.55 


38199.55 


0.655975 


33 


17 3 


18.3 


17.8 


38199.59 


0.479946 


36 


17.2 


18.3 


17.75 


38199.33 


0.677990 


43 


17.0 


18.2 


17.6 


38199.46 


0.521747 



Remarks to Table IV 

Var. 1 The period seems to be steadily shortening rapidly, and may be expressed 

as P = lS'i.730 - 14 X 10- (T - T«), where T = 2438200.00, over the 

interval of 52 years represented by the observations. 
Var. 11 This variable, on the outskirts of the cluster, is more than half a magnitude 

brighter than the average of the other cluster-type variables. 
Yar. 25 The period of 0.360350 days satisfied our observations almost as well, and 

it is difficult to determine which is the true period. 
Var. 33 The accuracy of measures for this star is less than average because it is a 

blended double. 



15-0- 

155+ 
160- 



155- 
16-0- 
165- 
17-0- 



171 
180-K 
185 — 



17-5- 

180+ 
18 i 



170- 

175- 
180+ 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 14 

5 5 5 5 

■+ 



473 



No I 
1912-1937 



+^ 1 



677990 



No.l 
338- 363 



+ 150 
-155 
-160 



2 79468 



155 
160 
--I65 
— 170 



"■d T 

655975 



-175 
-180 
■185 

-175 
■180 

■185 

-170 
175 
180 



5 5 5 5 

Phase 

FlG. 2 — Mean light curves for the nine stars of longest period in this group of 20. 
Two curves are given for Var. 1 to show the change in period. 



days, very similar to Var. 29 in Omega Centauri (Martin 1938), whose 
period is comparable. From two plates, Joy gives spectral types of 
F5 and ( i2e3, with an average radial velocity of — L36 km sec. 

Our comments on the total picture of the variables in this cluster 
will be reserved till the final paper. The second paper of this series is 



474 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



17-5- 
18-0- 
185- 



[75 

18-0+ 

'6 



175- - 



180— 



I85- L 



175 

180 
185+ 



175 

18 

185 



0-- 



17 5-=- 



552342 .. 



No 19 



No.15 



■557727 * 



No.5 



548796 



538831 



'534226 



'519901 



No- 25 



I80--0 
I85-- ?*• 



No. 43 



175 
180 
185 

-175 
-180 
-185 

-175 
■180 
-185 



175 

180 

+ 185 



175 

180 
185 



5 

Phase 



■5050 

Fig. 3 — Mean light curves for 11 variables, arranged by decreasing length of 
period. 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 1/+ 475 

in preparation. A summary of the results for the first forty periods 
determined in this cluster was presented at the Michigan meetings of 
the American Astronomical Society in August 1965 (Sawyer Hogg and 
Wehlau 19(35). 

It is a pleasure to express our appreciation to the National Research 
Council of Canada for generous support of this program, and to many 
observers at the David Dunlap Observatory who assisted with the 
telescopic part of the program, especially the late Dr. Frank S. Hogg 
and Mr. G. F. Longworth. 

April 27, 1966 



References 

Joy, A. H. 1949, A p. J., vol. 110, p. 1 05. 

Martin, W. Chr. 1938, Leiden Ann., vol. 17, pt. 2. 

Payne-Gaposchkin, C. 1954, "Variable Stars and Galactic Structure," p. 37. Uni- 
versity of London. 

Sawyer, H. B. 1937, R.A.S.C. Jour., vol. 31, pp. 57-59. 

Sawyer, H. B. 193s, Dom. Ap. Obs. Pub., vol. VII, no. 5. 

Sawyer Hogg, H. and Wehlau, A. 1904, A. J., vol. 69, no. 2, p. 141 ; R.A.S.C. Jour., 
vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 163-166; D.D.O. Comm., no. 97. 

Stebbins, J., Whitford, A. E., and Johnson, H. L. 1950, Ap. J., vol. 112, p. 475. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

Volume II Number 18 



ABSOLUTE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS 

FOR STARS OF SPECTRAL TYPES 

F, G AND K 



GRETCHEX L. HAGEN 

AXD 

SIDNEY VAN DEX BERGH 



1967 
rORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



ABSOLUTE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION'S FOR STARS 
OF SPECTRAL TYPES F, G AND K 

By Gretchen L. Hagen and Sidney van den Bergh 

Abstract 

Absolute energy distributions over the range 3600 < X < 4500 A. are given for 
154 stars of spectral types F, G and K. The spectral energy distributions of these 
stars are compared to those of globular clusters and galaxies. Globular clusters are 
found to resemble metal-poor high-velocity stars. The spectral energy distributions 
of the nuclei of M31 and M32 are obviously composite. M32 appears to be either 
dwarf-enriched or moderately metal-poor. 

The observations reported in this paper were obtained with a 
spectrum scanner which is located at the Cassegrain focus of the 
74-inch telescope. The dispersing element of this instrument is a 
Bausch and Lomb replica reflection grating with 600 grooves per 
millimetre. The centre of its blaze is at X3750 in the second order, 
which was the order used. A refrigerated 1P21 photomultiplier was 
employed as a light detector. 

Tracings of a large number of stars covering the range 3600 < X < 
4500 A. were available from previous observing programmes (van den 
Bergh 1963, 1966, and van den Bergh and Sackmann 196.")). All 
tracings were made at an effective resolution (spectral purity) of 20 A. 

Observations of early-type standard stars (Oke 1960) were used to 
transform the observed deflections to absolute energy units. The mean 
wave-length-dependence of atmospheric extinction was taken from 
van den Bergh and Henry (1962). 

It should be emphasized that the observations used for the present 
programme were originally made to measure narrow-band parameters. 
Such measurements do not require nights of the highest photometric 
quality. The accuracy of the results is therefore lower than that which 
could have been obtained in a programme devoted exclusively to 
studies of the spectral energy distributions of stars. The present study 
includes only those stars for which at least four tracings obtained 
during two or more nights were available. The average internal mean 
error of the combined data for each star is found to be 0.02 mag. at 
X4000, 0.03 mag. at X3800 and 0.04 mag. at X3600. Within the accuracy 
of the data these errors are found to be independent of apparent 
magnitude and spectral type. 

470 



480 



Grctchen L. Hagen and Sidney van den Bergh 



F6 ^ 






^-/^ 


// 




i i 


HD 82328 
i i i 



3600 



4000 



\ 4400 



Fig. 1 — Spectrum scan at 20 A. resolution of the F6 IV star B UMa. The dashed 
line indicates the adopted schematic continuum. 




3600 



4000 



4400 



1 IG. 2 — Spectrum scan at 20 A. resolution of the GS V star 61 UMa. The dashed 
line indicates the adopted schematic continuum. 



Absolute Energy Distributions 481 

Typical tracings of stars are shown in figures 1 and 2 where the 
dashed line represents the adopted schematic continuum. Except near 
the G-band and the H7 and H<5 lines the adopted schematic continuum 
in the region X > 4000 A. coincides with the observed pseudo-con- 
tinuum. For X < 4000 A. the adopted schematic continuum represents 
the strongly smoothed mean of the actually observed pseudo-con- 
tinuum. The only reason for drawing the schematic continuum in this 
particular fashion is that it yields consistent and easily reproducible 
results. 

For all of the programme stars the observed values of m(\ X), at 
100 A. intervals along the schematic continuum, are given in Table I. 
In the table n is the number of tracings on which the tabulated values 
of ra(l/X) are based. Stars whose H.D. numbers are marked with an 
asterisk have spectral types which were determined by Mr. Peter 
Hagen using 74-inch spectra having dispersions of 33, 40 or GO A. mm. 
The spectral types for H.D. 208110 and H.D. 22211 are uncertain.* 
Figures 3 and 4 show sample plots of the schematic spectral energy 
distributions of stars of different spectral types and luminosity classes. 

The data in Table I may be used to form monochromatic colour 
indices. For example a monochromatic colour index C(41-4o) can be 
defined by the equation 

C(41-4f)) = w(l X)(4100) - m{\ 'A)(4500). 

Figure 5 shows a plot of the observations of the colour index C(41-45) 
versus C(38-45) for main sequence stars (dots) and subgiants (crosses). 
Binaries and metal-poor stars with ultraviolet excess 8(U-B) > 0.10 
have not been plotted. Figure G shows that such metal-poor stars 
(dots) lie above the monochromatic colour-colour curve for stars of 
normal metal abundance. 

Using the wave-length dependence of interstellar reddening given by 
Whitford (1958) and the globular cluster reddening values given by 
van den Bergh (1967) it is possible to obtain the monochromatic 
intrinsic colour indices of globular clusters (\an den Bergh and I [enry 

♦H.D.208110. Peter Hagen classifies this star as (i() IV, MI with the following 
comments: (1) the star rotates very slowly. (2) the standards available .it D.D.O. 
in this region are not complete. (3) Sr II (X4077) is very sharp and indicates a much 
higher luminosity than given by other criteria. (4) Ca II (X4227) gives an earlier 
spectral class than do the II lino. 

I I.I ). 22211. The spectral type is uncertain because all the lines appear to lie 
rotationallj broadened to an extent which may be inconsistent with the classification 
of t".u III. 



482 



Gretchen L. Hagen and Sidney van den Bergh 



1962). In figure 6 the intrinsic colours so obtained are plotted as 
crosses. The figure shows that globular clusters fall in the same region 
of the monochromatic two-colour diagram as do high-velocity stars. 

Monochromatic intrinsic colours of the nuclear regions of A 1 31 
and M32 were derived by assuming a reddening E B -v = 0.12. The 
positions of A 1 31 and A 1 32 in figure 6 suggest that their spectral energy 




3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 \ 

Fig. 3 — Comparison of the absolute energy distributions of the following main 
sequence stars: H.D. 58946 (FO), H.D.34411 (GO) and H.D.75732 (KO). 



Absolute Energy Distributions 



is:; 



distributions are composite. Table II shows that the combination 
GO Y + K2 III (with the G star contributing one third of the light at 
A4500) gives a reasonably good representation of the spectral energy 
distribution of the nucleus of M31 over the range 3600 < X < 4500 A. 
It should be emphasized that this type of synthesis is not unique. 
Nevertheless the data suggest that stars near the main-sequence turn-oft 




3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 \ 

Fig. 4 — Comparison of the absolute energy distributions of H.D.20630 (('.-"> Y 
and H.D.27022 (Go III). 



484 



Gretchen L. Hagen and Sidney van den Bergh 



0.5 




1 
A * 

\ • 

MM + 
••Hi 


i 


1.0 








LO 








i 








00 








ro 




\ • 

V * 




o 




\ • 




1.5 








2.0 


- 


i 


i\ 



0.0 



05 C (41-45) l0 



Fig. 5 — Monochromatic colour-colour plot for main sequence stars (dots) and 
subgiants (crosses). Metal-poor stars with S(U-B) > 0.10 have not been plotted. 



Absolute Energy Distributions 



485 



0.5 


• 

\ + 
\ + 


1 1 




1.0 


+ \ 


+ 


- 


to 




\ • 




i 




\ + 




00 








ro 








O 




\ o M32 




1.5 




\ o M3I 




2 


- 


i 1 


- 



0.0 



o-5 C (41-45) l0 



Fig. 6 — The figure shows the positions of metal-poor high-velocity stars 
globular clusters (crosses) and of the nuclei of M31 and M32 relative to the intrinsic 
colour-colour relation of figure 5. The data for M31, M32 and the globular clusters 

have been corrected for interstellar reddening. 



486 



Gretchen L. Ha gen and Sidney van den Hergh 

~J IS ■* _ _ "* O CO OS >C ~ ~ ~ — f NO>OOii-i _ CO — 77 — X _ CO X •— 

CO MCOC -t — 71 — i — M ~ T7 _ rt ~ _ 71 7) EC — 1^ 71 — 71 O". "T — >~ 

_____ __ — ' — — ~ — — — - — — 

i-hoocn«ocn i- — — — x : c c i^ ^ i- cc ~ >jt — to rj '2 " ~ xioocnco-* 

h-N r -r — 7i — — OcOCOtN <N _ to tN — 71 * c - -t N x '7 r. x — 

'- f- J: r. 3 ho®M03 c:h ~ 7i x x t — = -r — - ~. t- r. c r- 

-r to i- 32 to — c x x x :r. 71 x cc 3 — cc i~ r; :r. ^ :r- i^ : "^ coco '~ -c r^ 

— -1 ~1 CN 00 CN CO 71 l7 MNH^i l7 — i~ 77 ~ 71 '" I - T~ — DOCDOffl L~ 

x "■: i - -r : ■'- ^r -r i - '-- -r -r •- 5q o ■* 10 ^ co 71 rt< ■* rj« cq 10 CN ■* co 10 ■* co 

OlMiON^ CO H CO00 lO 35 — 1^ CC 30 Ni-IOC^ GO 00 70 CD 71 00 Dl ■* ?0 C3 

X "I CO 77 -r »■>* CO -tf CO CO lOCN ■* 00 ■* COCO CM -tf COCO CN 3< tN &?:•<*•<? iO 

hioO(fi r -t —• X 71 71 — t CO b- ■>* ■* "*■ CN CN 0000 t- tN CO iO lOb- 

-3 — i- 77 rt rt ?7 ic t ri M -r 71 rt cc :: m :i - " M rt — rt — M 71 m po -f 

«k, ^j ,- .- — — — c >7 t^ 71 x _ x ~ -c " :: r: z — noion^ 1 

i: li --• ^, ^, i| -., T ~ r - ~, ~j r - — jq ^j n CN 7i 7i 7i — 71 — 7i 7i 71 71 re 

V7I-7171-T 71 " 35 — — 77 cc X -r 71 — — C CO -t COC0b-»O«0 ^jZ___ 






-fX-t — C: XCfrt^-tfOO Ni'NiO-i O iO iO "* CO 1*XOCHO -<tf ■* CO ^* -* 



< 

. « + = 

crt ^ ^ — 

>>>>> >>>_■> => >r => + S 

222-j'J OOOOS OOfcOO OOtege OOfcOS oo<oo 



=>>>> z>~>_ 



■ — I 71 

_ 



Absolute Energy Distributions 4s7 

2J ~ L 1 12 ~ 2j ~, ~2 12 § - 2; E E: E ggg 10 ^ "= 12 "* x "*" ~' !;: ~ — Z> 

HHH — ' 1 i-H 7) — 

o 2 §S © o » o © o § * — = — * - = ^ r - ffl - - ** - * "* '" = ~ 



'J? r " " 2J x aoooooopfl OONWifl do -r x 71 x 7) 71 t> tj c >- do i~ — v. 









m l- l- c c -t — x \z c i- c — '" -r -r " :i c i: ■* «o o ooc i i — 1 1 - 

»C "3 00 *0 "tf ^ »C ^ Tf UJ tJ( irj iC u-r rf Ttf ** -r 71 — © «o lO lO ■* *MOOlC 



■* Q0 i>- eg c i~ -t ~ ~ -t ~ -t- > 7 i ~ x x c l': ■; c -ri^rcrco n^moo 

1< ■* t> "* ■* rO-l-t-tl^ "<}< •* -f ^J, 77 ^ ^ -^ ^ _j< ^^^^^ Tjl CO ■* OS ■* 

OOOOO ~ ~ ~ o O ~ — ccc; — ccc— c c — — — — c — — c 

~ »~ x do do 7i — t> m do '~ z- >~. \z v. — — in ~. 71 71 -r / i- t :: -t ■" — -.r c 

~ DO DO -.7 DO DO 71 DO DO DO ~Z DO T7 ?7 DO DO DO DO 71 — DO T DO DO DO DO DO '7 T~ I - -? 



i~~~t'~-r :n-ttc <*to>oooM :t -r — < x ■* — l> >c >~ -t looaeoc 

71 71 -t 71 7) 7)717)7)71 7)7)717171 7) 7) 7) S 7) DO 71 71 71 71 7l-T71'7rT 



71 -.7 re DO t - "fi l~ i^ 1^ -r 17 '.7 h CO Z C CI-" 17 C X "-7 -.7 



-.7 - -7 -r -r tr. i - r ~ -r ~ -f > 7 -r > 7 -+ l-7 co ^ ^ oo >0 ■* ^ ^ ^ oo ■^xco^o 



C2 _ 

- > 

^ — '+*'** >— !-* > ^!>^ ^* >» '-'I-- 1> — — — '■' 

— 71-7171 71 — -r — - -r - ~ : :i : ; / XIWnOC G C " 71 r 

OOMOO 'J 'J 'J 'J 'J OOCC'J OOOtote OOfeOO Ot^OWW 

— ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ 



PQ PQ 

X ~ i~. -r i- r. do x i x i~ 7i 7i — ic v7 do do DO 71 — '7 -r 71 — --7 CO 

to ~ c: -r >7 -r 71 71 — '7 / / — ~ / — — 1- -t r — r -r — r t^coioeog: 

c: c: " :o -r \z ~ — -t x icoo eooo cc vr 1 - >7 - / ■; >: ri - r. / 1 71c 

/ / / / ~ ~ 71 r? -r x — r. 71 71 x r 71 '7 r r nwcoom -r >7 vr i - r. 

7)7)7)7)77 r7 r7 ~~ r7 r? r? :t -r -r -r ioiO"3»Ccc ©eOcot^O 1 — 1 — i_i_i_ 



l.ss 



Gretchen L. Hagen and van den Bergh 

~i — 02 cc x -r — — co — i m co co co ■* 't i> o c n ■* os oo r^ oo ■* o -t- 02 x 

i~~~~t— 71 -r — -: cm-- — — 11 x — r c c m ^ oscohmo 

-i :- -islo -* a y :: c x 11 ~ ~ x cn «oco cnoc " x i> a c x co — ~ x 

rt- 3 ~ co c i— 1 1— i os o o n "* — s c o-. x — cd ~ ~ ~ ~ — — z :i c :i c 

l~ CO :D 32 00 h^N^O CO CO i-l •* C CD -h X 11 X 02 CO 11 1^ t^ OS 00 OS O OC 

-T — I- CO ~ — CD 02 O OS IN^MOH CD X — t- CD X OS CD. — C X 71 02 11 02 

OS CO ~ "* — 1 CO O CO O 0C HiiONH OOiCOCO OJCOONH 11 11 t- CO X 

_.. _ — 1 rq on t)( K N CO C5 H t>- CO CM QC n ~ O C :i C CO - lO k; h-Z"'/ 

1 - 1 ~ :'. {o "cf li - ^ i< "t CO CO iC -* i-i -f ~: C [, lC ■* -* 1 -* li it X CD "* iC Tf 

CC+t^XO CONOOlC «0 i-H 00 CO 00 CO ^ X C CO CD CD- l- l~ CD OItJIiMOH 

co ■* o-i 5s ■* ■* — -+ re ** li co ■* ~~. -r r- ci -r i- ■* do co do -+ ■* t> in ■■* >o -* 

,— I CO 1— I OS CO X " i* - *f CO i-4 OOSOC ~ I~ C »-1 X OS — ' ~ ~ 11 — ii CI — ct 

n -7 11 o*. rc -~ — n ro co -t ii ^1 71 co rt 11 -t >i co cm co 00 co co o ** co •* ro 

CO CO il 1^ Li 00 00 ^ tJ4 -^ CO (^ ~ 11 h- M C ~ CO X 11 ■* 11 02 CO X itf -T 11 tl 

pj n — CO 11 11 — CM 11 C^l CI CI CI 11 11 11 11 11 CI 11 11 11 n 11 11 "* CI 11 CO 11 

- ■- / r t co co ci n ci x x co 11 co f x -r in co n co co ■* 00 <n oc to 

■* CD ■* co -f — -t CD ci X •* <o (N iC t- O 00 ■* ■* ■>* l> X •<* O •"tf 't ^ •* i-l o 



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X CM co X 11 "tf — — — — » X X y X ~ ~ t- 02 H OHOWC — X X C CI 

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pq 

* <# 

1 1 ~. y ■ i i - y.'ixx-f- cr 

1CCIX ci II 11 rr ii CO CO 02 co (^ 

— X Ct X I - NOKJHM 'Ci' >-l X 

— — n ii -r \z ~ ^ >~ i^ t- 02 — ii 

X X X X X X X ~ ~ 02 OS OS o c 



X N H CO rf CD CO Ct CD CD V II CT -T CT 

ii 02 D. II I- 1 X I- 1^ -t -t '1 X '1 

CC S- CC; ^1 — ^ t> Z^ Ct — 7^2 Li l~ Li — D 

~ — — 7~. -i- ■* Li Li t^ — n ii -r li co 

— _- „ ____„„ H H 11 11 H 11 



3 CilXN C: 

o I o: co -h -m 



Absolute Energy Distributions 489 



S rO'C-C-t XS»Ot»^C NOXOOH 3iTjt00OJCO ONiOffla 

= •+ = — ' ' — -i-riM tocoorooc - r — 01 — — x 32 =t ft 



SSSS2S ^2'5i£2 '-?;p-S xro^-toi cot*oi--cc roi-cct-r 

5 F2S29S5SX It 7J ? f V Z CO 00 CO <N M rH «N -H CO oc -r - co X I - - I - = 

o to — -.'MX co ~ x x -. — x co —i ~ locooiMN x ~ — rt c 31000000 co 

o 

O IOCJ33INX — — X 1 - — — t^ it — CO t?]-MN 30 Oi i-i CN c 35 1- 00 CO i-H 

C5 

— — C: — < ~ 01 CO C; CO CO i— i — < rt —< ~ — ~1 C C: — — — H CO — CO — 01 

Lt CI O X C -t C it ~ to CO 00 ''f CN CO 3~. ut it N tt O 00 CO C*> t>- Lt -h ^] - i, 

Cl ■* ** t Tt 4 CO -* Tf CO -t Ltxi-itl" co CO -f- 't -f -I" -f >t CO -t- ■* OJ -* CO C 



— > ic- — — — co i^ ro ic ~ x co x co — co co oo o co -r !■- co co — c x co »-t m 

o-i co "-f it co o. co -t co -r Tji j> co ■* ■* co it co >0 oi co co -t '0 -r -r i ~ co it c. 



CO ^ -f Cl Cc C O CI N CI O 'f N N ■* CO it — ■ CO C. I- C CO 01 it -1 ~i X CO t~ 

— co co ~t o-i i^ co co oi co co co >-t co co lo -t- ct -r ~ oi ct ct -r ct :t co :Wn 



~ 01 Lt -H 0^1 

i-H CI CI CO ci 


ct ct -t ~ -t 
ut Cl Cl Cl CI 


c. >t co i- co 

Cl -f -f Cl Cl 


CT) CO -t Cl Cl 

co co ci ct co 


zr:N ci co 

— 01 01 CO 01 


-t CO 01 CO ~f 
01 f Cl CO it 














co — -f CO Cl 


(^ co ci c co 


it — 1 i— 1 lO tJi 


~ t-- Ct 1 - X 


C co -t co -r 


CO it — X X 
















=: = =:=:=: 


o oo o e 


= = = = =: 


g§ S g 2 


o oo oc 


S2SSS 







-t "i" -t "+ CO CO CO "* -cf ~ -+ it -t -t it -+ it CO it Tf t^ t-N. rt •«*" -^ c/". it -f co CO 



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X. 



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mo h . -~ - . , - 

^i ci — "t- ci NOamc x ~ ~ — c x x c; x co c ct c 't -cictci 

i.OCOO ^O^^-O o^woo cooo^ ooowo OWOOM 



Qt^ X c: ci i^ co >+ co ~ — i — x <t ct ~ i oi it rt r. ti-"ci — co ct I - s_ 

cd i"t c c i - ~ i - co co i- ci i - ct x — — c -r x X r ct oi •- t r. r. / 

,_; r-i os co i— i i-i 't ~ ct x i- it co co oi co o. ::i> co oi c oi co o 01 oi rt o i - it 

— y ro co it i- ro — oi ci co -t it >t co — — ci oi -r co i- i- i- X c c ro ro — ct 

oi co co co ct -r -v -r -t -f -t -t -t -t it it it it ic it >t >t it it it co co co co co 



490 Gretchen L. Hagen and Sidney van den Bergh 



C 33 OC 

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pjOm 3- I - 33 3- t> O lO ■<* t— CO O l> t- 1>- rfi t- lO CO 00 lr- l- — CU^N CO 3. i-0 • 

r ::- -r -t — . ~ re oi — ^ •* oi -* ~ oi 3 3. c n /. r" c oochn hichi 



DO <N 00 <N 1> T-tCNT 33 CO CM l> I> "d* 00 ■* 00 CO CO CO CD CD CO 3- — -t- t^ CD C T. C C 

Tjf 03 O0 CN C ■* CO 00 00 00 3 3 3 ro — ro 3- — 3: X i~ 01 1 3. X 3- l- ~ — C-rCC 

•3 r: ic — i- -;-ti / x ri -r ti aoooooosoc i-xz-:: r: x - r. X i^ ~ c0 i^ 

--i-:ic --ri-Z't o ~ c -+ 01 :: - - r. /. ■ - 01 -3 — 3-. t - x u- 3; — 3; >-- — . 3. 

— X X — ' "3 '3 01 t- CO CO (M CO C CD i-0 Tjf C53 CN X 3: >0 CO C t- 00 CO CO ■»* "* i-H •> CN 

ro 3. I H C -f r^l- Z " O O O CO CN CO 3: i-h 3. X iO 01 — — 3. CO X iO 3 — 3 >~ 3. 33 

i- ro -r -* 3 co 03 co i-i co ~ zr i x 3. -t oo coc as o^ o: ro oi Siooh n m x irj 

CCcF 00 »C '~ "3 i~ rO -T — >0 -f -f -3 '0 i~ -T '0 -T 3. I- CO CO >-0 tJ- CO ^ t^ Cl'; 'tN'*'* 

t~ CT3 X 3. rO X '3 — ' "0 l- oi OI 01 t^ 33 »-0 X t"- 3 X l~ 01 33 3: X CD "■f CD CO lO 01 '0 — i CD 

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COCN '" 3 X <0 l~ 3: -t l- rf 3- 3 13 — X 01 ^t ■<* CO CO O iH i-H 1^ iO "* X "* CO ■*? CO 

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lO lO ~+ -rf 1^ *cf -ct" 1^ CD ^ 33 t^» CO CD 'O lo i0 CD i-0 -f "1" i-0 -t 33 *cf CO: ^ *f CD i-< lO ^ 00 CO 



^ . ^ > ^ ^ -> -^ -^ -^ > 



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OOmTJirf 3 X — 3 3 OI 'O 01 X t- CD '0 "0 0) 3 3 >0 gj 01 x lO 01 — • lO iQ — X 01 01 

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. I * \. * * < < < 

p 01 — I - X I- X 01 1^ 3. -f X t- ro Ol (^ O ■* ic CO C33 ~ CD N 3 3 ri -t C3 i0 3 3 

— 01 3 -3 01 <~. X l~ 3 3. -T 3 01 OI — CD COCO '0 t- X 3. 3: 3. — l> OI 1^ Tf c3 — ro ro 

_ 3. -r 3 -r 3. -tozt- t -t O. L7 C ro CD I- 3 3. — 3 X — t- ~ ~f ir. y_ ~ — CO 3- 01 

— -T i0 rO X 3. 01 01 01 -t iO C3 CD t^ X 3 3 ro CD I- I- 3. XX CD — "O iO 1^ t~ 3. -T 'O 

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_ „ „ ^ „ _ „ _^ „ „ —OIOIOIOI O101010101 01010101 



Absolute Energy Distributions 



491 



TABLE II 

Comparison of the intrinsic spectral energy distribution of the 
nucleus of M31 with a composite of H.D.109358 = /3 CYn (GO V) and 
H.D. 140573 = a Ser (K2 III). In the model one third of the light at 
4500 A. is contributed by dwarfs. 



X 


GOV + K2 III 


(M31) 


Dwarf light 






per cent 


4500 


0.00 


11.011 


33 


4400 


0.21 


0.20 


37 


4300 


0.42 


0.41 


40 


4200 


0.58 


0.61 


43 


4100 


0.72 


0.74 


40 


4000 


0.70 


0. 80 


47 


3000 


1.57 


1 .55 


02 


3800 


1.63 


1.62 


65 


371 )( l 


1.62 


1.63 


03 


3600 


1.77 


1.76 


05 



TABLE III 

Comparison of the intrinsic spectral energy distribution of the 
nucleus of M32 with a composite of H.D. 100358 = (3 CVn (GO Y) and 
H.D. 140573 = a Ser (K2 III). In the model one half of the light at 
4500 A. is contributed by dwarfs. 



4500 
4400 
4300 
4200 
4100 
4000 
3000 
3S00 
3700 
3600 



GO V + K2 1 1 1 


(M32) 

m 


Dwarf light 


m 


per cent 


0.00 


0.00 


50 


0. io 


0.17 


54 


0.36 


0.35 


57 


0.50 


0.52 


00 


0.62 


0.64 


63 


0.69 


0.73 


64 


1 . 36 


1.32 


76 


1.40 


1.37 


70 


1.40 


1 30 


78 


1.52 


l 58 


78 



point might contribute significantly to the integrated brightness of the 
nuclear region of M31. Table III shows that a dwarf enriched model, 
in which GO Y stars and K2 III stars contribute equally at 47)00 A., 
gives a satisfactory representation of the spectral energy distribution of 
M32 over the range 3000 < X < 4500 A. 

Inspection of individual tracings of 1VI32 shows that the blue 
cyanogen bands in M32 are much weaker than they are in M31. This 
is in qualitative agreement with the data in Table II and 111 which 
show that giants contribute only 40 per cent of the light in the VI32 
model at X4200, compared to 7)7 per ceiil in the M31 model. To 
account tor the quantitative differences between the cyanogen band 



492 Gretchen L. Hagen and Sidney van den Bergh 

strengths in M31 and M32 it may be necessary to assume that some of 
the giants in the nucleus of M32 are metal-poor objects in which CX 
is weak. 

Some of the tracings used in this investigation were obtained by 
Inge J. Sackmann, W. E. Greig and R. C. Henry. Thanks are also due 
to J. Peter Hagen, Jr. for providing MK classifications of a number of 
programme stars. Generous financial support was provided by the 
.National Research Council, Ottawa. 

References 

Bergh, S. van den. 1963, Astron. J., vol. 68, 413; 1966, "Spectral Classification and 
Multi-colour Photometry," I.A.I". Symposium Xo. 24. (Academic Press, 
London) p. L32; 1967, Astron. J., vol. 72 (in press). 

Bergh, S. van den and Henry, R. C. 1962, D.D.O.Pub., vol. 2, 281, no. 10. 

Bergh, S. van den and Sackmann, I. J. 1965, Astron. J., vol. 70, 353. 

Oke, J. B. I960, Ap. J., vol. 131, 358. 

Whitford, A. E. 1958, Astron. J., vol. 63, 201. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

THE DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



Volume II Number 19 



A STUDY OF THE VARIABLE STARS 

IN THE 
GLOBULAR CLUSTER MESSIER 14 

II. PERIODS AND LIGHT CURVES OF THE SECOND 
GROUP OF TWENTY VARIABLES 



HELEN SAWYER HOGG 

AND 

AMELIA WEHLAU 



1968 
TORONTO, CANADA 



PRINTED AT 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



A STUDY OF THE VARIABLE STARS IN THE 
GLOBULAR CLUSTER MESSIER 14 

II. Periods and Light Curves of the Second Group 
of Twenty Variables 

By Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



The data forming the basis of this program, and its purpose, have 
already been described in the Publications of the David Dun/a p 
Observatory, vol. II, no. 17, 1966. In the present paper we give the 
observations for the second group of twenty variables in Messier 14, 
NGC 6402, with their mean light curves. A summary of this material 
was presented to the American Astronomical Society (Sawyer Hogg 
and Wehlau, 1965). The cluster is now shown to contain four long- 
period Cepheids, which means that it is exceeded in the number of 
Cepheids, among globular clusters of our own Galaxy, only by Omega 
Centauri. Therefore we describe the period-luminosity relation it 
defines. 

This second group consists of the following variables: numbers 3, 
8, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 27, 31, 34, 37, 51, 59, 61, 62, 68, 71, 75 and 76. 
Table I gives, for each of these variables, the maximum, minimum and 
mean magnitudes, the epoch of maximum (usually the nearest maxi- 
mum just before J.D. 2438200 in the 1963 series of observations), and 
the period, followed by the value of Beta, and remarks, when pertinent. 
For several stars for which our observations do not completely rule 
out an alternate period, the date of maximum is that actually observed. 

Of this group of 20 variables, only three are not RR Lyrae stars. 
One of these is a Cepheid, Variable 7(5, whose discovery was reported 
in our first paper. Its period now is calculated as 1.89003 days, and 
it raises to four the number of Cepheids in the cluster with periods 
determined. 

The other two non-RR Lyrae stars, Variable 17 and Variable 27 are 
probably not members of the cluster. Variable 17 has a period of 
12.097 days with an amplitude of only 0.65 magnitude, a sine-type 
light curve, and the largest period change so tar found among our 
variables. Its value of Beta is +35 X 10 7 day day. This variable is 
about two magnitudes brighter than the RR Lyrae stars. Its spectrum 
was investigated by Joy (1949) and found to vary between F8 and 
G2, and his measured radial velocities were +9 and —IS km sec. 

49:: 



494 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 



TABLE I 
Elements of Twenty Variables 







Magnitudes 




Epoch of 


Period 






Var. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


Maximum 


days 


Remarks 


3 


16.65 


17.55 


17.1 


38199.823 


0.522455 





= -23 


8 


17.8 


IS. 6 


18.2 


38199.496 


0.686071 




R 


12 


17.1 


18.6 


17.85 


38199.918 


0.503952 




R 


13 


17.0 


18.6 


17.8 


38199.690 


0.535215 


(3 


= +41 


14 


17.2 


18.1 


17.65 


38199.931 


0.471857 




R 


17 


15.5 


16.15 


15.8 


38204.72 


12.097 




R 


18 


16.9 


18.15 


17.55 


38199.885 


0.479065 





= -23 


20 


17.9 


18.55 


18.2 


38198.734 


0.263721 




R 


27 


16.45 


17.6 


17.0 


34936 


167.0 




R 


31 


16.8 


17.7 


17.25 


38199.383 


0.619636 




R 


34 


17.8 


18.8 


18.3 


38199.854 


0.606627 





= +13 


37 


17.65 


18.9 


18.25 


38199.654 


0.489060 




R 


51 


17.6 


18.15 


17.9 


38198.709 


0.367606 




R 


59 


17.4 


18.75 


18.05 


38199.561 


0.555634 






61 


16.6 


17.7 


17.15 


38199.610 


. 569824 




R 


62 


18.0 


18.5 


18.25 


38235.444 


0.638460 




R 


68 


17.1 


18.7 


17.9 


38199.958 


0.507217 




R 


71 


17.05 


18.3 


17.7 


38199.602 


0.525925 






75 


16.9 


18.1 


17.5 


38199.737 


0.545281 






76 


16.15 


16.9 


16.55 


38199.466 


1.89003 




R 



Remarks to Table I 

Var. 8 Large scatter. 

Var. 12 Maximum seems low in 1940. 

Var. 14 Large scatter. 

Var. 17 Peculiar type of variable. (3 = + 35,000. P = 0*92131, with (3 = +210 

X 10 -10 represents the observations nearly as well. 

Var. 20 P = 0^358181 also fits data. 

Var. 27 P = 308 d .3 almost as good for these observations. 

Var. 31 Large scatter. 

Var. 37 Difficult to measure, near cluster centre. 

Var. 51 P = O 1 . 268795 and d . 268597 also represent observations. 

Var. 61 Large scatter. 

Var. 62 P = 0*389254 also fits observations. 

Var. 68 Large scatter. 

Var. 76 Short period Cepheid. 



He compared these values with the cluster velocity of —131 km/sec 
earlier determined by M avail (1946). Though Joy noted that his own 
velocity measures have some uncertainty because the spectral lines 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 14 495 

are few and poor, he questioned the cluster membership of the variable 
both because of the poor velocity agreement, and the distance of the 
star from the cluster centre. Further data are needed to assign a 
definite type of variability for this star. 

Variable 27 has the second greatest distance from the cluster centre 
of all the 76 variables. It is a long-period variable, at maximum about 
one magnitude brighter than the RR Lyrae stars at maximum. A 
period of 167.0 days seems to represent our observations, but since 
the distribution of the plates is not favourable for the determination 
of such long periods, we cannot yet rule out a period of 308.3 days. 

Seventeen of the variables are RR Lyrae type, with periods between 
0.263721 and 0.686071 days. Four of these stars, Variables 3, 13, 18 
and 34, show period changes. Of these changes, two are positive and 
two negative, with the values of Beta falling between -f-41 and —23. 
None of the RR Lyrae stars reported in our first paper showed period 
changes. For several of the RR Lyrae stars it proved difficult to 
decide among several related periods, as indicated in the table. In the 
case of Variable 62, we are greatly indebted to Dr. R. Margoni who 
generously supplied us with his unpublished measures from his 
Asiago plates to help in the period selection. Although it is tempting 
to draw a frequency distribution for the 34 RR Lyrae periods so far 
determined, this would not be meaningful until a higher proportion of 
periods have been found for the variable stars in this cluster. 

TABLE II 
Cepheid Variable Stars 







Magnitudes 




Period 




Var. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


days 


LogP 


1 


14.65 


16.1 


15.35 


18.73* 


1 . 27 


2 


15.8 


17.0 


16.4 


2 . 79468 


0.45 


7 


15.4 


16.5 


15.95 


13.596 


1.13 


76 


16.15 


16.9 


16.55 


1.89003 


0.28 



*Period changing. 

Data for the period-luminosity relation as provided by the four 
Cepheids are tabulated in Table II; these are plotted in figure 1, 
along with the mean magnitudes of the 34 RR Lyrae variables. All 
the stars from our two papers are shown, except Variables 17 and 27, 
just discussed. Curiously, Variable 17 would lie close to the curve, 
but since it is probably not a cluster member, and perhaps not a 



496 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 




Fig. 1 — The period-luminosity relationship as defined by variable stars in Messier 
14. Ordinate, mean apparent photographic magnitude; abscissa, logarithm of the 
period. The large filled circles represent the four recognized long-period Cepheids ; 
the small dots are the 31 RR Lyrae ab stars whose periods have thus far been 
determined. 



Cepheid, it is not included. With a mean of the 31 RR Lyrae stars at 
17.74 m pg and log P = —0.25, the points indicate a slope of about 
— 1.6, which compares with —1.74 obtained by Dickens and Carey 
(1967) in their paper discussing globular-cluster Cepheids. Some of 
the scatter in the magnitudes of the RR Lyrae stars is certainly real; 
part of it may be due to the effect of image crowding or to inclusion of 
field stars. Until the period determination of the variables in this 
cluster is more nearly complete, it cannot be known if more Cepheids 
are contained in it. 

If we assume M vg = 0.6 for the RR Lyrae stars in this cluster, from 
the average mean magnitude of the 31 RR Lyrae ab stars, the apparent 
photographic distance modulus is 17.1. Kron and Alayall (1960) give 
a visual absorption of 1.5 (Case I) or 1.8 (Case II). Correcting the 



Variable Stars in Globular Cluster Messier 1/+ 497 

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PHASE 

Fig. 2- — The mean light curves for 10 variables, arranged in decreasing length of 
period. 

photographic modulus by —0.6 to a visual modulus oi 16.5 and accept- 
ing Case II, we obtain a corrected distance modulus oi 14.7 correspond- 
ing to a distance of 8.5 kpc. 

The light curves of these twenty variables, in order oi decreasing 
length of period, are shown in figures 2 and 3. The points are the com- 
puted weighted means of all observations at intervals in phase of 0.04 
of the period of the star. Observations with colons in Tabic III have 



49S 



Helen Sawyer Hogg and Amelia Wehlau 

5 5 5 




Fig. 3 — The mean light curves of 10 variables, arranged in decreasing length of 
period. 



been assigned half weight. A filled circle represents at least three 
good observations, but averages about ten such. Open circles represent 
mean points derived from observations which are few in number or 
of low weight. 

The observations for these twenty variables are contained in Table 
III, which gives the number of the plate, the heliocentric Julian Day, 



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